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Архаика/Archaica 1

Архаика/Archaica 1

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1
unnoso]cxn ]axynrer
Apxeonomxa sônpxa
Vpeµnnx
Mnpocnan Hasnh
Feorpaµ 2007
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Ioµnna I, ôpoj 1.
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Apxeonomxa sônpxa
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Mnpocnan Hasnh
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Hnxona Tacnh
Ana H. Pomanuyx (Pycxa ueµepannja)
Xnnxo Mnxnh
Anexcanµap Jonanonnh
¡parn Mnrpencxn (FJP Maxeµonnja)
Mnrja Iymrnn (Cnonennja)
ueµomnp Mapxonnh (Hpna Iopa)
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Mapnna Aµamonnh-Kynenonnh
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250
ARCHAICA
Year I, No. 1
Published Annually by:
Faculty of Philosophy
Archaeological Collection
For Publisher:
Aleksandar Kostic
Editor:
Miroslav Lazic
Editorial Board:
Nikola Tasic
Alla I. Romantschuk (Russian Federation)
Živko Mikic
Aleksandar Jovanovic
Dragi Mitrevski (FYR Macedonia)
Mitja Guštin (Slovenia)
Cedomir Markovic (Montenegro)
Translation by:
Marina Adamovic-Kulenovic
Proofreading:
Milena Bogdanovic
Typesetting by:
vojislav Þlipovic
Printed by:
Cigoja
Printed in:
250
ISSN 1820-6328
UDC 902(497.11)
e-mail: archaica@f.bg.ac.yu
ARCHAICA
1
Editor
Miroslav Lazic
Belgrade 2007
Faculty of Philosophy
Archaeological Collection
Hpnn ôpoj uaconnca APXAHKA npnnpem¬en je n mramnan cpeµcrnnma µoµe¬ennm roxom 2006. n 2007. roµn-
ne sa marepnjanne rpomxone npojexra =*7+2>2?-$ @*$A$ – 2B,2%$ "$ ;*25&$%$C+ -5>45*,2@ -2,4(,5(4+4$
5 ;*$(B42*(0( ( $,4(/( ,$ 4+*(42*(0( D*8(0+ (en. ôp. 147041¡), xojn ]nnancnpa Mnnncrapcrno sa nayxy
Penyônnxe Cpônje.
Oµoôpeno 28. XII 2006. roµnne, na ceµnnnn Hacranno–nayunor neha unnoso]cxor ]axynrera y Feorpaµy,
oµnyxom ôp. 23/1–XXIV/9.
The Faculty of Philosophy Archaeologi-
cal Collection, Belgrade, was founded nearly
eighty years ago, in 1929. Its founders, Prof. Mi-
loje Vasic and Sir Charles Hyde, intended it as a
teaching base, enabling the students of archae-
ology at Belgrade University to be trained in
practical archaeology through a direct encounter
with diverse artefacts made by ancient artists and
craftsmen. Meanwhile the Collection has grown
into one of the largest and best known university
collections of archaeological Þnds in Europe,
providing training for generations of students. It
has been recognized among the leading research
institutions concerned with the study of the ar-
chaeological past of Serbia.
The challenging development of ar-
chaeology as a discipline and the role of the Ar-
chaeological Collection in the education of stu-
dents and young scholars require a responsible
response. The Archaeological Collection, there-
fore, sees as its foremost mission the starting of a
scholarly journal worthy of Serbian archaeology
and the Faculty of Philosophy.
ARHAICA is a modern journal to be pub-
lished annually with the intention of acquainting
the scholarly community at home and abroad
with new achievements in Serbian archaeology
and related Þelds of study. A thus conceived
ARHAICA looks forward to foreign contributors
to help it keep up as must reading for those inter-
ested in ancient peoples in the territory of Serbia
and the neighbouring region.
Belgrade, November 2007
Mnpocnan Hasnh
Apxeonomxa sônpxa unnoso]cxor ]a-
xynrera y Feorpaµy ocnonana je npe nenynnx
ocam µenennja – 1929. roµnne. Benn ocnnnaun,
npo]. µp Mnnoje Bacnh n cep uapnc Xajµ (sir
Charles Hyde) xenenn cy µa cryµenrnma apxeo-
nornje na Feorpaµcxom ynnnepsnrery omoryhe
nenocpeµan cycper ca pasnopoµnnm pyxorno-
pnnama µpennnx ymernnxa n sanarnnja, xaxo
ôn ce mro ôo¬e oôyunnn sa npaxrnuan paµ y
apxeonornjn. V nporexnom nepnoµy, 3ônpxa je
cracana y jeµny oµ najnehnx n najnosnarnjnx
ynnnepsnrercxnx xonexnnja apxeonomxnx na-
nasa y Enponn, y xojoj cy oôyuanane mnoro-
ôpojne renepannje cryµenara Feorpaµcxor ynn-
nepsnrera. Vnopeµo c rnm, crexna je n snauajan
yrneµ mehy noµehnm nayuno-ncrpaxnnauxnm
nncrnrynnjama xoje ce ôane npoyuananem cra-
pnna na repnropnjn Cpônje.
Pasnoj cpncxe apxeonomxe nayxe n yno-
ra Apxeonomxe sônpxe unnoso]cxor ]axynre-
ra y oôpasonany cryµenara n mnaµnx nayunnxa
oôanesyjy. V rom cmncny, noxperane nayunor
uaconnca xaxan sacnyxyjy cpncxa apxeonornja
n unnoso]cxn ]axynrer, npnmapnn je saµarax
Apxeonomxe sônpxe.
=.E=!F= he ônrn canpemen uaconnc,
mramnan xao roµnmnax y namepn µa ce nayu-
noj jannocrn y sem¬n n nnocrpancrny npnxaxy
nona µocrnrnyha y cpncxoj apxeonornjn n noj
cpoµnnm nayunnm oônacrnma n µncnnnnnnama.
Taxo samnm¬ena, =.E=!F= ouexyje n crpane
ayrope xojn he cnojnm npnnosnma µonpnnern
µa ona ocrane nesaoônnasno nayuno mrnno o
crapnm napoµnma na repnropnjn Cpônje n y
nenom oxpyxeny.
Feorpaµ, nonemôap 2007.
Peu ypeµnnxa / Editor’s word
7
Mnoµpar Cnaµnh / Miodrag Sladic
APXHTEKTVPA PAHHX HPAHCTOPHJCKHX HACE÷A HA HOKAHHTETV KVHA KO¡ MHXAJHOBHA
The architecture of early prehistoric settlements on the site of Kula at Mihajlovac
Jocnn Bapnh / Josip Šaric
APTEuAKTH O¡ OKPECAHOI KAMEHA CA HOKAHHTETA FHAIOTHH – HO÷HA
Chipped stone artefacts from the site Blagotin–Poljna
Bojncnan unnnnonnh / Vojislav Filipovic
MHHHJATVPHE HEOHHTCKE HOCV¡E CA H3HHBHHKOM/CHCKOM H BHXOBA VHOTPEFA
Neolithic miniature spouted/nozzled vessels and their use
Mnpocnan Hasnh / Miroslav Lazic
XVMKA H3 FPOH3AHOI ¡OFA HA HOKAHHTETV CABHH HAKAT KO¡ HPHJEHO÷A
A Bronze Age mound on the site of Savin Lakat near Prijepolje
Mnnan Hnanoncxn n Anexcanµap Jonanonnh / Milan Ivanovski and Aleksandar Jovanovic
HPHHOI HPOVuABABV OHOBHHX HEuATA H3 MAKE¡OHHJE
A contribution to the study of lead seals from Macedonia
Hnana Kysmanonnh-Hononnh / Ivana Kuzmanovic-Novovic
HPE¡CTABE ¡HOHHCA H BEIOBOI THJACOCA HA PHMCKHM IEMAMA H3 CPFHJE
Depictions of Dionysus and his thiasus on Roman intaglios from Serbia
Mnpa Pyxnh n Hnnja Hymnh / Mira Ružic and Ilija Pušic
HPHHOI HPOVuABABV AHTHuKE APXEOHOIHJE FOKE KOTOPCKE
A contribution to the archaeological study of the Gulf of Kotor in antiquity
Anexcanµap Kanypan n Bnxrop Bapra / Aleksandar Kapuran and Viktor Varga
APXEOHOBKA HCTPAXHBABA AKBATOPHJA XEPHEI HOBOI
Archaeological research in the Herceg Novi aquatorium
Fpanxo ¡pua / Branko Drca
LTATHP - STATERA
LTATHP – STATERA
Aµam H. Hpnoôpna / Adam Crnobrnja
HAHA3H HOBHA CA HCTPAXHBABA HOKAHHTETA OPABJE (MAPIVM) 2004. IO¡HHE
Coin Þnds on the site of Orašje (Margum) from the 2004 excavation
Xnnxo Mnxnh / Živko Mikic
HEKPOHOHE H3 HEPHO¡A CEOFE HAPO¡A V BHMHHAHHJVMV – AHTPOHOHOBKA PEBH3HJA
Die Völkerwanderungszeitliche Friedhöfe von Viminacium – Eine Anthropologische Revision
H3 HCTOPHJE CPHCKE APXEOHOIHJE
FROM THE HISTORY OF SERBIAN ARCHAEOLOGY
9
35
41
63
95
104
109
126
133
144
149
156
161
170
173
181
187
194
197
207
209
217
219
219
&!'"(!) / CONTENTS
CA¡PXAJ
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1
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unnoso]cxn ]axynrer, Feorpaµ
A=>?89@?: F5>$ -2# G(7$0>2%/$, (B4*$<(%$,a 5 2-%(*5 ;*20+-4$ H+*#$; II, B;$#$ 5 >2-$>(-
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,$*2&(42 2,(7 ,$ F2*82%B-2: ( K+>(-2: 2B4*%5, ;2-$"505 #$ B5 5 ;2",2: :+"2>(45 ( *$,2:
,+2>(45 B4$,2%,(/( 2%2@ ?(*2-2@ ;*2B42*$ <(%+>( (B4(: (>( %*>2 B>(&,(: ,$&(,2: <(%2-
4$.
%ABCDE 8EC5: ;2",( :+"2>(4, ,+2>(4, 2@C(?4+, B4$,(?4+, ?$42*$B4$ -2,B4*5-/(0$, -+*$-
:(-$, 3+;+,B-( %(*, D-+>$ F>$#2%+0.
Houerxom ocamµecernx roµnna npomnor nexa peannsonan je npojexar nsrpaµne µpyre
xnµponenrpane na ¡ynany, xoµ Kycjaxa. ¡yr npnoôannn nojac oµ Knaµona µo Kycjaxa, yrpoxen
noµnsanem nnnoa pexe, ôno je npernopen y nennxo apxeonomxo paµnnnmre na xome cy, roxom
nnme roµnna, oôan¬ana samrnrna ncrpaxnnana. Fno je ro nepnoµ nennxor ycnona cpncxe apxeo-
nornje, y xome je Henrap sa apxeonomxa ncrpaxnnana unnoso]cxor ]axynrera y Feorpaµy nmao
snauajny ynory y ncrpaxnnany yrpoxene sone oµ Fpse Hananxe µo Kycjaxa. Axaµemnx ¡. Cpejo-
nnh n npo]. µp A. Hepmanonnh-Kysmanonnh ônnn cy rnannn pyxonoµnonn onnx nnmeroµnmnnx
ncnnrnnana.
Mehy mnoroôpojnnm nanasnmrnma na nomenyrom npocropy noceôno ce nsµnaja oxonnna
Mnxajnonna, ca noxannrernma mnpoxor xpononomxor pacnona, oµ nosnor mesonnra µo panor
cpeµner nexa (Kyna, Knennmre, Vmhe Kamennuxor noroxa, Mopa Baren, Kej). Ona repnropnja
µyro je ônna y xnxn nnrepeconana crpyunaxa Henrpa sa apxeonomxa ncrpaxnnana, npn uemy
1
Texcr je nacrao y oxnnpy nayuno-ncrpaxnnauxor npojexra =*7+2>2?-$ @*$A$ – 2B,2%$ "$ ;*25&$%$C+ -5>45*,2@ -2,-
4(,5(4+4$ 5 ;*$(B42*(0( ( $,4(/( ,$ 4+*(42*(0( D*8(0+ (en. ôp. 174071), xojn peannsyje unnoso]cxn ]axynrer
y Feorpaµy, a ]nnancnpa ra Mnnncrapcrno sa nayxy Penyônnxe Cpônje.
10
je xonera C. Cranxonnh µao nennxn µonpnnoc, ncrpaxyjyhn nanasnmra na noµpyujy Kycjaxa
(Fophej) n Mnxajnonna (Vmhe Kamennuxor noroxa, Knennmre n Mopa Baren).
Hoxannrer Kyna, o xome he ônrn peun y onom rexcry, nanasn ce na nncoxoj µynancxoj
repacn ysnoµno oµ Mnxajnonna. Kao n mnora µpyra nanasnmra, ncxonanan je roxom nexonnxo
xamnana, oµ 1980. µo 1984. roµnne. Crora je norpeôno nemro pehn o nnannpany n µnnamnnn
apxeonomxnx ncrpaxnnana onor noxannrera, xojn je saysnmao nennxy nonpmnny ca µeô¬nnom
cnoja oµ rorono 3,0 m.
*/% $&*"!($3!F!
V oxnnpy onor snauajnor npojexra, 1980. roµnne sanouera cy ncrpaxnnana na Kynn,
xaµa je exnna Henrpa sa apxeonomxa ncrpaxnnana ncnnrnnana nexonnxo nanasnmra y ônnsnnn
ymha Cnarnncxe pexe, a ynopeµo je npmnna n cranna pexornocnnpana µynancxe oôane. Homro
je ro ônna npna roµnna ncrpaxnnana y oxnnpy npojexra unja je peannsannja nnannpana na µyxe
npeme, ynosnanane oôane ônno je neonxoµno, maµa cy nperxoµny npocnexnnjy repena oôannnn
crpyunann Apxeonomxor nncrnryra ns Feorpaµa n Hapoµnor myseja Kpajnne y Herornny (Vasic
i Jankovic 1971). Oôana ¡ynana, mehyrnm, uecro cxpnna pasne µparonenocrn, raxo µa rom npnnn-
xom nncy youenn xynrypnn ocrann xoje je xacnnje, ca nnme cpehe, orxpnna exnna Henrpa. V jeµ-
noj oµ rnx axnnja, na oµcexy µynancxe oôane y ceny Mnxajnonan, na ceocxoj nnaxn n y nncoxom
µynancxom npo]nny orxpnnenn cy ramnompxn yxonn n neha xonnunna ynomaxa npancropnjcxe
xepamnxe. Oµmax je ycneµno napeµnn xopax n na Kynn cy nsneµena npennmnnapna conµaxna
ncxonanana, oµnocno nocran¬eno je nexonnxo mannx conµn nsnaµ pannje npnmehennx yxona
(Cnaµnh 1984).
Apxeonomxo nanasnmre na Kynn ycxopo je sannrepeconano mnpy nayuny jannocr. Ha-
nme, y roxy ncrpaxnnana conµn nocran¬ennx nsnaµ youennx yxona, y noµnoxjy npo]nna nn-
coxor cxopo 3,0 m, npnmehen je µeo noôane unjn je naµounn nyx, npexpnnen senenom narnnom,
nsnnpnnao ns oôancxor nanoca. Manom nnrepnennnjom yrnpheno je µa je y nnrany µeo macnnnor
naµounor nyxa ¬yµcxe noôane. Oµmax je oµronapajyhom conµom oôyxnahen npocrop oxo ne n
yôpso je ycranon¬eno µa ce paµn o nome ouynanom cxenery y srpuenom nonoxajy (ibid.: cn. 199;
Mnxnh n Cnaµnh 1994: T. I). Ocrann cxenera cxpenynn cy naxny cnojom poôycnomhy, napounro
µeô¬nnom noôane n omrpnnom naµounnx nyxona. Vnopeµo ca onnm mannm ncxonananem, µa¬om
npocnexnnjom oôane nponaheno je nexonnxo apre]axara ns mesonnrcxor µoôa, oµnocno nnme
naxonana (peunnx oônyraxa ca ]ynxnnonannnm omrehenem y nenrpy), xao n xnapnnrnnx oµôn-
raxa. Taµa je nocrano jacno µa ce y mohnom xynrypnom cnojy na Kynn nanase snauajnn ocrann ns
µanexe npomnocrn onor xpaja.
Jyna mecena cneµehe, 1981. roµnne, ycneµnna cy nona ncxonanana, xaµa je y sonn npoô-
nnx conµn ncrpaxennx nperxoµne roµnne ornopeno ocam xonrponnnx conµn (conµe I–VIII),
yxynne nonpmnne 96 m². Taµa ce nornyno noxasano cno ôorarcrno xynrypnor cnoja na Kynn,
xaxo ns panor cpeµner nexa (Janxonnh 1986: 445–447) raxo n ns µyôoxe npancropnje, oµnocno ns
mesonnrcxor n panor neonnrcxor µoôa. V najnnxem crparymy orxpnnenn cy n najcrapnjn rparonn
npnoônrne apxnrexrype, rj. ocrann nonyxpyxnnx maropacrnx xoncrpyxnnja.
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
11
Hcxonanana cy nacran¬ena ncre roµnne, oxroôpa mecena, na npocropy II n III cexropa.
V II cexropy ncrpaxnnann cy cnojenn ns panor cpeµner nexa, a y III cexropy ornopeno je nexo-
nnxo conµn ys µynancxn npo]nn, na mecrnma ca nnµnxarnnnnm marepnjanom, xoje cy saxnarane
xnaµpare y najyrpoxennjoj sonn, oµnocno ys camy pexy. V cnnm conµama orxpnnen je snauajan
mesonnrcxn marepnjan, y xome ce napounro ncrnuy µna crannmra xoja npnnaµajy ]asama Kyna I
n Kyna II.
Toxom 1982. roµnne ncxonanana cy nacran¬ena n npeµcran¬ana cy najnehn ncrpaxnnau-
xn noµyxnar na onom nanasnmry. Ornopena je nennxa ncrpaxna nonpmnna na I n III cexropy, n
orxpnnenn cy ôpojnn nanasn ns mesonnra n panor neonnra. Ocnm cramôennx oôjexara ns ]asa I n
II, nponahena cy rpn rpoôa, xoja cy jom nnme ynornynnna casnana o npnnm xnre¬nma Kyne.
Ha Kynn cy cnponeµene jom µne ncrpaxnnauxe xamnane. Hpna, 1983. roµnne, ônna je
maner oncera, a ncxonanana cy oôan¬ena na npocropy I n II cexropa. Oôjexar ns ]ase II, or-
xpnnen 1982. roµnne, xojn je y ocnonn nmao saneueny sem¬y, caµa je nornyno ncrpaxen npo-
mnpenem conµe IX xa sanaµy. Hoxasano ce µa oôjexrn ns one ]ase nmajy mana npanoyraona
ornnmra. Hpnmehena je n nemro neha xonnenrpannja nena y ceneposanaµnom yrny npomnpena,
na nnmoj nnnenern oµ nperxoµno ncrpaxenor oôjexra, mro je saxrenano nona ncxonanana na
rom mecry. 3ôor rora je napeµne, 1983. roµnne, sanaµno oµ onor npocropa ncrpaxena conµa X, ca
ocrannma apxnrexrype n ennnconµnnm narpnmrnma. Hcnnrnnanem nnme y cenepnom npo]nny
conµe ycranon¬eno je µa ce sona ca saneuenom sem¬om npocrnpe npema ceneponcroxy. Toxom
1984. roµnne, xoja je ônna n nocneµna roµnna ncrpaxnnana na Kynn, saoxpyxeno je ncxonanane
apxnrexroncxnx ocraraxa, n ro ornapanem nennxe nonpmnne, µnmensnja 10,60 x 10,60 x 8,0 m,
xoja je oôyxnarnna neµono¬no µe]nnncane oôjexre y conµama IX n X. Honoornopena nonpmnna
osnauena je conµama XI n XII, n rom npnnnxom onaj xomnnexc je maxcnmanno ncrpaxen y npoc-
ropnom cmncny.
Cn. 1. Kyna – cnryannonn nnan
Fig. 1 Kula — site plan
M. Cnaµnh APXHTEKTVPA PAHHX HPAHCTOPHJCKHX HACE÷A HA HOKAHHTETV KVHA...
12
Honpmnna noxannrera ônna je nennxa (cn. 1). Berona µyxnna nsnocnna je npnônnxno
350 m, mro je ycranon¬eno najnehom pasµa¬nnom nsmehy conµn ca apxeonomxnm nanasnma.
Tpeôa nomenyrn µa ce ona xoncrarannja oµnocn yrnannom na mesonnrcxn xopnsonr, xojn je n naj-
µomnnanrnnjn. Bnpnna nanasnmra sanncnna je oµ crenena eposnje µynancxe repace n nsnocnna
je oµ 20 µo 70 m.
Hpncehajyhn ce roxa ncrpaxnnana, rpeôa nmarn na ymy n remxe ycnone ncxonanana.
Ocnm nennxe µyônne na xojoj cy nexann najcrapnjn rparonn nacrannnana y onom µeny Tepµana,
uecre npomene noµocraja, nsasnane paµonnma na xnµponenrpann, raxohe cy unnnne nennxe no-
remxohe y µenonnma noxannrera najônnxnm penn.
G+/G"!H&%/-G+/1/I%! &*",%*,"! 2$#!)1/3!J%+ "+G$)+
Tepnropnja na xojoj ce nanasn ceno Mnxajnonan, na unjoj cenepnoj nepn]epnjn je cmem-
ren noxannrer Kyna (cn. 2), y mnpem cmncny npnnaµa Bnamxo-nonrcxom ôaceny, a y yxem cmn-
cny Herornncxoj Kpajnnn. V µeny Kpajnne xpos xojn nponasn, xao n y ropnem Tepµany, ¡ynan
je rnannn npnpoµnn nenmap xojn mnnennjymnma ]opmnpa pe¬e] onnx reorpa]cxnx nennna. Hs-
nacxom ns Cnncxe xnncype, sôor moryhnocrn µa ce mnpn n sôor noµnore rna, ¡ynan je y Hero-
rnncxoj Kpajnnn snarno npocrpannjn, a nerone nnoµne oôane, oµ µyôoxe npancropnje µo namnx
µana, npyxane cy moryhnocr sa pasnoj mnornx xynrypa.
Hopeµ oôana ¡ynana npeonnahyjy peune repace n pannnne, uecro nnan¬ene, a y sanehy
ce ysµnxy neha ysnnmena. Hnnjnh je yrnpµno µa na noµpyujy Tepµana nnsnoµno oµ Cnna peune
repace npenase y mapnncxo-jesepcxe nnn aôpasnone repace (Hnnjnh 1921; Jonnh 1997: 25). Ha
µeny oµ Fpse Hananxe µo Kycjaxa oôana je nsôpasµana xopnrnma pexa n noroxa xojn ce ynnnajy y
¡ynan. Mehy nnma najsnauajnnjn cy Bparnancxa n Cnarnncxa pexa, 3amna n Kamennuxn norox,
xao n ôesôpoj ôesnmennx noroxa n norounha xojn unne npno nono¬an xnµponomxn norennnjan
Cn. 2. Hoxannrer Kyna, norneµ na I cexrop c jyra
Fig. 2 Site Kula, view of Sector I from the south
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
13
norpeôan sa cnrypan xnnor. H cam noxannrer Kyna noµe¬en je xopnrom rsn. Hnannnauxor no-
roxa, xojn oxnnn y cesonn xnma. Berono ymhe, ca naromnnannm marepnjanom xojn je eposnjom
cnpan ca ysnnmena y sanehy, yunnnno je µa ce ysnoµno oµ nera ]opmnpa saron, oµnocno mnpoxn
nnp xojn noµy narano oxpehe y cmepy xasa¬xe na cary.
Anannsom ocraraxa ]ayne ns mesonnrcxor cnoja Kyne cnojenpemeno ce ôanno naneosoo-
nor B. Fexenn (Bökönyi).
2
On je cmarpao µa je ono noµpyuje ônno nsyserno ôoraro pasnonpcnom
pnôom, napounro nnnpnnnµnnm npcrama (µenepnxa n mapan), sarnm anaµpomnnm (jecerpa n xe-
unra), a pehe esoxcnµnnm (mryxa) n cnnypnµnnm npcrama (com). Hsrneµ onor xpajonnxa y meso-
nnry cnrypno je ôno µpyraunjn nero µanac. ¡onnna ys pexy ônna je mnpa, a ôpµonnro sanehe,
oôpacno rycrnm mymama, uynano je snauajne nsnope xpane. Fexenn je raxohe noxasao µa cy myme
ônne ôorare ]aynom (jenen, cpna, µnn¬a cnnna, a orxpnnenn cy n ocrann µnn¬e mauxe, xyne,
jasanna, mpxor meµneµa, nncnne, nyxa, no¬cxor sena n µaôpa). Mehy ocreonomxnm ysopnnma
najsacryn¬ennjn je ôno jenen, mro je cacnnm pasym¬nno sôor ynorpeôe xoxe, meca, xao n xocrn
n porona µoôpor xnannrera, oµ xojnx cy xnre¬n Kyne nspahnnann opyhe.
¡ynan je cnaxno yrnnao na reonomxy crpyxrypy onor noµpyuja. Iorono na cnnm noxa-
nnrernma µyx oôane na xojnma cy npmena apxeonomxa ncxonanana mory µa ce sanase rparonn
nennxnx nannannna, mann]ecronannx mohnnm nacnarama peunor m¬ynxa n cnojennma nnonaue.
Hpnmapnn cnoj (sµpannna) na Kynn yrnannom ce cacrojn oµ mpxosenene n mpxocnne nnonaue no-
memane ca nehnm n mannm xpeunauxnm crenama. Homro sanehe unne maxom crene xpeunauxor
cacrana, mehy xojnma npno perxo mory µa ce nahy xnne xnannrernnjer marepnjana, cranonnnnn
mesonnrcxnx nace¬a na Kynn xopncrnnn cy cnponnne xoje nm je µonocno ¡ynan. To cy yrnannom
oônynn, xnapnnrna saoô¬ena jesrpa, xpemena jesrpa, jesrpa poxnana, sarnm oônynn nemuapa,
mxpn¬na n crene ca nncxynacrnm npnmecama. Hapanno, ne rpeôa sanemapnrn nn yrnnaj nome-
nyrnx pexa n noroxa, xojn cy eposnjom cnnpann reonomxn marepnjan ca ôpµonnror saneha, napo-
unro y nepnoµnma oron¬anana.
%,1*,"-/ -!&1/)!3!F+ %,1+
Kynrypnn cnoj na nanasnmry µocrnxe µeô¬nny oµ npnônnxno 3,0 m, a xapaxrepnme ra
nacnojanane nexonnxo xopnsonara. Hpo]nnn cnnx xonrponnnx conµn noxasyjy npno jacny n ns-
µn]epennnpany cnojennrocr. Vouana ce µa cy n xynrypnn n reonomxn cnojenn yrnannom xopnson-
rannn, ca ônarnm naµom npema ¡ynany. Hace¬ena nonpmnna cnrypno je ônna snarno neha, ann
je eposnja nennxe pexe yunnnna cnoje, oµnocehn µparonena marepnjanna cneµouancrna o xynrypn
¬yµn xojn cy ce saµpxanann na onom µeny nene oôane.
uax n nernmnunnm norneµom na xynrypny crparnrpa]njy Kyne mory µa ce pasrpannue ue-
rnpn xynrypna xopnsonra, xojn ce pasnnxyjy no ôojn n crpyxrypn ceµnmenra, xao n no caµpxajy.
Hajcrapnjn je mesonnrcxn xopnsonr, y unjnm nosnnm ]asama ce nojan¬yje n marepnjan xapaxre-
pncrnuan sa pann neonnr, sarnm cneµn xopnsonr ns crapnjer rnosµenor µoôa ca mnoroôpojnnm
2
Kpajem ocamµecernx roµnna npomnor nexa B. Fexenn je ôopanno na unnoso]cxom ]axynrery y Feorpaµy, c nn¬em
µa oôpaµn xnnornncxe xomrane ocrarxe ca noxannrera ncrpaxnnannx y oxnnpy npojexra H+*#$; II. Tom npnnnxom
anannsnpao je n xomrane ocrarxe ca Kyne, µajyhn mn na ynnµ nncmenn sannc o pesynrarnma cnojnx sanaxana.
M. Cnaµnh APXHTEKTVPA PAHHX HPAHCTOPHJCKHX HACE÷A HA HOKAHHTETV KVHA...
14
ornaµnnm jamama, na xopnsonr ns pnmcxor nepnoµa, ca xoncraronanom rpacom pnmcxor nyra n
cnopaµnunnm nanasnma, n xopnsonr ns panor cpeµner nexa, ca yxonannm xonnôama n xamennm
nehnma. V npnnm cnojennma ncnoµ xymycnor noxpnnaua nanaxen je marepnjan ns neµanne npo-
mnocrn (XVIII–XIX nex).
Beh cmo nomenynn µa najcrapnjn xynrypnn xopnsor na Kynn npnnaµa nosnom mesonnry n
nouerxy nonor pasµoô¬a, rj. neonnra. Onaj paµ oôyxnara ynpano re nepnoµe, oµnocno xnnor np-
nnx cranonnnxa onor µena µynancxe oôane, ys nanomeny µa je noceôna naxna nocnehena naunny
noµnsana crannmra.
Hajcrapnjn xopnsonr, µeô¬nne oµ 0,60 µo 0,80 m,
rnnnonnror je cacrana. Berony ocnonny xapaxrepncrnxy
npeµcran¬a pasnnunra ôoja ceµnmenra. V najcrapnjoj ]asn
(Kyna I) on je mpxoxyre ôoje, a y mnahoj ]asn (Kyna II), y
xojoj ce neh npenosnajy nexe mann]ecrannje panor neonn-
ra, je ramnnje npnenxacrompxe ôoje. Vsan cnoj npn nonp-
mnnn oôenexana najmnahy ]asy onor xopnsonra (Kyna III)
n npenasn y npnenxacroôpaon ôojy.
Konnunna nanasa ns onnx nepnoµa na nonpmnnn
noxannrera nnje cnyµa jeµnaxa, mro nonpnma xapaxrep xo-
pnsonranne crparnrpa]nje. To je cacnnm pasym¬nno axo ce
nma y nnµy µa je nonpmnna ca crannmrnma ônna snarna,
a nonynannja penarnnno mana. Hnrensnrer nacrannnana
y nojeµnnnm µenonnma noxannrera npemenom ce menao,
y sanncnocrn oµ npnpoµnnx ycnona n rpenyrnnx norpeôa
xnre¬a.
Pasnnunrnm ôojama y najcrapnjem xopnsonry oµro-
napajy n pasnnxe y xynrypnom caµpxajy, y mra ce canpmeno
yxnana n apxnrexrypa. Anannsom rnx napamerapa µoônjena
je nepnoµnsannja najcrapnjer xynrypnor xopnsonra. V rom
cmncny, jacno ce npenosnajy rpn ]ase pasnoja npnnx na-
ce¬a na Kynn, osnauene xao Kyna I, Kyna II a–ô n Kyna III. V
noµenn µpyre rpahennncxe ]ase na µne noµ]ase (a n ô) npe-
cyµny ynory oµnrpane cy nnjance y nspaµn ornnmra, xoja
unne ocnonne crpyxrypanne enemenre cramôennx oôjexara
(cn. 3).
%!%/ &, &*!-/3!1$
."3$ ($*+0$ %,1+ ?
Ocrann apxnrexrype y nace¬y na Kynn, ônno µa je npnnpemenor, cesoncxor nnn crannor
xapaxrepa, µajy snauajan npnnor nosnanany one npcre crnapanamrna. Onn nncy ôpojnn, ann or-
xpnnajy norpeôe npnnx nace¬ennxa, xojnma je ¡ynan, ca oôn¬em xpane, unnno ocnony ersncren-
Cn. 3. Crparnrpa]cxa cnryannja y
ônoxonnma IIIf 28, 29 n 30: a – crannmre
ôp. 1 (Kyna I); b – crannmre ôp. 2 (Kyna
II); c – xonnenrpannja xamena (Kyna
III)
Fig. 3 Stratigraphic situation in Blocks
IIIf 28, 29 and 30: a) House 1 (Kula I);
b) House 2 (Kula II); c) concentration of
stone (Kula III)
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
15
nnje, na cy na neronnm oôanama nponanasnnn ocnonan sa cnoj oncranax. H npnpoµno oxpyxene,
oµnocno mymom oôpacno sanehe, cnrypno je npeµcran¬ano nexy npcry samrnrne ôapnjepe. Hs
rnx pasnora, roxom nosnor mesonnra n panor neonnra onµe cy oprannsonana n npna ceµenauxa na-
ce¬a. Onaj npocrop je xacnnje, y xanmrarcxom nepnoµy, cnyxno sa oµnarane ornaµnor marepnja-
na ns nexor, sa caµa nenosnaror nace¬a y oxonnnn, o uemy cneµoue ôpojne jame ca nonom¬enom
rpnuapnjom, a y pnmcxom nepnoµy µoôno je rpansnrnn xaraxrep, ca nyrem xojn je ry nponasno, n
rex y panom cpeµnem nexy nonono je nocrao nnrepecanran sa nacrannnane, mro noxasyjy mno-
roôpojnn ocrann nnnrxo yxonannx crannmra.
Hs nosnor mesonnra n panor neonnra nornuy rparonn nexonnxo cramôennx oôjexara n y
napeµnnm peµonnma npnxasahemo cne penenanrne noµarxe o nnxonoj nosnnnjn n xoncrpyxrnn-
nnm enemenrnma.
OCTAHH HACE÷A H3 uA3E KVHA I
Tparonn najcrapnje ]ase mesonnrcxor xopnsonra
(Kyna I) nexe rorono na sµpannnn n xapaxrepnmy nx µne
npcre oôjexara: nonyxpyxne maropacre xoncrpyxnnje n
npocrpana crannmra rpanesacre ]opme, ca nennxnm npa-
noyraonnm ornnmrnma. H nopeµ rora mro ce pexoncrpyx-
nnja xnnora na Kynn µonexne xpehe y µomeny npernocran-
xn, najmapxanrnnjn mesonnrcxn nanasn ynpano cy ocrann
cramôennx oôjexara.
Honyxpyxne maropacre xoncrpyxnnje
Honyxpyxne xoncrpyxnnje cacran¬ene cy oµ peha-
nor xamena pasnnunrnx µnmensnja n neponarno npeµcra-
n¬ajy npnnpemena cxnonnmra, oµnocno marope, pacnona
2,50 n 2,80 m. Hmann cmo npnnnxy µa y I cexropy, y conµa-
ma VI n VII, orxpnjemo µne raxne xoncrpyxnnje, xoje cy ne-
xane rorono na sµpannnn. Hyxom cy ônne oxpenyre npema
penn, rj. xa jyroncroxy, moxµa sôor samrnre oµ nerpa xojn
n µanac µyna ns ror npanna. Ca ynyrpamne crpane oôe xon-
crpyxnnje, na npnônnxno 1,20 m oµ najncrypennjer µena
nyxa, nahena cy no µna xamena. Kamene je najneponarnnje
nmano ]ynxnnjy yunpmhnnaua cryôa na xojn cy nanerane
npnrxe ns nonyxpyxnor snµa, xoje cy µpxane xponnn nox-
pnnau. Tparonn xo¬a nncy youenn, mro moxe µa ce oôjacnn arpecnnnnm xemnjcxnm cacranom
ceµnmenra na Kynn. Baropacre xoncrpyxnnje neponarno cy ônne noxpnnene xoxom ocnonenom
na noµnory oµ xo¬a n npn µny npnunpmhenom xamennm oônynnma, xojn cy n nasnauanann oôpnce
oôjexara (cn. 4).
Onncane xoncrpyxnnje cy npno ônnsy jeµna µpyroj n npeµcran¬ajy ocrarxe npnnx cram-
ôennx oôjexara na Kynn xojn cy, najneponarnnje xao nmnponnsonana npeônnannmra, npnnpemeno
xopnmhenn y cesonn pnôonona.
Cn. 4. Ocnona maropacre xoncrpyxnnje
y conµn VI
Fig. 4 Plan of a tent-like structure in
Trench VI
M. Cnaµnh APXHTEKTVPA PAHHX HPAHCTOPHJCKHX HACE÷A HA HOKAHHTETV KVHA...
16
Crannmre ôp. 1
Ocrann onor crannmra orxpnnenn cy y III cexropy, npnnnxom ncnnrnnana xonrponnnx
conµn ys µynancxn npo]nn, na mecrnma xoja cy nnµnxonana snarnom xonnenrpannjom apxeono-
mxor marepnjana. Hcrpaxnnano je y µna nanpara. V xonrponnoj conµn ôp. 2 nanmno ce na peunn
oônyrax nehnx µnmensnja, ncnynan neponarno ycneµ nncoxe remneparype, na mra je yxasnnana n
nerona npnenxacra ôoja. C oôe nerone crpane y npo]nn cy sanasnna µna nnouacra xamena. Pac-
nopeµ xamena je noxasnnao µa je ônna y nnrany nexa xoncrpyxnnja, ann nnje ônno jacno xaxna.
V nenoj nenocpeµnoj ônnsnnn nanasnno ce nexonnxo rsn. nepxyrepa, oµnocno naxonana n xnap-
nnrnnx oµônraxa, sarnm nonexn oµônrax oµ
xpemena, a nahenn cy n µenonn xnnornncxnx
xocrnjy n jenennx porona. Cne ro yxasnna-
no je na rparone xnnora na onom mecry. Hs
rnx pasnora, a y rexnn sa npannm oµrono-
pom mra ona xoncrpyxnnja npeµcran¬a, cne-
µehe roµnne ornopena je nona conµa, xoja je
saxnarana sanaµno sanehe conµe 2, oµnocno
xnaµpare IIIf 29 n 30. Hocreneno ce µomno
µo oµronopa, oµnocno nocrano je jacno µa je
xoncrpyxnnja y conµn 2 ônna camo µeo nenn-
xor npanoyraonor ornnmra, µnmensnja 1,50
x 0,55 m (cn. 5). Berony yxy, sanaµny crpa-
ny, nacnpam pacnaµnyror oônyrxa orxpnne-
nor y nperxoµnoj xamnann, npeµcran¬ana je neha nom¬ena nnoua; ocrarax µyxe, cenepne crpane
unnnna cy µna neha nom¬ena xamena, a jyxna crpana je nenom µyxnnom nmana npemas oµ sem¬e,
xojn je ycneµ µejcrna narpe µoôno npneny ôojy, mro noxasyje µa je ornnmre ônno yxonano. V
Tepµany ce raxna ornnmra jan¬ajy n y Annôery (Alibeg) II, Haµnnn B, na Ocrponyn Fanynyn
(Ostrovul Banului) III b nrµ. (Paµonanonnh 1997: 59). Ayropxa nx nesyje sa mnahn nepnoµ, rj. sa
5. ]asy pasnoja hepµancxor mesonnra, oµnocno sa cam neron xpaj. Ounrneµno je, mehyrnm, µa cy
raxna ynpomhena ornnmra ônna y ynorpeôn n pannje. Jyxno oµ sanaµne, yxe crpane ornnmra, y
nenoj nenocpeµnoj ônnsnnn, xoncraronana je mana rpoyraona ]opma caunnena oµ rpn nnouacra,
nacarnuno nocran¬ena xamena. Tpoyrao je omrpnm yrnom ôno oxpenyr nacynpor ornnmry, oµ-
nocno npema ornnmry je ônna nocran¬ena ôasna crpannna rpoyrna. C µpyre crpane ornnmra,
rnx ys ceneposanaµnn yrao, nanasno ce jeµan nom¬enn xamen. Ha ncroj crpann na xojoj je orxpn-
nen xamenn rpoyrao, ann npema jyroncrounom yrny ornnmra, n na ncrom pacrojany na xome ce
nanasno rpoyrao nponahene cy µne xamene nnounne, xoje cy najneponarnnje ônne µenonn µpyror
rpoyrna. Ha ceneponcrounom n jyrosanaµnom yrny nanasno ce no jeµan nehn nom¬enn xamen.
Bra npeµcran¬ajy ornnmnn rpoyrnonn, neoma uecrn y xynrypn Henencxor nnpa, xojoj npnna-
µa n nace¬e na Kynn, ne moxe ce cnrypno yrnpµnrn, ann ce moxe npernocrannrn µa je nnxona
]ynxnnja yrnnnrapne npnpoµe. Bpno je neponarno µa cy ro xoncrpyxrnnnn µenonn ornnmra, oµ-
nocno nexa npcra µpxaua sa paxnene, rj. npyrone na xoje je naôaµana pnôa n nocran¬ana nsnaµ
yxapenor yr¬en¬a y ornnmry. Hpn rome, omrap yrao oxpenyr cynporno oµ ornnmra cnyxno je
sa ]nxcnpane paxna, a nnounna oxpenyra npema ornnmry – xao ocnonan no xome je paxan mo-
Cn. 5. Ornnmre y crannmry ôp. 1
Fig. 5 Hearth in House 1
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
17
Cn. 6. Ocnona crannmra ôp. 1
Fig. 6 Plan of House 1
M. Cnaµnh APXHTEKTVPA PAHHX HPAHCTOPHJCKHX HACE÷A HA HOKAHHTETV KVHA...
18
rao µa ce nomepa neno n µecno. F. Jonanonnh one rpoyraone enemenre nesyje sa nouerax neonnr-
cxor nepnoµa (Jovanovic 1971), maµa, cyµehn no rome mro ce jan¬ajy y najcrapnjem, axepamnuxom
xopnsonry Kyne, nouerax nnxone ynorpeôe rpeôa µaronarn y crapnjn nepnoµ, oµnocno y nosnn
mesonnr, xaµa je pnôa ônna n ocnonnn nsnop ncxpane.
V µeny xnaµpara IIIf 30 npema jyxnom npo]nny, a napounro npema jyroncrounom yrny
(D) orxpnnena je rpyna oônyraxa, nom¬enor xamena, xnnornncxnx xocrnjy, anarxn oµ xocrn n
nexonnxo nepxyrepa. Bnaxan rnnnonnrn ceµnmenr snarno je orexanao npennsnnjn paµ, na crora
nncy mornn µa ce nahy rparonn ônno xaxnnx enemenara xojn ôn noxasnnann µa je npocrop oxo
ornnmra ôno noxpnnen (cn 6). Moxµa ce y pacnopeµy sareuenor xamena y ocnonn xpnje pemene
onor npoônema, ann je neoma remxo µarn ônno xaxan µennµnpan oµronop.
Crannmre ôp. 3
Onaj oôjexar je raxohe ncrpaxnnan napnnjanno, a orxpnnen je, xao n nperxoµnn, na npoc-
ropy III cexropa. Hanme, y xonrponnoj conµn ôp. 1 (µnmensnja 5 x 1 m), xoja je nocran¬ena ys
npo]nn y sonn nennxe xanmrarcxe jame, na camom µny ncxona nanasnno ce nexonnxo nehnx, nyu-
no nocran¬ennx oônyraxa. Kamen je nahen y ceneposanaµnom yrny conµe, ôes µpyrnx nparehnx
µera¬a, na ce nnje morno nn nacnyrnrn µa je y nnrany ceneponcrounn yrao jom neorxpnnenor
oôjexra. Taxo nocran¬en xamen npeµcran¬ao je yunpmhnnau yraonor cryôa, mro cy nornpµnna
ncxonanana roxom napeµne xamnane. V ncrom nnnoy orxpnnene cy anarxe oµ xocrn n pora, xao n
nennxn µnopeµn xapnyn oµ pora (Sladic 1986: Fig. 7/28, 34, 37, 38), mnnnjarypno mnno oµ ranxe
myn¬e xocrn (ibid.: Fig. 7/31), nrµ (T. I/4).
Cn. 7. Horneµ na ônoxone IIIe 25, 26 n f 26, ca ocnonom crannmra ôp. 3
Fig. 7 View of Blocks IIIe 25, 26 and f 26, with the plan of House 3
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
19
Kao n y nperxoµnom cnyuajy, ôorarn mesonnrcxn nanasn nanarann cy µa ce y mro xpahem
poxy npeµysmy nona ncxonanana n ncrpaxn npocrop y sanaµnom sanehy conµe ôp. 1. Toxom na-
peµne xamnane ornopena je nennxa ncrpaxna nonpmnna oµ 75 m², y naµn µa he ce µoônrn oµ-
ronop na mnora nocran¬ena nnrana (cn. 7). Paµ ce oµnnjao y xnaµparnma IIIe 25, 26 n IIIf 26. V
rom xynrypnom crparymy, cxopo na sµpannnn, nahen je nennxn cramôenn oôjexar ca nmnosanrnnm
npanoyraonnm ornnmrem oµ nom¬enor xamena nnouacror oônnxa, µnmensnja 125 x 50 m (cn. 8).
Orxpnnane ornnmra jacno je noxasano µa je nocrojano n µpyro crannmre na onom cramôenom
nnnoy. H µoncra, y xamennm xoncrpyxnnjama na remennma µocra npocrpanor rpanesonµa, xon-
craronana cy mecra sa noµnoxja cryôona, onnnuena xame-
nom paµn yunpmhena. Mopa ce, mehyrnm, npnmernrn µa
nncy cna noµnoxja yunpmhnnana xamenom ncror npomepa
jep je oxo cryôona na ncrounoj crpann oôjexra xamen snar-
no nehnx µnmensnja (cn. 9).
Vnyrap rpanesonµne nonpmnne xojy cy onprana-
ne yunpmhene ocnone cryôona cnopaµnuno je xoncraro-
nan noxpernn marepnjan, ann snarno nnme nsnan oôjexra,
y neronoj nenocpeµnoj ônnsnnn. Cenepno, ceneposanaµno
n sanaµno nponaheno je oôn¬e ]parmenronannx anarxn
oµ xocrn n pora, mehy xojnma ce napounro nsµnaja nanas
xapnyna (ibid.: Fig. 7/37). Ha 1,10 m oµ ceneposanaµnor
yrna, y xnaµpary IIIe 25, orxpnnen je nennxn xamenn oô-
nyrax µyxnne oxo 0,40 m, ca yµyô¬enem y cpeµnnn. Oxo
nera ce nanasnno oôn¬e noxpernor marepnjana – µnero oµ
pora, xamenn ôar, neo por cpnµaha, nexonnxo ]parmenro-
nannx xnnornncxnx xocrnjy n 48 syôa mapana. Vs camo
ornnmre, n ro nopeµ neronor jyrosanaµnor yrna, nahen je
xamen mannx µnmensnja, ca yµyô¬enem y cpeµnnn, sa xojn
ce moxe npernocrannrn µa je cnyxno sa omrpene anarxn
oµ xocrn n pora.
Hopehenem onor n nperxoµno onncanor oôjexra (ôp. 1) sanaxa ce nnxona snarna cnnu-
nocr. Ornnmra cy npanoyraona, nennxa n jeµnaxo cy opnjenrncana ynpanno na rox pexe. V nn-
xonoj xoncrpyxnnjn nocroje, mehyrnm, n nsnecne pasnnxe. ¡ox je y npnom cnyuajy ornnmre na-
npan¬eno oµ xomnosnrnor marepnjana, xamena n µenom oµ sem¬e, xoµ ornnmra y oôjexry ôp. 3
nnje ôno raxan cnyuaj. Ono je npannnno snµano oµ nacarnuno nocran¬ennx nnouacrnx xamennx
ônoxona neher n maner npomepa, raxo µa y nornynocrn noµceha na ornnmra ns mesonnra Tepµa-
na. Taxohe je nomepeno ns nenrpa crannmra npema mnpoj crpann rpanesa, na xojoj je najneponar-
nnje ôno ynas, n ro cnrypno sôor necmeranor nsnacxa µnma ca ornnmra. Hocneµnne xopnmhena
ornnmra mory µa ce npenosnajy camo y cnnxacroj ôojn ocnone nerone ynyrpamnocrn. Haxo y
oôa cnyuaja nncy orxpnnenn rparonn naµsemnor noxpnnaua, y oôjexry ôp. 3 xoncraronana cy me-
cra na xojnma cy ônnn noôoµenn yraonn µnpenn. Kponnn noxpnnau onor crannmra neponarno je
ôno oµ xoxe nnn nexor µpyror marepnjana, xojn je pasner nocne nanymrana oôjexra.
Cn. 8. Ornnmre y crannmry ôp. 3
Fig. 8 Hearth in House 3
M. Cnaµnh APXHTEKTVPA PAHHX HPAHCTOPHJCKHX HACE÷A HA HOKAHHTETV KVHA...
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Cn. 9. Ocnona crannmra ôp. 3
Fig. 9 Plan of House 3
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
21
Ha ocnony pacnopeµa yunpmhennx noµnoxja cryôona, moxe ce xnnorernuxn pexoncrpy-
ncarn nsrneµ oôjexra ôp. 3. Oµ cnaxor yrna rpanesa nonasnna je µeô¬a xoca rpana, neponarno ca
paunom na xpajy, na xojy je nanerana c¬emena rpeµa. C¬e-
menaua je ounrneµno ônna µyra, raxo µa cy mopann ônrn
nocran¬enn ôounn noµynnpaun, sa xoje cy xopnmhene
µeô¬e rpane ca paunom na npxy. Hnxaxnn ounrneµnnjn rpa-
ronn µpnene xoncrpyxnnje nncy, mehyrnm, youenn. ¡oxasn
sa neno nocrojane caµpxann cy jeµnno y mannm xpyxnnm
xoncrpyxnnjama oµ xamena, xoje cy orxpnnene y ocnonn
crannmra, a nmane cy ]ynxnnjy yunpmhnnaua noµnoxja
µpnennx cryôona.
Beh je nasnaueno µa noxpernn marepnjan xapax-
repnmy apre]axrn oµ xnapnnra, µennmnuno oµ xpemena,
sarnm oµ xocrn nanxapa n pora jenena. Onaxnn nanasn xa-
paxrepncrnunn cy sa mesonnr, a snauajno je nomenyrn n
µna rpoôa (ôp. 3 n 4), xoja cy nexana na nesnarno pasnn-
unrnm µyônnama, y nenace¬enom µeny noxannrera xojn
rpannrnpa sanaµnom sanehy, ca noxojnnnnma mymxor nona,
crapocrn npexo 20 roµnna (Mnxnh n Cnaµnh 1994: 40–41).
Ipoô ôp. 3 omrehen je xanmrarcxom jamom. Hoxojnnnn cy
caxpanenn y onpyxenom nonoxajy na nehnma, ca pyxama
na xapnnnn n ca xapaxrepncrnunnm npnnosnma (naxonan,
nepxyrep, xnapnnn oµônnn) (cn. 10). Taxna npcra caxpane
neµnocmncneno yxasyje na mesonnrcxy rpaµnnnjy.
OCTAHH HACE÷A H3 uA3E KVHA IIA
¡a¬n xnnor uonexa na onom µeny oôane ¡ynana n nerona norpeôa µa ry ôopann mory ce
nparnrn no marepnjannnm ocrannma xoje je sa coôom ocranno, a ro cy, na npnom mecry, nsropena
crannmra.
Crannmre ôp. 2
Orxpnnano je y µna nanpara roxom 1981. roµnne, n ro y cenepnom µeny nace¬a, y III
cexropy, xnaµpary f 29, 28, y oxnnpy 5, 6. n 7. orxonnor cnoja (cn. 11). Hajnpe ce nanmno na ycxy
sony saneuene sem¬e amop]nor cacrana, ôes ocoônrnx xapaxrepncrnxa, xoja ce noµ ônarnm yrnom
npyxana npema penn. Ca nene cenepne crpane orxpnnen je nennxn xamenn ônox oµ xpeunaxa nnn
µonomnra, nsµyxenor nnpamnµannor oônnxa, µyxnne 0,68 m n ca ôasnunom crpanom µeô¬nne
0,17 m, xoja je na µny raxohe ônna ônaro samn¬ena (cn. 12). H y µeny conµe npema cenepy orxpn-
nenn cy cnopaµnunn rparonn nexonnxo mannx sona saneuene sem¬e. Hcrpaxnnana cy, mehyrnm,
npexnnyra na onom nnnoy, ann je ycxopo ycneµno nnxon nacranax, xojn je noxasao µa µyrauax nn-
pamnµannn ônox nexn npexo maner npanoyraonor ornnmra, µnmensnja 0,58 x 0,35 m, nsrpahenor
Cn. 10. Ipoôonn ôp. 3 n 4 y xnaµpary
IIId, e 30
Fig. 10 Graves 3 and 4 in Square IIId,
e 30
M. Cnaµnh APXHTEKTVPA PAHHX HPAHCTOPHJCKHX HACE÷A HA HOKAHHTETV KVHA...
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Cn. 11. Ocnona crannmra ôp. 2 y ônoxonnma IIIf 28, 29
Fig. 11 Plan of House 2 in Blocks IIIf 28, 29
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
23
oµ nacarnuno nocran¬ennx µeô¬nx n rannx xamennx nno-
ua, npnônnxne opnjenrannje cenep – jyr (cn. 12). Opnjen-
rannja xamenor ônoxa oµcryna oµ opnjenrannje ornnmra
jep nma nosnnnjy ceneposanaµ – jyroncrox, c rnm mro je
nerona ôasnuna crpana oxpenyra xa ceneposanaµy, na ce
moxe npernocrannrn µa je ôno noôoµen y noµ crannmra ys
cenepny, yxy crpany ornnmra. Mecro nopeµ ornnmra µa-
nano my je noceôny cnmôonnxy xoja nnje ônna yrnnnrapnor
xapaxrepa, oµnocno ôno je nncrpymenr sa saµono¬anane
µyxonnnx norpeôa cranonnnxa onor npocropa. Hsµyxena
nnpamnµanna ]opma ônoxa, ca omrpnm npxom oxpenyrnm
npema neôy, noxasyje µa je nmao ynory nexor noceônor ar-
pnôyra. Ho, ro je rema xojy na onom mecry nehemo sano-
unnarn.
Oµnoc nsmehy crapnje (Kyna I) n mnahe ]ase
(Kyna II), y xojoj je ycranon¬en onncann oôjexar, morao
ce ersaxrno ncrpaxnrn jeµnno npecexom xpos oôjexar µo
sµpannne. Hajcnpcncxoµnnje je ônno osnauanane npecexa
npexo ornnmra, c rnm mro je ncxonanana cenepna crpana
crannmra, a jyxna je ocran¬ena sa yrnphnnane crparn-
Cn. 13. Ocnona crannmra ôp. 4
Fig. 13 Plan of House 4
Cn. 12. Ornnmre y crannmry ôp. 2
Fig. 12 Hearth in House 2
M. Cnaµnh APXHTEKTVPA PAHHX HPAHCTOPHJCKHX HACE÷A HA HOKAHHTETV KVHA...
24
rpa]cxnx penepa. Ha onom µeny noxannrera oôa crparyma sajeµno, n crapnjn n mnahn, nmann cy
yxynny µeô¬nny oµ npnônnxno 0,70 m. Hcnoµ cnoja ca saneuenom sem¬om (nenom) youenn cy
npnenompxn cnoj ca pacyrnm yr¬enom n cnoj npnenxacroxyre nnjance, xojn npeµcran¬ajy nocne-
µnny nncoxe remneparype npnnnxom ropena oôjexra (cn. 11). Tn cnojenn nanexy na mesonnrcxn
crparym µeô¬nne oxo 0,20 m, xojn nma cnenn]nuan mpxoxyhxacrn rnnnonnrn ceµnmenr n y xome
je nahen nom¬enn xamen pasnnunror ]opmara. Ceµnmenr nexn na cnnom rnnnonnrom n crepnn-
nom reonomxom cnojy, ca npnmecama cnrnnjer n xpynnnjer nom¬enor xamena, xojn nma oµnnxe
cnnapa, mro jacno yxasyje na xnnmarcxe npomene roxom mesonnrcxor µoôa.
Axo µoôpo nporymaunmo nopyxe xoje nam µonocn cnnxa onor npecexa, moxemo sax¬y-
unrn µa je oµ npecranxa crapnjer nace¬a ns nosnor mesonnra µo ocnnnana mnaher, neonnrcxor
nace¬a nporexao nsnecran nepnoµ y xome na Kynn nnje ônno cramôene axrnnnocrn. Hpnxasana
crparnrpa]nja onor manor nceuxa µoxymenronana je npennsnnm apxeonomxnm ncrpaxnnannma
n noxasyje µa µna cnoja nanexy jeµan na µpyrn, ann ôes you¬nnnx rparona µenacrannje crapnje,
nosnomesonnrcxe ]ase.

Cn. 14. Conµe IX–XII, ca ocrannma crannmra ôp. 4 (a), ôp. 5 (b), ôp. 6 (c) n ôp. 7 (d) na I cexropy
Fig. 14 Trenches IX–XII, with remains of Houses 4 (a), 5 (b), 6 (c) and 7 (d) in Sector I
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
25
Crannmre ôp. 4
Ocrann onor crannmra mann]ecryjy
ce saneuenom sem¬om amop]nor cacrana, xoja
je najnpe orxpnnena y conµn IX, a xacnnje n
y nenom sanaµnom npomnpeny, xao n y con-
µn XII (cn. 13). ¡ecrpyxrnnnocr ceµnmenra
ônna je ounrneµna n µonymrana je µa ce raôa-
pnr crannmra pexoncrpynme camo µennmnu-
no. Hs rpahennncxnx rparona morno je µa ce
sax¬yun µa je crannmre ônno npanoyraonor
oônnxa, npnônnxne opnjenrannje cenep – jyr,
ca ônarnm oµcrynanem oµ cenepa npema nc-
roxy (11°). Oµ cnnx xoncrpyxrnnnnx µera¬a
xojn cy nomornn npn pexoncrpyxnnjn ocno-
ne, penarnnno cnrypno µe]nnncana je camo
jyrosanaµna crpana. By cy onpranann rparonn nsropenor xo¬a y neny, xoncraronann n y conµn
XII (cn. 14/a). Xnnorernuxn, moxe ce cmarparn µa je ycranon¬ena n jyroncrouna crpana cra-
nnmra, xojy je osnauanana penarnnno panna nnnna sone ca saneuenom sem¬om. V sanaµnom npo-
mnpeny conµe, ônnxe jyroncrounoj crpann oôjexra, orxpnneno je mane npanoyraono ornnmre,
nspaheno oµ nom¬enor xamena nnouacror oônnxa. Ornnmre je ônno µnmensnja 0,60 x 0,35 m,
opnjenrncano y npanny ceneponcrox – jyrosanaµ, n nannxonano je ornnmry ns crannmra ôp. 2 y
ônoxy IIIf 28, 29. Jeµnna pasnnxa youena je y opnjenrannjn.
OCTAHH HACE÷A H3 uA3E KVHA IIB
Crannmre ôp. 5
Onaj oôjexar npnnaµa xopnsonry cranonana xojn xapaxrepnmy crannmra ca „narpnmrn-
ma” ennnconµne ]opme. Koncraronan je y conµn X, y nenoj cenepnoj nnmn, a mannm µenom n
y conµn XI (cn. 14/b, 15). Berona omrehena ocnona yxasyje na npnônnxno npanoyraony ]opmy
nµenrnune opnjenrannje xao xoµ crannmra ôp. 4, xojy oµpehyjy ocrann µna yrna – jyrosanaµnor y
conµn X, y xome je xoncraronano noµnoxje nsropene rpeµe xpyxnor nonpeunor npecexa, n cene-
posanaµnor, y conµn XI. Ennnconµno narpnmre, µnmensnja 0,50 x 0,30 m, orxpnneno je rorono y
nenrpy oôjexra; npnônnxno je ncre opnjenrannje xao n ornnmre ns crannmra ôp. 4, a y neronoj
ônnsnnn, ca jyxne crpane, orxpnnena je anarxa nehnx µnmensnja, nspahena oµ jenener pora, xoja
oônnxom aconnpa na npnoônrna pana.
Crannmre ôp. 6
Ocrann onor crannmra orxpnnenn cy y cenepnom npomnpeny conµe IX n y conµn XI,
y xojoj je xoncraronan neron nehn µeo. Kao n nperxoµno, ônno je cnaôµeneno ennnconµnnm
„narpnmrem”, nennunne 0,45 x 0,30 m, nocran¬ennm y ônnsnnn ceneposanaµne crpane oôjexra,
cxopo ncre opnjenrannje xao n ornnmre ns crannmra ôp. 5 (cn. 14/c). Oôpncn onor crannmra
Cn. 15. Ocnona crannmra ôp. 5, ca ennnconµnnm
narpnmrem
Fig. 15 Plan of House 5, with oval Þreplace
M. Cnaµnh APXHTEKTVPA PAHHX HPAHCTOPHJCKHX HACE÷A HA HOKAHHTETV KVHA...
26
nncy mornn µa ce ycranone sôor cnojenpcne µenacrannje xoja ra je saµecnna. Fes oôsnpa na ry
xoncrarannjy, yrnpheno je µa je opnjenrannja oôjexra oµyµapana oµ nperxoµnnx, ca nehom µennja-
nnjom oµ cenepa npema ncroxy (40°).
Crannmre ôp. 7
Ono crannmre, unjn cy rparonn xoncraronann sanaµno oµ crannmra ôp. 5 n xoje saxnara
conµe XI n XII, raxohe nnje ônno moryhe µe]nnncarn jep je oµ nera ocrana camo ysana sona nena
ca nnrensnnnnm rparonnma rapexn (cn. 14/d).
H nopeµ cnnx pasnnxa y noµnsany crannmra na noµpyujy I cexropa, xoje ce yrnannom
oµnoce na rpaµny ornnmra n narpnmra (crannmra 4–6), ono mro nx nonesyje je cnnuna, rorono
nµenrnuna opnjenrannja.
Hoxpernn nanasn ns one ]ase raxohe cy µocra cnnunn onnma ns crapnje ]ase (Kyna I),
napounro y norneµy nsôopa cnponnna sa nspaµy opyha, a ro je na npnom mecry xnapnnr, sarnm
por jenena n, cnopaµnuno, xpemen. Jan¬ajy ce n apre]axrn oµ ceµnmenrnnx (T. III/24), xao n
ceµnmenrnnx cnnn]nxonannx crena (T. III/26). Hoceôny naxny rpeôa oôparnrn na opyhe xoje
npeµcran¬a cnojenpcny nnonannjy. Hanme, y xomranom marepnjany cne je maconnnje xomônno-
nano opyhe xoje na jeµnom xpajy nma npx nannx µnery, a na µpyrom xanoracrn sanpmerax, nacrao
moxµa ycneµ ynorpeôe. Ono opyhe noµceha na rsn. pacrnpaue, oµnocno na nexy npcry ryuxa nnn
npece xoja je xopnmhena sa µpoô¬ene unpcre spnacre xpane (T. II/3). Kacnnje, y mnahem neonnry,
one anarxe oônuno cy nspahnnane oµ xamena.
3a pasnnxy oµ marepnjana ns crapnje ]ase, caµa cy npncyrnn n manoôpojnn ynomnn neo-
nnrcxe rpnuapnje.
Cn. 16. Ipoô a la turca y xnaµpary IIId 25
Fig. 16 Burial a la turca in Square IIId 25
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
27
OCTAHH APXHTEKTVPE H3 uA3E KVHA III
3amnpanem nace¬a ns ]ase Kyna II npecraje rpahennncxa axrnnnocr y oxnnpy najcra-
pnjer xynrypnor xopnsonra. Bnµne cy camo sone ca nom¬ennm xamenom, oônynnma, ynomnnma
xnapnnra n poxnne. Ho cnemy cyµehn, raxne nonpmnne yxasyjy na mecra xoja cy, npema norpeôn,
cnyxnna sa nspaµy opyha oµ xnapnnra, xpemena nnn jenener pora n xocrn.
Hoceôno rpeôa ncrahn nanas amop]nor oµônrxa oµ oncnµnjana y xnaµpary IIIe 25, na
nnnoy 4. orxonnor cnoja (T. III/2). Haxo nnje y nnrany apre]axr neh najoônunnjn oµônrax, unne-
nnna µa je nponahena ona npno nenena cnponnna sa nspaµy anarxn, xapaxrepncrnuna sa neonnr-
cxy xpemeny nnµycrpnjy, nsyserno je snauajna. V cnojy cy raxohe xoncraronann cnrnn amop]nn
ynomnn neonnrcxe xepamnxe, ncrnx xapaxrepncrnxa xao n y crapnjoj ]asn (Kyna II).
V ]asn Kyna III, ocnm onor mro je peueno, rpeôa nomenyrn n nanas nnnrxo yxonanor
rpoôa y xome je noxojnnx caxpanen y ceµehem nonoxajy a la turc$. Inana noxojnnxa nexana je
rorono na nonpmnnn onor xynrypnor crparyma, na je crora ônna noceôno samrnhena cnrnnjnm
nom¬ennm xamenom (cn. 16). Taxan naunn caxpannnana sanaxamo y neonnrcxom cnojy ca Bene-
cnnne (Vasic 1986: 278, Fig. 16, 17) nrµ.

K!3"I-/ "!K2!*"!F+

Eposnnna axrnnnocr Hnannnauxor noroxa, xojn npocropno µenn noxannrer Kyny, ônna
je, nsrneµa, npecyµna y ]opmnpany noµoroxa na onom µeny ¡ynana. H µanac onaj norox oxnnn y
µoôa nennxnx naµannna, a cnrypno je y nepnoµy oron¬anana roxom xnaprapa ôno jom axrnnnnjn.
Hanoc xojn ce cnymrao neronnm xopnrom nnje ce cacrojao camo oµ cnrne µpoônne n pacron¬ene
sem¬e neh n oµ xamena xpynnnjer ]opmara, xojn ce ranoxno na neronom ymhy n crnapao npn-
poµnn sarar. To je npoyspoxonano nacranax nonparnnx noµennx crpyja, na je npnpoµnnm nyrem
]opmnpan mnpox nnp xojn je noµy oxperao cynporno roxy pexe. Vnpano cy raxna mecra, xao mro
pnôononnn µoôpo snajy, najôorarnja pnôom jep ce xpana y nnma neomerano saµpxana. Crora cy n
xnre¬n mesonnrcxe Kyne onµe µyxe ôopannnn, nonehn pnôy xoja je ônna ocnonnn nsnop nnxone
ersncrennnje. ¡paronenn µoxasn nnxonor µyror cranonana na Kynn cy ocrann crannmra xoja cy
noµnsann y ônnsnnn nnpa.
Hcrpaxnnannma noxannrera na Kynn snauajno ce nponnxno y naunn xnnora npnnx na-
ce¬ennxa onor npocropa ns nosnor mesonnra n panor neonnra. Bnxon snauaj cacrojn ce y rome
mro omoryhanajy pexoncrpyxnnjy jeµnor samnpyher pasµoô¬a, unja ce exonomnja sacnnnana na
oôpaµn xnapnnra, pora n xocrn, n na nsnopnma xpane µoônjannm yrnannom ns pexe, xao n nacry-
najyher µoôa, ca nonnm naunnom ersncrennnje, npnencrneno ca memonnrom ncxpanom xoja je,
nsmehy ocranor, yx¬yunnana n ysroj nepeannja. Kao nocneµnna rnx npomena jan¬a ce n nona
nnnnnnsannjcxa rexonnna – rpnuapnja. Taxnn nepnoµn, y xojnma je ocrnapen xonraxr µna pa-
snnunra xynrypna crynna, y pasnojy nnnnnnsannje npeµcran¬ajy xomnnexcne conno-xynrypne
cermenre, xojn cy nonexaµ remxo unr¬nnn n pasym¬nnn. Cpehom, na Kynn ce µocra cnrypno
morna nparnrn ona xynrypna cmena, xojy oôjexrnnno µoxymenryjy nenopemehena crparnrpa]nja
n apxnrexroncxn oôjexrn.
M. Cnaµnh APXHTEKTVPA PAHHX HPAHCTOPHJCKHX HACE÷A HA HOKAHHTETV KVHA...
28
Henopemehenocr xynrypnor n reonomxor nacnojanana omoryhnna je µa neh na npnn
norneµ sax¬yunmo µa ce na onom nanasnmry paµn o nsµnojennm ]asama y oxnnpy najcrapnjer
xynrypnor xopnsonra, xojn ce jacno onpranao rnnnonnrom crpyxrypom n xojn je na nojeµnnnm
mecrnma µocrnsao µeô¬nny n µo 0,80 m. Hajcrapnjy ]asy (Kyna I) xapaxrepncana je sem¬a mpxo-
xyhxacre ôoje, mnahy (Kyna II) sem¬a npnenxacrompxe ôoje, a najmnahy (Kyna III) oµnnxonana je
sem¬a npnenxacroôpaon ôoje, ca crpyxrypom xoja je nansrneµ ônna macnnja.
Hcrpaxnnanem ce ncnocrannno µa pasnnxa nnje camo y ôojn ceµnmenra neh n y xyn-
rypnom caµpxajy. Hajnnxn, xyhxacrn cnoj caµpxn marepnjanne ocrarxe ns nosnor mesonnra,
a ropna µna cnoja, npnenxacrompxe n npnenxacroôpaon ôoje, ns nepnoµa y xome ce xao necnnx
nonor pasµoô¬a nojan¬yje ]parmenronana neonnrcxa rpnuapnja.
Hajcrapnjy xynrypny ]asy (Kyna I) xapaxrepnme marepnjan cnojcrnen nosnom mesonnry,
mro ce napounro npenosnaje y oôpaµn xnapnnra xojn, sajeµno ca porom jenena, npeµcran¬a oc-
nonny cnponnncxy ôasy sa nspaµy opyha. Apre]axrn oµ xnapnnra (T. III/10, 27) nspahnnann cy
y mesonnrcxoj rpaµnnnjn xoja nornue jom ns npemena nace¬a na Bnacny (Sladic 1986: Fig. 6/24,
25). Ananornje nanasnmo ynpano y marepnjany ns µpyre ]ase pasnoja nnacauxor nace¬a, mro ne
mopa µa snaun µa cy one µne naceoônne ncronpemene, neh je moxµa y nnrany rpaµnnnonanan
naunn nspaµe apre]axara oµ xnapnnra. 3ôor crpyxrype, oôpaµa onor marepnjana neoma je cnenn-
]nuna, raxo µa ce na nemy ne mory nparnrn cne enonyrnnne npomene y pasnojy rexnonornje ox-
pecnnana. Ocnm xnapnnra, ry je n perxo opyhe oµ xpemena (ibid.: Fig. 6/20) (T. III/1, 6, 7), sarnm
napxyrepn – yµapaun, anarxe neonxoµne y nponecy oxpecnnana (T. III/28), xao n opyhe oµ xocrn
n pora (ibid.: Fig. 7/28, 34, 37, 43) (T. I/2–5, 8; T. II/4), nrµ.
V apxnrexroncxom cmncny, onoj ]asn npnnaµajy maropacre xoncrpyxnnje n crannmra 1 n
3. V crannmrnma cy rpahena ornnmra nennxnx µnmensnja, cnojcrnena xynrypn Henencxor nnpa,
xoja cy cnojom µyxom oconnnom oxpenyra ynpanno na pexy. Ho ocrannma noµnoxja cryôona yo-
xnnpennx nehnm xamenem paµn yunpmhena, moxemo npernocrannrn µa ce paµn o µocra nennxnm
oôjexrnma xojn nannxyjy maropnma. Hace¬e nnje ropeno, na rparonn nncy xonsepnnpann narpom
n jeµnocranno cy necrann y nnaxnoj n xncenoj cpeµnnn.
Ho xapaxrepncrnxama apxnrexrype n noxpernnx nanasa, najcrapnjy ]asy (Kyny I) moxe-
mo onpeµennrn y xynrypy nosnor mesonnra, xoja je y cymrnnn nspasnro nnrnuxa, ôes npncycrna
xepamnuxor marepnjana. Cneµonn onor npemena caxpanenn cy y rpoôonnma ôp. 3 n 4 (cn. 7), o
uemy noysµano ronopn nonoxaj cxenera, xao n rpoônn npnnosn. V najcrapnjem nace¬y na Bnacny
xoncraronano je uax mecr rpoôona ca noxojnnnnma caxpanennm y nµenrnunom nonoxajy. Pacyrn
syôn nnnpnnnµa y npeµeny cromaxa noxojnnxa y rpoôy ôp. 4 µoxasyjy µa je npnmenen nµenrnuan
norpeônn pnryan xao y 19 rpoôona ca Bnacna, xojn cy cacnnm noysµano crparn]nxonann y ]asy
Bnacan Ia n Ib (Cpejonnh n Hernna 1978: 79). Tpaµnnnja je y onom cnyuajy cnrypno oµnrpana
npecyµny ynory n ro je ono mro oµnnxyje ony xynrypny ]asy.
Mnaha ]asa, osnauena xao Kyna II, pasnnxyje ce no crpyxrypn n ôojn sem¬e oµ nperxoµne.
Tparonn noxapa youanajy ce na cxopo unranoj nonpmnnn nanasnmra, na moxemo xoncraronarn µa
je nace¬e ns one ]ase nmano rparnuan ennnor. Foja onor µena cnoja moxµa je nocneµnna nome-
nyror noxapa nnn nsnecnor nacnojanana reonomxe npnpoµe. He rpeôa, mehyrnm, ncx¬yunrn nn
moryhnocr aprn]nnnjenne npnpoµe, oµnocno ¬yµcxe axrnnnocrn n npnmene µpyraunjer naunna
npnnpehnnana, xojn je, na npnom mecry, yx¬yunnao ysroj xnrapnna. 3ôor rora je xynrypna sôn-
nana y onoj ]asn µanexo rexe pexoncrpyncarn.
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
29
uasn Kyna II npnnaµajy crannmra ôp. 2, 4, 5, 6 n 7. 3a ynosnanane naunna rpaµne najsna-
uajnnjn noµann npnxyn¬enn cy na noµpyujy I cexropa, y conµn IX n y nennm npomnpennma
npema cenepy n sanaµy, xao n y conµama X, XI n XII. Ha rom µeny noxannrera µoôpo je ouynan
crparnrpa]cxn oµnoc nsmehy crannmra ns II ]ase, xojn narnamanajy sone ca saneuenom sem¬om
n ornnmrnma. Haxo cy ônne µocra omrehene, re sone jacno cy yxasane na nennunny n oônnx cra-
nnmra. Pasnnxa y nnnonma na xojnma cy nexana, xao n y nsrneµy n xoncrpyxnnjn ornnmra, omo-
ryhnna je npennsnnjy nepnoµnsannjy one ]ase. Cnrypno ce mory nsµnojnrn µne noµ]ase: crapnja,
ca mannm npanoyraonnm ornnmrnma (a), n mnaha, ca ennnconµnnm, nonnouannm „narpnmrnma”
(b). Ona narpnmra nnn, xaxo nx H. Paµonanonnh nasnna, ornnmra ca xpyxno nonnouannm penn-
nnjenrom (Paµonanonnh 1997: 60) nojan¬yjy ce n na nenoj oôann ¡ynana: y Pasnparn (Razvrata),
crparym II, na Kopôoncxom ocrpny (Ostrovul Corbului), crparym II, xopnsonr VII, n y nace¬nma
na Bennxom ocrpny (Ostrovul Mare) na 873 n 875 km. To jacno noxasyje µa je nenoxynno noµpyuje
Tepµana y µanexoj npancropnjn xnneno ncrnm nnn cnnunnm naunnom xnnora. 3a xynrypno on-
peµe¬nnane one ]ase oµ npecyµnor snauaja je n nojana neonnrcxe rpnuapnje (T. IV/1–6). ¡pyrn
noxpernn nanasn ns onnx ]asa ne pasnnxyjy ce mnoro oµ crapnjer marepnjana. Cnponnne sa nspa-
µy opyha cy ncre: xnapnnr (Sladic 1986: Fig. 6/17, 27) (T. III/25), xpemen (ibid.: Fig. 6/6, 8–10, 18,
19) (T. III/3, 8) n por jenena (T. I/1, 7; T. II/1–3, 5, 6).
Cramôenn ocrann ns µne najcrapnje ]ase nacrannnana (Kyna I n Kyna II) crpyxrypanno
ce pasnnxyjy. Jeµnna cnnunocr je y oônnxy ornnmra, xoja cy y oôe ]ase npanoyraone ]opme, ann
nmajy nornyno µpyraunjy opnjenrannjy n µnmensnje. 3a pasnnxy oµ ornnmra ns crapnje ]ase
(Kyna I), mnaha ornnmra (Kyna II) snarno cy mana n nocran¬ena cy noµ xocnm yrnom y oµnocy
na pexy.
uasa osnauena xao Kyna III, xoja je ycneµnna nocne pymena nace¬a ns ]ase II, npeµcra-
n¬ena je neoma ranxnm npnenxacroôpaon cnojem n nnje ocrannna rparone µyrorpajnor nacrann-
nana. Cnryannja xoncraronana na repeny yxasyje na moryhnocr µa je oµjeµnom necrao nnrepec
sa ôopanax na onom µeny oôane. On je, mehyrnm, n µa¬e ôno snauajan sôor pnôonona, ann je
xopnmhen camo xao ycnyrna crannna. Ta npernocranxa sacnonana je na unnennnn µa cy xyn-
rypnn ocrann ns ]ase III mornn µa ce npenosnajy y pasôanannm romnnama xamena, nonom¬enor
najneponarnnje npn oôpaµn anarxn. V ncrom cnojy nanaxen je xpemenn (Sladic 1986: Fig. 6/5, 7,
11–16, 21) n xnapnnrnn marepnjan, napounro xomaµn ca ocrarxom xoprexca (ibid.: Fig. 6/22, 23)
(T. III/9, 11–13, 15, 17, 18, 20, 22).
Honono nomnnemo npeµan nanas oµônrxa oµ oncnµnjana (T. III/2), npno perxe npcre nyn-
xancxe crene nannx craxny, xoja je npny npaxrnuny npnmeny µoônna y neonnry. Ha nennxom npoc-
ropy xojn je saxnarao xomnnexc Crapueno–Kepem–Kpnm nncy nocrojana nsnopnmra oncnµnjana
n najônnxa nexnmra ônna cy y xapnarcxom ropjy (Makkay 1996). Oncnµnjan je, ôes cymne, npeµ-
cran¬ao perxy n neneny cnponnny y panom neonnry cpncxor Hoµynan¬a (Henencxn nnp, ¡ona
Fpanennna – ¡epone, Ionoxyr – Bnsnh) (Paµonanonnh 1992: 289; Bapnh 1999: 230), pymyncxor
Fanara, noxannrer Kynna Typxynyj (Cuina Turcului) (Radovanovic et al. 1984: 77) n cenepnor µena
nenrpannor Fanxana (Fnarornn, Hnnaµe – Kanennh, Cnmnha crpana – uyuyre, Hononnha ôpµo
– 3aônahe), mro noxasyjy µera¬ne anannse oxpecanor nnrnuxor marepnjana (Bapnh 1999).
V ]asn III jan¬a ce n neonnrcxa rpnuapnja (T. IV/1–6). V rom nepnoµy sanounne xnnor
neonnrcxnx nace¬a nnsnoµno oµ Mnxajnonna, na npocrpanom µeny nsmehy ymha Kamennuxor
M. Cnaµnh APXHTEKTVPA PAHHX HPAHCTOPHJCKHX HACE÷A HA HOKAHHTETV KVHA...
30
noroxa n 3amne (Stankovic 1986: 447, 448, 467–470). C µpyre crpane, neonnrcxnm cranonnnnnma
na Kynn ysan npocrop ys pexy nnje omoryhanao ysroj nepeannja, xoje cy nocrane jeµan oµ rnannnx
unnnnana ersncrennnje.
* * *
Hanasnmre na Kynn, ocnm nennxnx cnnunocrn ca nace¬nma xynrype Henencxor nnpa
(Bnacan, Haµnna, Xajµyuxa noµennna, Henencxn nnp), nma mnoro µoµnpnnx rauaxa n ca nace¬n-
ma xynrype Cxena Knaµonej (Schela Cladovei), xoja je xapaxrepncrnuna sa oônacrn na nenoj oôa-
nn ¡ynana y Tepµany. 3ôor rora je B. Foponeann cne mesonnrcxe noxannrere hepµancxe pernje
oôjeµnnno y jeµnncrnen xomnnexc Henencxn nnp – Cxena Knaµonej (Boroneant 1989: 477). Ocnm
Cxene Knaµonej, rµe je npnn nyr orxpnnena, ona xynrypa je saxnarana mnpn npocrop oôane n µy-
nancxa ocrpna. Hoxannrern cy orxpnnenn n y Hxoann (Icoana), Berepann repacn (Veterani terasa),
Pasnparn (Rásvrata), y nehnnn Knnmenre (Climente), Annôery, na Fancxom n Kopôoncxom ocrp-
ny. Ha rnm nanasnmrnma sacryn¬ena je jeµnncrnena xynrypa sacnonana na rapµnrpanernjeny,
rnnnunoj xynrypn mesonnra meµnrepancxor rnna (Iapamannn 1997: 12 ), unjn je xpaj ycneµno
nouerxom neonnra, oµnocno y npeme rpajana xynrype xoja je y rpaµnnnonannoj repmnnonornjn
osnauena xao Crapueno–Kepem–Kpnm. Cnrypnnje npahene pasnoja xynrype Cxena Knaµonej
ônno je moryhe na noxannrery Mexeµnnnn (Mehedinti), na Kopôoncxom ocrpny, rµe je yrnpheno
uax ceµam cramôennx crparyma xojn cy jacno nsµnojenn no oônnnnma ornnmra (Mogosanu 1978:
336–337, Fig I). Hojeµnnn apxnrexroncxn µera¬n, xao mro cy xpyxna nonnouana ornnmra xoja
nnme noµcehajy na narpnmra, xao n nsôop cnponnna sa nspaµy opyha (xnapnnr, cnopaµnuno xpe-
men, por jenena n xocr nanxapa), yxasyjy na nennxy cnnunocr onor nace¬a ca nace¬em na Kynn.
V rom cmncny napounro je snauajno nomenyrn µa ce na Kopôoncxom ocrpny, nsnaµ nocneµner,
ceµmor crparyma, ca ennnconµnnm „narpnmrnma”, nojan¬yje xamen nomeman ca nonom¬ennm
xocrnma n xnapnnrom, a ornpnnnxe na ncroj µyônnn jan¬ajy ce n npnn nanasn neonnrcxe xepa-
mnxe (ibid.: 342). Ha Kynn je saôenexena nµenrnuna cnryannja n sôor rora noceôno nanomnnemo
µa cy na nnnoy µpyre ]ase (noµ]asa IIb) orxpnnena µna raxna „narpnmra”, y crannmrnma ôp. 5 n
6, a ns ]ase III nornuy cnopaµnune sone naromnnanor xamena, ca mecrnmnunom nojanom ynomaxa
jenener pora, xocrnjy, oµônraxa oµ xnapnnra n neonnrcxe rpnuapnje.
* * *
C oôsnpom na µoôpy ncrpaxenocr mesonnrcxnx n neonnrcxnx naceoônna na oôanama
¡ynana y npeµeny ropner n µoner Tepµana n na cne cnnunocrn xoje nornphyjy nocrojane je-
µnncrnenor xynrypnor xomnnexca, yrnphena je nnxona nepnoµnsannja n xpononornja. Ha Kynn,
naxanocr, nncy npmene paµnoxapôon anannse, ann cyµehn no nasnauennm cnnunocrnma ca nome-
nyrnm nanasnmrnma moxe ce, ca mane nnn nnme cnrypnocrn, oµpeµnrn ynopeµno-xpononomxa
nosnnnja onor noxannrera y oxnnpy hepµancxe pernje.
Mehy mnornm nayunnnnma xojn cy ce ôannnn onnm npoônemom, H. Paµonanonnh je, ys
¡. Cpejonnha, M. Iapamannna, F. Jonanonnha n µp., µana nennxn µonpnnoc neronom paspemeny
(Paµonanonnh 1992; idem 1997: 55–67). Hepnoµnsannja hepµancxor mesonnra xojy je ona ycra-
nonnna npeµcran¬ena je raôenom (Paµonanonnh 1997: 58) na xojoj je, nsmehy ocranor, nasnaueno
moryhe npeme nojane marepnjana ns panor neonnra, onpeµe¬enor y nepnoµ nsmehy 3. n 4. ]ase
pasnoja mesonnra Tepµana, oµnocno npnônnxno y cpeµnny VII mnnennja. Hace¬a na Kynn ay-
ropxa je cnpcrana y ]ase 3, 5 n 6.
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
31
H. Paµonanonnh je Kyny I onpeµennna y ]asy 3, napanenno ca noxannrernma Ocrponyn
Kopôynyn II (xopnsonr V n VI), Xajµyuxa noµennna Ia, Hxoana II, Cxena Knaµonej II, Haµnna
A–B, Bnacan Ib–II n Henencxn nnp I (1).
Kyny I n II ynpcrnna je y ]asy 5. Taj crparym na Kynn nonesyje ca nace¬nma na Ocrponyn
Kopôynyn (xopnsonr VII), Ocrponyn Mape na 875 km, Ocrponyn Fanynyn IIIb, Xajµyuxoj noµenn-
nn Ia–b, Henencxom nnpy I (3), Annôery II n Haµnnn B.
Kyny III onpeµe¬yje y ]asy 6 n nonesyje ca nace¬nma na Ocrponyn Mape na 873 n 875
km, y Xajµyuxoj noµennnn Ib, Pasnparn II, Henencxom nnpy II n Haµnnn B (III).
V onoj noµenn µoôpo je npnmeheno µa na Kynn, y ]asn 4, oµnocno y µpyroj nononnnn
VII mnnennja, nocrojn nsnecran npexnµ, mro je crparnrpa]cxn yrnpheno na repeny npecexom
xpos crannmre ôp. 2 (>;. 11). Hnje rauno, mehyrnm, µa ce nace¬e ns ]ase Kyna I na ônno xojn
naunn moxe ynpcrnrn y 5. ]asy n nonesarn ca npemenom nojane neonnrcxor marepnjana, xao mro
je npnxasano na nomenyroj raôenn. 3a ro nocroje n cacnnm oôjexrnnnn pasnosn. Haxon µera¬-
ne anannse xepamnuxnx ocraraxa ca Kyne, ocnm nennxe xonnunne ynomaxa ns pasnnx npancro-
pnjcxnx nepnoµa (eneonnra, nosnor ôponsanor µoôa n crapnjer rnosµenor µoôa), xoncraronann cy
n ]parmenrn xojn no xapaxrepncrnxama npnnaµajy neonnry. Vcranon¬eno je µa je na npocropy III
cexropa xepamnxa nahena y cneµehnm ônoxonnma: IIIe 17, 18, y 7 o.c. – 32 ]parmenra; IIIe 26, y 7.
o.c. – 26 ]parmenara; IIIf 30, y 7. o.c. – uernpn ]parmenra, y 9. o.c. – jeµan ]parmenr; IIIe, h, 32,
y 13 o.c. – rpn ]parmenra; IIIf 17, y 8. o.c. – ner ]parmenara; IIIf 26, y 7. o.c. – jeµan ]parmenr;
IIIf 29, y 7. o.c. – uernpn ]parmenra; IIIh 26, y 7. o.c. – µna ]parmenra; IIIf 27, y 7. o.c. – jeµan
]parmenr; IIIf 29, y 7. o.c. – jeµan ]parmenr; IIIh 26, y 7. o.c. – ceµam ]parmenara. To snaun µa je
na noµpyujy onor cexropa orxpnneno yxynno 96 ]parmenara, µox cy na I cexropy, y conµn VI, na
nnnoy 9. o.c. orxpnnena cnera µna xomaµa, n ro cnn y orxonnnm cnojennma nsnaµ µena xopnsonra
osnauenor xao ]asa Kyna I. Ha namy xanocr, nponahenn ynomnn nncy caµpxann npennsnnje rn-
nonomxe oµnnxe, ocnm yoônuajennx xoje renepanno oôenexanajy neonnrcxy rpnuapnjy, xao mro
je rpyô¬a ]axrypa, xapaxrepncrnuna npnena ôoja, nnena y snµnoj macn n npno jesrpo npenoma.
Iorono cnn ]parmenrn npeµcran¬ann cy µenone µna n rpôyxa nocyµa, ca nsyserxom uernpn ynom-
xa xoja npnnaµajy jeµnom hyneuy. Paµn ce o nnnrxoj nocyµn pannor µna, xoja je na oôoµy nmana
yrncnyro yµyô¬ene (T. IV/3). To, mehyrnm, nnje µono¬an rnnonomxn neuar sa npennsnnjy xpo-
nonomxy µerepmnnannjy jep ce jan¬a y mnpem npemencxom pacnony n na mnpoxom npocropy
(Cnaµnh n Jonanonnh 1997: 169, T. II/9). Onncan xepamnuxn marepnjan oµnocn ce na xopnsonre
nace¬a ns ]asa Kyna II (a–b) n Kyna III, na je nnxono nonesnnane ca npemenom y xome ce jan¬a
neonnrcxa rpnuapnja rauno, mro je µoôpo npnxasano na raôenn o xojoj je peu.
Hojana xepamnxe moxe µa noµcraxne pasnnunra pasmnm¬ana, a jeµna oµ nomncnn je µa
je y ]nnannom mesonnry µomno µo xonraxra nsmehy rpaµnnnonanne mesonnrcxe n nononpnµo-
mne neonnrcxe xynrype. Kaxnor je xapaxrepa raj xonraxr ôno, jom ynex ne moxe ca cnrypnomhy
µa ce yrnpµn. Pymyncxn nayunnnn, na ueny ca u. Moromany, ocnphyhn ce na µocra noysµany
crparnrpa]njy mnoroôpojnnx nace¬a xynrype Cxena Knaµonej, na xojnma ce jacno youana cmena
rpaµnnnonanne mesonnrcxe xynrype n, xaxo onn xaxy, neh pasnnjene neonnrcxe xynrype Crap-
ueno–Kpnm, cmarpajy µa nnje ôno cnonran, mro ôn, y nsnecnom cmncny, morno µa npeµcran¬a
cacnnm npnxnar¬nno pemene (Mogosanu 1978: 349). Taxno mnm¬ene sacnonann cy na anrpo-
nonomxoj anannsn ocreonomxnx ocraraxa nacnnno nacrpaµannx nnµnnnµya, xao n na rparonnma
M. Cnaµnh APXHTEKTVPA PAHHX HPAHCTOPHJCKHX HACE÷A HA HOKAHHTETV KVHA...
32
noxapa xojn, no nnma, nnje ôno cnyuajan, n nasnpy unran cnner necpehnnx oxonnocrn xoje cy
saµecnne nosnomesonnrcxy nonynannjy xnaµoncxe xynrype. Hanme, na Kopôoncxom ocrpny npo-
nahena cy rpn cxenera ca nnµnnm rparonnma nacn¬a, ca nonpeµama rnane n rpyµnor xoma, a na
Cxenn Knaµonej orxpnnenn cy cxenern ner nnµnnnµya xoje cy yônjene crpenom (Bonsall et al.
2002: 80). Kannôpnpann paµnoxapôon µarymn noxasann cy, mehyrnm, nehy crapocr rnx ¬yµcxnx
ocraraxa oµ npemena nosnor mesonnra, y xome je µomno µo one xynrypne cmene, a n rnnonom-
xe oµnnxe xomrannx npojexrnna xojn cy nsasnann cmpr caxpanennx nnµnnnµya nmajy rnnnune
mesonnrcxe xapaxrepncrnxe (Boroneant 1973: 31; Paµonanonnh 1997: 61). ¡pyrnm peunma, ro
snaun µa cy nomenyre nnµnnnµye ônne xprne mehycoônnx oôpauyna xojn cy ce µoroµnnn jom y
mesonnry, a ne cyxoôa ca npnnaµnnnnma nononpnµomne neonnrcxe nonynannje.
Hcnocrannno ce µa oôjamnene one xynrypne cmene nnje raxo jeµnocranno jep ona npeµ-
cran¬a snarno xomnnexcnnjy n cnoxennjy nojany, xojy moxemo pexoncrpyncarn ne camo xnacnu-
nnm apxeonomxnm meroµom neh n nomohy ersaxrnnx nayxa. Pesynrarn xoje one µonoce µocra cy
noysµann y norneµy µaronana, xao n npn yrnphnnany nexnx µpyrnx xareropnja, na np. ncxpane,
xao naxne nnnnnnsannjcxe rexonnne. Hcrpaxnnana cy noxasana µa ce paµnoxapôon anannsama
moxe µocra npennsno ycranonnrn naunn ncxpane xojn, nsmehy ocranor, µnpexrno yrnue na pas-
noj xomranor rxnna. Tn, neoma snauajnn noµann y cymrnnn orxpnnajy n npanan y xome ce xperana
exonomnja, oµnocno naunn npnnpehnnana. Vnpano yspouno-nocneµnuna nesa nsmehy nsôopa na-
mnpnnna n naunna nnxonor npnôan¬ana nsasnana je npenas ca mesonnrcxe axnarnune ncxpane,
ca pnôom xao rnannnm nsnopom xpane, na memany, oµnocno axnarnuno-xonneny ncxpany, xoja
npeµcran¬a ocnonny xapaxrepncrnxy neonnrcxor µoôa. Ha ocnony rnx noµaraxa oµpeheno je
npeme npenasa ns mesonnra y neonnr, xoje xapaxrepnmy n xynrypnn caµpxajn nacrann xao pesyn-
rar onnx npomena. Vcranon¬eno je µa je non naunn ncxpane ycneµno oxo 7100. BP, mro ce morno
nparnrn n na ysopnnma ca cxenera ns Henencxor nnpa. Cxenern ns rpoôa 31a n 44 noxasyjy npeµ-
nocrn xapaxrepncrnune sa axnarnuny ncxpany, µox onn ns rpoôona 32, 35 n 88 nmajy npeµnocrn
craônnnnx nsorona xapaxrepncrnunnx sa memany ncxpany (Bonsall et al. 2002: 83). Hcnpan¬enn
µarymn µoônjenn cy n nperxoµnnm mepennma ysopaxa ca ornnmra ns xyha Henencxor nnpa n
oôyxnarajy nepnoµ oµ 7310. µo 6720. BP, mro moxµa snaun µa je snaran ôpoj xyha na onom nana-
snmry noµnrnyr y npeme nnn nocne npomene y naunny ncxpane (ibid.: 84).
* * *
Hpeµnoxena nepnoµnsannja H. Paµonanonnh sacnonana je na xynrypnoj, ann n na xpo-
nonomxoj µerepmnnannjn mesonnra Tepµana, xoja je yreme¬ena yrnannom na pesynrarnma µo-
ônjennm meroµom C
14
. Cnnunocr ca marepnjanom xojn je oôyxnahen onnm anannsama na npocropy
xomnnexca Henencxn nnp – Cxena Knaµonej omoryhnnn cy µa ce y xynrypnom n xpononomxom
cmncny µe]nnnme n noxannrer Kyna. Tpajane nace¬a na Kynn, H. Paµonanonnh onpeµe¬yje y
nepnoµ nsmehy npne nononnne VII n npne nononnne VI mnnennja, mro snaun µa ce npnônnxno
moxe cmecrnrn y oxnnp oµ jeµnor mnnennja. Xnnor na Kynn, npema rome, sanoueo je y nosnom
mesonnry, a npecrao je y panom neonnry. Taxo µyro rpajane nace¬a rpeôano ôn, mehyrnm, µa
npoyspoxyje mnoro nnrensnnnnje nacnojanane, oµnocno mnoro nehy µeô¬nny xynrypnor cnoja.
Ho, naµajmo ce µa he nona anannrnuxa ncrpaxnnana y onoj pernjn npomnpnrn xopnsonr namnx
casnana n µa he ce n sa ono nnrane µoônrn cnrypan oµronop.
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
33
L$L1$/G"!H$)!
BaboviM, Lj.
1986 Zbradila–Korbovo, Compte–rendu des fouilles en 1981. Crp. 95–132 y H+*#$;B-+ B%+B-+ III, yp. B.
Konµnh. Feorpaµ: Apxeonomxn nncrnryr, Hapoµnn mysej n unnoso]cxn ]axynrer.
Bonsall, C. Et al.
1997 Mesolithic and Early Neolithic in the Iron Gate: palaeodietary perspective. Journal of European
Archaeology 5 (1): 50–92.
2002 Dating human bones from the Iron Gates. Antiquity 76/291: 77–85.
BoroneanN, V.
1973 Recherches arheologiques sur la culture Schela Cladovei de la zone des „Portes de Fer’’. Dacia 17:
5–39.
1982 General Survey of Epipaleolithic (Mesolithic) Research in Romania (1978-1981). Mesolithic Miscellany
3/1: 11–12.
1989 Thoughts on the Chronological Relations Between the Epipaleolithic and the Neolithic of the Lower
Danube. Pp. 475–480 in The Mesolithic in Europe: papers presented at the third international symposium,
Edinburgh, 1985, ed. C. Bonsall. Edinburgh: J. Donald.
VasiM, R.
1986 Compte–rendu des fouilles du site prehistorique a Velesnica 1981–1982. Crp. 264–288 y H+*#$;B-+
B%+B-+ III, yp. B. Konµnh. Feorpaµ: Apxeonomxn nncrnryr, Hapoµnn mysej, unnoso]cxn ]axynrer.

VasiM, R. i JankoviM, O.
1971 Desna obala Dunava od Kladova do Prahova. Arheološki pregled 13: 107–113.
G989P9D5D, 2.
1997 Henencxn nnp nocne rpnµecer roµnna. Crp. 1–17 y =*7+2>2@(0$ (B42&,+ D*8(0+. L$5&,( B-5;
„=*7+2>2@(0$ (B42&,+ D*8(0+”, M+2@*$# – J2C( G(>$,2%$/, #+/+:8$* 1995, yp. M. Hasnh. Henrap sa
apxeonomxa ncrpaxnnana 18. Feorpaµ: unnoso]cxn ]axynrer.
)ankoviM, O.
1986 Le site d’habitation medieval Kula pres du village Mihajlovac. Crp. 443–446 y H+*#$;B-+ B%+B-+ III, yp.
B. Konµnh. Feorpaµ: Apxeonomxn nncrnryr, Hapoµnn mysej n unnoso]cxn ]axynrer.
JovanoviM, B.
1971 Elements of the Early Neolithic Architecture in the Iron Gates Gorge and their Functions. Archaeologica
Iugoslavica IX: 1–9.
1971a Chronological Frames of the Iron Gate Grup of the Early Neolithic period. Archaeologia Iugoslavica
X: 23–38.
1983 Hajducka Vodenica, praistorijska nekropola. Starinar XXXIII–XXXIV (1982–1983): 305–313.
M. Cnaµnh APXHTEKTVPA PAHHX HPAHCTOPHJCKHX HACE÷A HA HOKAHHTETV KVHA...
34
)6Q5<, 3.
1997 Ieonomxe n reomop]onomxe xapaxrepncrnxe ncroune Cpônje. Crp. 21–30 y =*7+2>2@(0$ (B42&,+
D*8(0+, L$5&,( B-5; „=*7+2>2@(0$ (B42&,+ D*8(0+”, M+2@*$# – J2C( G(>$,2%$/, #+/+:8$* 1995, yp. M.
Hasnh. Henrap sa apxeonomxa ncrpaxnnana18. Feorpaµ: unnoso]cxn ]axynrer.
Makkay, J.
1996 Theories about the Origin, the Distribution and the End of the Koros Culture. Pp. 35– 49 in At the Fringes
of Three Worlds. Hunter-Gatherers and Farmers in the Middle Tisza Valley, ed. R. Kertész, J. Makkay, L. Télas.
Szolnok: [Damjanich Museum].
25@5<, (. 5 &;975<, 2.
1994 Ocrann mesonnrcxor uonexa ns Kyne y Tepµany. '82*,(- N(>2"2OB-2@ O$-5>4+4$ (Feorpaµ) XVIII:
37–46.
MogoRanu, F.
1978 Mesoliticul de la Ostrovul Corbului, o nouà asezare de tip Schela Cladovei. Studii Pi cercetári de istorie
veche Pi arheologie, julie-septembrie: 335–351.
NikoliM, N. i ZeSeviM, J.
2001 Blagotin – Istraživanja 1989–1999: -atalog izložbe. Beograd: Filozofski fakultet, Centar za arheološka
istraživanja.

"976Q9D6Q5<, $.
1992 G+"2>(4 H+*#$;$, µoxropcxa µnceprannja, unnoso]cxn ]axynrer, Vnnnepsnrer y Feorpaµy.
1997 Mesonnr n neonnr ncroune Cpônje. Crp. 55–67 y =*7+2>2@(0$ (B42&,+ D*8(0+. L$5&,( B-5;
„=*7+2>2@(0$ (B42&,+ D*8(0+” M+2@*$# – J2C( G(>$,2%$/, #+/+:8$* 1995, yp. M. Hasnh. Feorpaµ:
unnoso]cxn ]axynrer, Henrap sa apxeonomxa ncrpaxnnana.
RadovanoviM, I. et al.
1984 The chipped stone industry from Vinca, Excavations 1929–1934. Beograd: Centar za arheološka
istraživanja.
&;975<, 2.
1984 Mnxajnonan – Kyna, Hpancropnjcxo nace¬e. Crp. 201–303 y Q+*#$;B-+ B%+B-+ II, yp. B. Konµnh.
Feorpaµ: Apxeonomxn nncrnryr, Hapoµnn mysej n unnoso]cxn ]axynrer.
1986 Kula pres Mihajlovac. Un site prehistorique. Crp. 432–442 y H+*#$;B-+ B%+B-+ III, yp. B. Konµnh.
Feorpaµ: Apxeonomxn nncrnryr, Hapoµnn mysej n unnoso]cxn ]axynrer.
&;975<, 2. 5 )6Q9D6Q5<, &.
1997 Ocrann crapnjeneonnrcxnx nace¬a ca noµpyuja Knaxenna. Crp. 167–175 y =*7+2>2@(0$ (B42&,+
D*8(0+. L$5&,( B-5; „=*7+2>2@(0$ (B42&,+ D*8(0+”, M+2@*$# – J2C( G(>$,2%$/, #+/+:8$* 1995, yp. M.
Hasnh. Henrap sa apxeonomxa ncrpaxnnana 18. Feorpaµ: unnoso]cxn ]axynrer,.
&8ET6Q5<, '.
1969 3+;+,B-( K(*. Feorpaµ: Cpncxa xnnxenna saµpyra.
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
35
Miodrag Sladic
The architecture of early prehistoric settlements on the site of Kula at Mihajlovac
Summary
Excavations on the site of Kula at Mihajlovac were conducted (1980–84) as part of the project Djerdap
II and they provided valuable evidence for the transition from late Mesolithic to early Neolithic. In addition to
this oldest horizon at the site, another three were identiÞed: of the early Iron Age, of the Roman period with the
established route of a road forming part of the defence system on the limes, and the early medieval horizon.
Apart from the abundance of movable archaeological material recovered from the deposits of the
earliest horizon, consisting of artefacts of bone, antler, quartzite, ßint and Þred clay, the most important
discovery were the remains of houses. They were very useful in establishing the internal chronology of the
horizon, which was divided into three phases (Kula I–III).
In the earliest phase (Kula I) two types of houses existed: semicircular tentlike structures and large
trapezoidal houses with monumental hearths perpendicular to the Danube. This phase, virtually on the subsoil,
is basically aceramic and, according to all indications, belongs to the Þnal Mesolithic, as shown not only by
the architecture but also by the movable material based on quartzite and, partly, ßint, antler and bone tools. The
Þnds of harpoons suggest that the diet of the inhabitants was predominantly aquatic, which is characteristic of
Mesolithic subsistence.
M. Cnaµnh APXHTEKTVPA PAHHX HPAHCTOPHJCKHX HACE÷A HA HOKAHHTETV KVHA...
1979 Protoneolit – kultura Lepenskog Vira. Crp. 33–76 u Praistorija jugoslavenskih zemalja II, ur. A. Benac.
Sarajevo: Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Bosne i Hercegovine, Centar za balkanološka ispitivanja.
&8ET6Q5<, '. 5 1E?5U9, K.
1978 K>$B$/ – :+"2>(4B-2 ,$B+I+ 5 H+*#$;5 I. Feorpaµ: Cpncxa axaµemnja nayxa n ymernocrn.
StankoviM, S.
1986 Localite Knjepište - une station du groupe de Starcevo. Crp. 447–452 y H+*#$;B-+ B%+B-+ III, yp. B.
Konµnh. Feorpaµ: Apxeonomxn nncrnryr, Hapoµnn mysej n unnoso]cxn ]axynrer.
1986a Embouchure du russeau Kamenicki potok – site du groupe de Starcevo. Crp. 467–471 y H+*#$;B-+
B%+B-+ III, yp. B. Konµnh. Feorpaµ: Apxeonomxn ncrnryr, Hopoµnn mysej n unnoso]cxn ]axynrer.
*85=@6Q5<, L.
2001 Vnora oncnµnjana y neonnry: yrnnnrapnn npeµmern nnn cpeµcrno npecrnxa? RD=J 17: 21–42.
4Q5T5<, ).
1921 Tepµancxe repace. R>$B D*;B-+ -*$I+%B-+ $-$#+:(0+ CI, npnn paspeµ 43: 1–33.
I985<, ).
1999 Kpemena nnµycrpnja najcrapnjnx sem¬opaµnnuxnx xynrypa na rny Cpônje, ¡oxropcxa µnceprannja,
unnoso]cxn ]axynrer, Vnnnepsnrer y Feorpaµy.
36
Phase Kula II witnessed a signiÞcant change in the type of houses, which now became smaller with
small rectangular hearths set at a signiÞcant angle in relation to the river, and there also appeared stone-ßoored
elliptical Þreplaces. These two elements (hearths and elliptical Þreplaces), essential to the organization of
interior space, allowed for the phase to be further divided into two sub-phases: (a) and (b). The settlement
obviously met a tragic end, as the houses were destroyed by Þre, the traces of which are observable over
the entire area of the site. The change that occurred in this phase is also observable from the discovery of
fragmented Neolithic pottery, an obvious harbinger of a different age.
In phase Kula III the settlement died out, but the site did not lose all interest, as it probably continued
to be visited during the Þshing season. The only traces of human presence in this phase are sporadic heaps of
broken stones, quartzite, ßint and antler tools, and potsherds, often labelled “working places” by archaeologists.
To be singled out is an obsidian ßake, given that obsidian, a volcanic glasslike rock, is quite rare and Þrst
begins to be used in the Neolithic. In the large area covered by the Starcevo–Körös–Cris complex there was
no obsidian source and the nearest deposits were in the Carpathians. This implies its distribution over long
distances, probably by trade.
Incidentally, it was in this period that south of Mihajlovac between two conßuences, of the Kamenicki
Potok and the Zamna, Neolithic settlements began to be founded.
***
The shift of prehistoric cultures at Kula does not lend itself to easy explanation. It is a complex
phenomenon which may be reconstructed by using not only the classical archaeological method, but also
scientiÞc techniques. Their results can be quite reliable not only with regard to dating, but also to such factors
as, for example, the type of diet. It has been shown that radiocarbon analyses can establish the type of diet
with much precision. Such data are very important because they reveal economic trends. It is this cause-
effect relationship between the choice of foods and the manner of their procurement that caused the shift
from the Mesolithic aquatic diet, with Þsh as its staple food, to a mixed aquatic-terrestrial diet, which is the
essential feature of the Neolithic. These data also made it possible to date the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition,
characterized by cultural contents resulting from these changes. The new diet was introduced about 7100 BP.
This was also observable on skeletons from Lepenski Vir. The skeletons from graves 31a and 44 showed values
characteristic of an aquatic diet, while those from graves 32, 35 and 88 showed the values of stable isotopes
typical of a mixed diet. Revised dates were also obtained from previous measurements for samples from the
hearths at Lepenski Vir and they encompassed the period between 7310 and 6720 BP, which may mean that
many houses on this site were built at the time of or after the shift in diet.
In terms of absolute dates, the settlements at Kula date from the Þrst half of the 7th to the Þrst half of
the 6th millennium.
V¡K 903.4 (497.11 Mnxajnonan)’’633/634’’
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
37
M. Cnaµnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna I / Plate I
38
M. Cnaµnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna II / Plate II
39
M. Cnaµnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna III / Plate III
40
M. Cnaµnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna IV / Plate IV
!"*+H!%*$ /' /%"+&!-/G %!2+-! &!
1/%!1$*+*! L1!G/*$- – ./0-!
)6>5= I985<
Apxeonomxn nncrnryr, Feorpaµ
!=>?89@?: ) *$#5 B5 28*$A+,( $*4+O$-4( 2# 2-*+B$,2@ -$:+,$, -$2 ( $>$4-+ 5;24*+8I$%$,+ 5 ;*2/+B5
C(72%+ ("*$#+, B$ 2B%*42: ,$ %*B4+ -2*(?S+,(7 B(*2%(,B-(7 :$4+*(0$>$. =>$4-+ B5 #+O(,(B$,+ 5 4(-
;2>2?-2: (, -2>(-2 0+ 42 8(>2 :2@5S+ ,$ 2B,2%5 5;24*+8,(7 4*$@2%$, 5 O5,-/(2,$>,2: B:(B>5.
%ABCDE 8EC5: M>$@24(,, B4$*(0( ,+2>(4, 2-*+B$,( $*4+O$-4(, B(*2%(,+, 4(;2>2@(0$, O5,-/(2,$>,$
$,$>("$.
Hoxannrer Fnarornn (Ho¬na) nanasn ce na µecnoj oôann 3anaµne Mopane, na jyxnom
oôoµy Bymaµnje. Peu je o pernjn omehenoj Canom n ¡ynanom na cenepy, Bennxom Mopanom na
sanaµy, 3anaµnom Mopanom na jyry n Konyôapom, ÷nrom n ¡nunnom na sanaµy. unrany oônacr
oµnnxyje nnannncxa rpeµa mepnµnjancxor npanna (Anana, Kocmaj, Fyxy¬a, Benuan, Jyxop, Ko-
rnennx, Ineµnhxe nnannne). Hopeµ ne, xa jyry ce npocrnpy µna nennxa sannna nexaµamner Ha-
noncxor mopa – xonyôapcxn n nennxomopancxn. Bncnncxe xore y pacnony oµ 100 m µo 1130 m,
ocnonnn cy pasnor nspaxennx mnxpoxnnmarcxnx pasnnxa, xoje y cpeµnoj remneparypn nasµyxa
mory µa nsnoce n µo ± 0,2
o
C nsmehy cenepnnx n jyxnnx rauaxa, ynpxoc nnxonoj penarnnno
manoj yµa¬enocrn. Fnarornn je cmemren y nnoµnoj µonnnn 3anaµne Mopane, xoja je ca cenepa
sarnopena nnannncxnm npxonnma Jyxopa, Ineµnhxnx nnannna n Kornennxa, ca sanaµa Jennnom
n uemepnom, ca jyra Jacrpennem n ca ncroxa Ospenom. Ocnm nnoµnnx peunnx oôana noroµnnx
sa pasnnrax sem¬opaµne, ôorare mymcxe sajeµnnne, xojnma cy µomnnnpane nncronaµne npcre,
unnnne cy jaxy noµnory sa µa¬e oµpxanane nonne exonomnxe (Enciklopedija Jugoslavije 3–7).
Hpnnnxom pexornocnnpana nsneµennx 1989. roµnne na noµpyujy onmrnne Tpcrennx
(Cranxonnh n Pynnh 1990), y ceny Ho¬na ennµenrnpan je noxannrer Fnarornn. Hpancropnjcxo
nanasnmre ca rparonnma xnnora ns rnosµenor µoôa n crapnjer neonnra orxpnneno je na sanaµnoj
nepn]epnjn cena, ncnoµ ôpµa Ho¬na, na orpannnma Jyxopa, npnônnxno 15 km ceneponcrouno oµ
Tpcrennxa. Hpna apxeonomxa ncrpaxnnana na rom npocropy oôanno je M. M. Bacnh nouerxom
npomnor nexa (Cranxonnh 1992), a mana conµaxna ncxonanana nsnpmena cy npe cxopo µne µe-
nennje, y oprannsannjn Hapoµnor myseja ns Kpymenna (Tomic 1988).
42
Hacranax paµona na noxannrery, caµa oôenexenom xao Fnarornn, ycneµno je 1989. ro-
µnne, nocran¬anem conµe A, µnmensnja 6 m x 4 m, na najnnmem nnaroy npocropa na xome je
nanasnmre ennµenrnpano (Cranxonnh 1992).
Ha µyônnn oµ npnônnxno 0,25 m nanasno ce nnraxran xynrypnn cnoj ca marepnjannnm
ocrannma ns rnosµenor µoôa, xojn je ôno y µnpexrnom xonraxry ca cnojem ns crapnjer neonnra. V
sanncnocrn oµ nonoxaja na noxannrery, yxynna µeô¬nna oôa xynrypna cnoja nsnocnna je nsmehy
1,10 m n 2,50 m, c rnm mro je cnoj ns rnosµenor µoôa ôno nemro rann oµ neonnrcxor, xojn je
nmao npoceuny µeô¬nny 0,7 m (Cranxonnh 1990). Conµa F, µnmensnja 5 m x 3 m, nocran¬ena
je oxo 50 m jyxno oµ conµe A n y noj cy orxpnnenn ncx¬yunno cnojenn nesann sa crapnje ]ase
crapuenauxe xynrype (Cranxonnh 1992). ¡o 1993. roµnne ncrpaxena je nonpmnna oµ yxynno 235
m
2
(Cranxonnh 1995), a ncxonanana cy nacran¬ena n napeµnnx roµnna, cne µo 1997. roµnne.
Hocrnrnyrn pesynrarn cy noxasann µa je neonnrcxo nace¬e nmano npnônnxne µnmen-
snje 60 m x 50 m (oxo 3000 m
2
), opnjenrannje no µyxoj ocn ceneposanaµ – jyroncrox (Cranxonnh
n GreenÞeld 1992).
Ha ncrpaxenoj nonpmnnn nahen je nehn ôpoj semynnuxnx oôjexara xojn cy nmann npn-
nasny pamny n ôanxone, µox cy xponny xoncrpyxnnjy nocnnn xouenn, unjn cy rparonn raxohe
orxpnnenn. V oxnnpy conµe F, na pyôy semynnuxor oôjexra nanasno ce nehn nnouacr xamen ca
nspaxennm rparonnma ynorpeôe (Cranxonnh 1992), xojn moxµa npeµcran¬a nnar]opmy, oµnocno
naxonan na npocropy paµnor mecra sa nspahnnane apre]axara oµ oxpecanor xamena.
Oôn¬e ynomaxa xepamnuxnx nocyµa, oµnocno xnannrer nnxone nspaµe omoryhno je no-
µeny na rpyôy, cyômeµnjanny, meµnjanny, nnrepmeµnjanny n ]nny xepamnxy. Kao µoµarax rnnnn
sa nspaµy nocyha uecro cy xopnmhenn necax nnn nnena, oµnocno nnxona xomônnannja (Cranxo-
nnh 1992). Hajsacryn¬ennjn oônnnn cy xonnune n nonynonracre sµene, xao n nonracrn nonnn
ca pasrpnyrnm oôoµom. Vxpamanane je npmeno npnennm npemasom, nanomenem ypehenor nnn
neypehenor ôapôornna, nmnpeco n nceyµonmnpeco rexnnxom n xanenonanem nnn xneô¬enem.
Opnamenrannn mornnn cy y nnµy mernnna n mrnnanor xnaca, a na nojeµnnnm ]parmenrnma np-
nenom nnn ramnompxom ôojom cnnxann cy mornnn napanennnx rpaxa n saxomennx mpexa. Mornn
nenpannnne nnxnax nnnnje ocrnapen je mnpoxnm xanenypama. Ha nennxnm xonnunnm sµenama
oôoµ je uecro nasyô¬en, µox ce na mannm µyôoxnm xonnunnm sµenama jan¬ajy xopnsonranne
peôpacre, rpocrpyxo nnn uernopocrpyxo neprnxanno npoôymene µpmxe (Cranxonnh 1990; idem
1992). Kao xapaxrepncrnunn oônnnn, ca nnme npnmepaxa sacryn¬enn cy n xprnennnn noceôno
narnamenor xpyxnor pennnnjenra, ca uernpn nore yxpamene µnojnnm nnacrnunnm annnxannja-
ma na xoneny, xao n crona nennxor xprnennxa y oônnxy uernoponncne µerennne, unje anano-
rnje nocroje na nanasnmrnma y Tepµany n Bojnoµnnn (Cranxonnh n GreenÞeld 1992; Cranxonnh
1992).
Oµ ocrannx xepamnuxnx oônnxa jan¬ajy ce anrponomop]ne n soomop]ne ]nrypnne,
amynern, ]parmenrn „rpnnnn”, xao n „spna xnra”.
Komrane anarxe cy penarnnno manoôpojne n npeµcran¬ene cy µnernma, mnnnma n mo-
rnxama, µox cy apre]axrn oµ rnauanor n oxpecanor xamena nponahenn y snarno nehem ôpojy
(Cranxonnh 1992; Antonovic 2003; Šaric 2000).
Ha ocnony xapaxrepncrnunnx oônnxa crapuenauxe marepnjanne xynrype na onom nana-
snmry, xao n neprnxanne crparnrpa]nje, ayrop ncxonanana C. Cranxonnh µomao je µo sax¬yuxa
µa ce „...mory nacnyrnrn nerone µne pasnojne ]ase.” (Cranxonnh 1992), a npeµnoxeno µaronane
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
43
xpehe ce oµ Hporocrapuena I–II (idem 1990), npexo Crapuena II, ca axnenrom na pannjn nepnoµ
(Cranxonnh n GreenÞeld 1992), µo Crapuena IIa-b (Cranxonnh 1992). Hajnonnje anannse xepa-
mnuxor nnnenrapa ca Fnarornna npennsnpane cy µaronane, na ocnony xora je onaj noxannrer no-
nesan ca sanpmnom ]asom Hporocrapuena, oµnocno Hporocrapuenom II (Nikolic i Zecevic 2001).
!"*+H!%*$ /' /%"+&!-/G %!2+-!
Oxpecann xamenn apre]axrn npeµcran¬ajy najrpajnnje, a nonexaµ n jeµnne µoxase o
ôopanxy uonexa na oµpehenom npocropy. Ha apxeonomxnm nanasnmrnma uecro cy npahenn n
nanasnma anarxn xojnma cy npmenn npnnpema n oônnxonane jesrapa, oµônjane ca jesrapa, xao n
naxnaµno oônnxonane opyha perymnpanem. Hsysen rparona na camnm oxpecannm apre]axrnma,
noµarxe o naunny nnxone nspaµe, xao n o nnxonom naxnaµnom oônnxonany n npnnarohanany
ynorpeôn npyxajy n nomenyre anarxe xopnmhene y rnm nponecnma. 3a nspaµy naxonana, nepxy-
repa n perymepa xopncre ce xamen, xocr, poxnna n µpno (Cemenon 1957; Crabtree 1970; Renfrew
and Bahn 1991).
Ha ocnony npnmepaxa orxpnnennx na noxannrery Fnarornn, sa caµa mory µa ce nsµnoje
cneµehe xareropnje (Bapnh 2006):
1. naxonnn;
2. naxonnn-nepxyrepn;
3. nepxyrepn (µnpexrna nepxycnja);
4. nepxyrepn-perymepn;
5. perymepn.
Haxonan npeµcran¬a many nnn nehy nnouacry xameny nnar]opmy o xojy je µnpexrnnm
yµapom morno µa ce npmn oµônjane ca jesrpa, n ro yrnannom oµônraxa, oµnocno na xojy je nona-
rano jesrpo ca xora cy µnpexrnnm nnn nnµnpexrnnm yµapom cxnµann oµônnn. Kapaxrepncrnxa
naxonna xojn je cnyxno xao noµnora je penarnnno npannnno xpyxno yµyô¬ene xonnunor npece-
xa, nacrano xao pesynrar cnne yµapa xoja ce ca jesrpa npenocnna na noµnory (Jélinek 1976). Fnno
je oônuajeno n xopnmhene n¬ocnarnx peunnx oônyraxa xoµ xojnx nnje ônno norpeôno naxnaµno
oônnxonane, a yxonnxo je moµn]nxonana n ônno, paheno je ospnananem (napounro na npnmep-
nnma oµ nemuapa) n npnrnauananem.
Hemuap je uecro xopnmhen jep je sôor xnacrnune (ncamnrcxe) crpyxrype nmao nspaxe-
nnje ancopnnnone cnocoônocrn, naxo cy y ynorpeôn ônnn n xnapnnr, xonrnomepar n raôpo.
Haxonnn ca Fnarornna sacryn¬enn cy ca rpn npnmepxa. Hpnmepax ôp. 261 (T. I/1) na-
unnen je oµ xonrnomeparnor peunor oônyrxa, a npnmepax ôp. 125 (T. I/2), y oônnxy nncoxe sa-
pyô¬ene nnpamnµe, nspahen je npnrnauananem oµ cnrnospnor nemuapa. Koµ nera cy ce xapax-
repncrnuna yµyô¬ena nojannna na cnnm ôounnm nonpmnnama, na npxy, na uax n na camoj ôasn.
Hsyserax mehy naxonnnma, xaµa je peu o npcrn marepnjana, npeµcran¬a cxopo xnaµapcxn naxo-
nan oµ xnapnnra cnnoôene ôoje (ôp. 265, T. I/3), xojn nornue ns semynnuxor oôjexra 3M 03.
Haxonnn-nepxyrepn cy na noxannrery Fnarornn raxohe sacryn¬enn ca rpn nanasa. Hpn-
mepax H-1126 (3M 07; T. I/4) je onannor oônnxa, a naunnen je oµ cnrnospnor nemuapa. Ha nemy
je npnmerna µexonopannja xao nocneµnna µyxer nsnarana narpn. Haxonan-nepxyrep ôp. 1916
J. Bapnh APTEuAKTH O¡ OKPECAHOI KAMEHA CA HOKAHHTETA FHAIOTHH – HO÷HA
44
(3M 06; T. I/5) nspahen je oµ xnapnnra ramnocnne ôoje, µox je npnmepax ôp. 1362 oµ xnapnnarnr-
cxor oônyrxa (3M 06; T. I/6). Ocnm xapaxrepncrnunnx yµyô¬ena, na cna rpn npnmepxa youana ce
ncrpnenocr yxnx ôounnx pyôona, mro yxasyje n na ynorpeôy y nponecy oµônjana ca jesrpa.
Ha Fnarornny cy nepxyrepn najsacryn¬ennja xareropnja opyha, ca yxynno 15 npnmepa-
xa. Hepxyrep H-536 (3M 06; T. II/1) je, sanpano, jesnuacra cexnpa oµ senenocnnor cnrnospnor
nemuapa, y cexynµapnoj ynorpeôn. Hspasnra omrehena na ôounnm pyôonnma nacrana cy xao no-
cneµnna nene ynorpeôe y nponecy nspaµe oxpecannx apre]axara, xaµa je xopnmhena xao nepxy-
rep. Hs semynnne 3M 06 nornue n nepxyrep H-1102 (T. II/2), oµ nennxor oônyrxa rpanoµnopnra,
sarnm ôp. 1389, oµ ônaro npnrnauanor oônyrxa ôpeue (T. II/3), xao n ôp. 266 (T. II/4) n ôp. 1382
(T. II/5), oµ ônaro npnrnauannx oônyraxa xnapnnarnra. Ocnm rnnnune ncrpnenocrn pyôona, na
µna npnmepxa (H-1102; T. II/2, n ôp. 1382; T. II/5) youanajy ce n xapaxrepncrnune mnxpoôpasµe.
V semynnnn 3M 07 nahen je mann ]parmenr nepxyrepa oµ raôponµne crene (ôp. 1376). Peu je o
npnrnauanom peunom oônyrxy na unjoj ôounoj crpann ce youana nonpmnncxa ncrpnenocr nacra-
na ycneµ paµa na jesrpnma. Mann xyrnacrn nepxyrep (ôp. 1354; T. II/6) naunnen je ospnananem,
nennxn µncxonµnn nepxyrep je oµ peunor oônyrxa poxnana ramnooxep ôoje (H-1103; T. III/1), a
nepxyrep y oônnxy xparxor ôara (T. III/2) je oµ npnrnauanor cnrnospnor nemuapa cnne ôoje. Ha
nemy n na npnmepxy H-1103 (T. III/1), ocnm ncrpnenocrn pyôona, youanajy ce n mnxpoôpasµe.
Hoceôny rpyny unne nepxyrepn oµ xnapnnra, oµ xojnx npnmepnn ôp. 1987 (T. III/3) n
ôp. 2199 (T. III/4) nornuy ns semynnne 3M 06. Ha mnornm naneonnrcxnm nanasnmrnma mnpom
Enpone, ncroune n jyxne A]pnxe nanaxene cy nehe nnn mane xnapnnrne xyrne n uecro cy onpe-
µe¬nnane xao nonauxo opyxje – ôone, xao anarxe sa pasônjane xocrn, npojexrnnn sa ôanane, rna-
ne ôysµonana nnn xao anarxe xopnmhene y oôpaµn ôn¬ne xpane. Excnepnmenrannn paµonn xoje
cy oôannnn Bnx n Tor (Shick and Toth 1993: 130–133) neµnocmncneno cy noxasann µa je peu o
nepxyrepnma oµ xnapnnra, xojn cxopo canpmen c]epnn oônnx µoônjajy naxon penarnnno xparxo-
rpajne ynorpeôe, uax n axo je xomaµ na nouerxy nmao nornyno nenpannnan nonnronannn oônnx.
¡a ôn ce ]opmnpana npannnna xyrna ônna cy norpeôna, y npocexy, camo uernpn cara nnrensn-
nnor xopnmhena y oµônjany, mro je nocneµnna cnenn]nune crpyxrype xnapnnra n pannomepnor
rpomena nerone nonpmnne. Ha ocnony naneµennx excnepnmenara, moxe ce npernocrannrn µa
cy npnmepnn ôp. 1987, 2199, 2206 (T. III/5), 2123 (T. III/6), 2042 (T. IV/1) ca Fnarornna ônnn y
panoj ]asn xopnmhena, µox je npnmepax H-1100 (T. IV/2) nperpneo ynorpeôy xoja je cnaxaxo
ônna µyxa oµ uernpn cara.
Hponahena cy camo µna nepxyrepa-perymepa (ôp. 1383, 3M 07; T. IV/3; ôp. 1400, 3M 04;
T. IV/4), a oôa cy oµ oônyraxa cnrnospnor nemuapa. Hcrpnenocr pyôona yxasyje na oµônjane ca
jesrpa µnpexrnom nepxycnjom, a mnxpoôpasµe na perymnpane npecnjom.
Perymepn cy na Fnarornny sacryn¬enn ca rpn npnmepxa, a cnn cy oµ peunnx oônyraxa,
c rnm mro je npnmepax H-1122 (T. IV/5) oµ rpannrnop]npa, npnmepax ôp. 1729 (T. IV/6) oµ
nemuapa, a c.n. 8 (T. IV/7) oµ am]nôonnra. Perymep oµ nemuapa cnyxno je y nponecy µnpexrnor
perymnpana, a npnmepnn oµ rpannrnop]npa n am]nôonnra y nponecy perymnpana npecnjom.
Ca yxynno 2349 apre]axara oµ oxpecanor xamena, Fnarornn npeµcran¬a penarnnno ôo-
raro neonnrcxo nanasnmre, xapaxrepncrnuno n no nsyserno nennxom ôpojy xnapnnrnnx apre]a-
xara. Onn ce jan¬ajy ca cxopo nornyno pasnnjenom rnnonomxom cnnxom, y xojoj cy sacryn¬enn
xomaµn cnponnncxor marepnjana, npejesrpa, jesrpa, neperymnpann n perymnpann oµônnn n ceun-
na, crpyraun, nocrymxe, nep]oparepn, opyhe ca jamnuacrnm perymem n „o¬ymreno” opyhe.
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
45
Hponenryannn oµnocn cnponnncxor marepnjana cy cneµehn:
– poxnan: 1004 xom. (42,74%);
– xnapnnr: 1311 xom. (55,81%);
– xnapn: 29 xom. (1,23%);
– ôene crene pasnnunror nocranxa: 3 xom. (0,12%);
– oncnµnjan: 2 xom. (0,08%).
Tnnonomxo-mop]onomxa anannsa, y cnpesn ca cnponnncxnm marepnjanom, µana je pesyn-
rare xojn cy npnxasann na raôenn 1.
cnponnne
rnn opyha
poxnan xnapnnr xnapn
ôene crene
pasnnunror
nocranxa
oncnµnjan VKVHHO
cnponnncxn marepnjan
(noµyne, oônynn)
3 xom.=
0,12%
185 xom. =
7,87%
188 xom. =
8,00%
npejesrpa
3 xom. =
0,12%
14 xom. =
0,59%
17 xom. =
0,72%
jesrpa
45 xom. =
1,91%
75 xom. =
3,19%
120 xom. =
5,10%
oµônnn n ceunna sa
npnnpemy jesrapa, oµn.
noµmnahnnane jesrapa
23 xom. =
0,97%
5 xom. =
0,21%
28 xom. =
1,19%
neperymnpann
oµônnn
529 xom. =
22,52%
917 xom. =
39,03%
19 xom. =
0,80%
1465 xom. =
62,36%
neperymnpana ceunna
253 xom. =
10,77%
75 xom. =
3,19%
8 xom. =
0,34%
3 xom. =
0,12%
2 xom. =
0,08%
341 xom. =
14,51%
perymnpann
oµônnn
23 xom. =
0,97%
15 xom. =
0,63%
38 xom. =
1,61%
perymnpana
ceunna
59 xom. =
2,51%
3 xom. =
0,12%
1 xom. =
0,04%
63 xom. =
2,68%
crpyraun
19 xom. =
0,80%
10 xom. =
0,42%
29 xom. =
1,23%
nocrpymxe
1 xom. =
0,04%
2 xom. =
0,08%
3 xom. =
0,12%
nep]oparepn
8 xom. =
0,34%
1 xom. =
0,04%
1 xom. =
0,04%
10 xom. =
0,42%
opyhe ca crpmo
perymnpannm npenomom
8 xom. =
0,34%
8 xom. =
0,34%
opyhe ca µneracrnm
perymem
6 xom. =
0,25%
6 xom. =
0,25%
reomerpnjcxn mnxponnrn
7 xom. =
0,29%
7 xom. =
0,29%
opyhe ca jamnuacrnm
perymem
10 xom. =
0,42%
6 xom. =
0,25%
16 xom. =
0,68%
„o¬ymreno” opyhe
3 xom. =
0,12%
2 xom. =
0,08%
5 xom. =
0,21%
xomônnonano opyhe
1 xom. =
0,04%
1 xom. =
0,04%
npojexrnnn
1 xom. =
0,04%
1 xom. =
0,04%
chopping tools
2 xom. =
0,08%
2 xom. =
0,08%
VKVHHO
1004 xom. =
42,47%
1311 xom. =
55,81%
29 xom. =
1,23%
3 xom. =
0,12%
2 xom. =
0,08%
2349 xom. =
99,95%
Taôena 1. 3acryn¬enocr ocnonnnx rnnona oxpecanor opyha
n cnponnncxor marepnjana na noxannrery Fnarornn
J. Bapnh APTEuAKTH O¡ OKPECAHOI KAMEHA CA HOKAHHTETA FHAIOTHH – HO÷HA
46
CHPOBHHCKH MATEPHJAH: HO¡VHE, PEuHH OFHVHH
Cnponnncxn marepnjan je npeµcran¬en ca rpn xomaµa poxnana n 185 xomaµa xnapnnra.
Camo na jeµnom nenpannnnom xomaµy poxnana cauynan je xoprexc peunor oônyrxa, µox sa ocrana
µna npnmepxa ne moxe µa ce oµpeµn µa nn nornuy ns npnmapnor nnn cexynµapnor nanasnmra.
Ha nojeµnnnm npnmepnnma xnapnnra raxohe je cauynan xoprexc peunor oônyrxa, ann
nocroje n nonneµapcxn xomaµn ca xoprexcom, xojn yxasyje na excnnoarannjy ns npnmapnnx na-
nasnmra.
HPEJE3IPA
Hpejesrpa cy sacryn¬ena ca rpn npnmepxa oµ poxnana (T. V/1) n 14 npnmepaxa oµ xnap-
nnra (T. V/2). Peu je o xomaµnma cnponnncxor marepnjana na xojnma cy you¬nnn rparonn oôpaµe,
ann jom ynex nncy ]opmnpana npana jesrpa ca xojnx cy cxnµann oµônnn n ceunna. Hpejesrpa cy
jeµan oµ enemenara xojn yxasyjy na nspaµy apre]axara oxpecnnanem na oµpehenom npocropy.
Haxo je nocrojana npaxca µonomena npejesrapa y nace¬a ca npocropa excnnoarannje cnponnna
ns npnmapnnx nanasnmra, rµe ce npmnna rpyôa oôpaµa, na Fnarornny ro nnje ôno cnyuaj jep cnn
ocrann enemenrn nornphyjy nspaµy apre]axara y camom nace¬y.
JE3IPA
Hsyserno nennxn ôpoj jesrapa je jom jeµna xapaxrepncrnxa marepnjana ca Fnarornna, no
xojoj ce onaj noxannrer nsµnaja oµ µpyrnx nanasnmra. Hponaheno je 45 jesrapa oµ poxnana n 75
oµ xnapnnra. H µox jesrpa oµ poxnana y nornynocrn nonan¬ajy oônnxe neh saôenexene na µpy-
rnm noxannrernma, moryhnocr µa ce y re oxnnpe yxnone n jesrpa oµ xnapnnra npeµcran¬a npano
nsnenahene. Hacynpor mnm¬eny µa je sa oµônjane xnapnnra ônna noroµna n uecro npnmennna-
na rexnnxa raxosnanor ônnonapnor oµônjana (Typnunh 1992), na onom noxannrery sacryn¬eno
je camo jeµno jesrpo oôpaheno na raj naunn, n ro ne oµ xnapnnra neh oµ poxnana.
Pasnnjena rnnonornja jesrapa oµ poxnana n xnapnnra nma cneµehe xapaxrepncrnxe:
Konnuna mnxpojesrpa
Hponaheno je yxynno 11 xonnunnx mnxpojesrapa, oµ xojnx cy µna npnmepxa oµ poxnana
(T. V/3, 4), a µener oµ xnapnnra (T V/5–8).
Ha oôa jesrpa oµ poxnana nnar]opma je nenpenapnpana, nsneµena cxnµanem jeµnor oµ-
ônrxa. Ha jesrpy ôp. 1187 (T. V/3) µennmnuno je cauynan xoprexc peunor oônyrxa. Vrao nnar]op-
me na jesrpnma oµ poxnana nsnocn 50
o
(1 xom.) n 70
o
- 80
o
(1 xom.).
Koµ jesrapa oµ xnapnnra, na ner npnmepaxa nnar]opma je ]opmnpana cxnµanem jeµnor
µo µna oµônrxa, a na uernpn je nsnpmena rpyôa npenapannja cxnµanem nnme mannx oµônraxa.
Vrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocrn 65
o
- 70
o
(1 xom.), 70
o
(2 xom.), 75
o
(1 xom.), 75
o
- 80
o
(1 xom.), 80
o

(3 xom.) n 90
o
(1 xom.).
H poxnauxa n xnapnnrna jesrpa cnyxnna cy sa nspaµy oµônraxa.
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
47
Konnuna jesrpa
Konnuna jesrpa cranµapµne nennunne sacryn¬ena cy ca 10 npnmepaxa, oµ xojnx cy µna
nspahena oµ poxnana (T. VI/1, 2), a ocam oµ xnapnnra (T. VI/3–7).
Ha oôa jesrpa oµ poxnana nnar]opma je rpyôo npenapnpana, µox je na ceµam jesrapa oµ
xnapnnra nnar]opma nsneµena cxnµanem jeµnor oµônrxa nnn je ncxopnmhena nocrojeha panna
nonpmnna, a camo na jeµnom npnmepxy nsneµena je rpyôa npenapannja. Ha poxnauxom jesrpy
H-1073 (T. VI/2) npnmerna je ônara µexonopannja xoja ôn morna µa ôyµe nnµnxarop repmnuxe
oôpaµe, maµa camo jeµan npnmepax ca raxo nspaxennm rparonnma nnje µono¬an µa ce µonece
nornpµan sax¬yuax o ynorpeôn ror rexnonomxor nocrynxa.
Vrao nnar]opme na oôa poxnauxa jesrpa nma npeµnocr 75
o
- 80
o
, µox na xnapnnrnnm
jesrpnma nsnocn 60
o
- 70
o
(1 xom.), 70
o
- 80
o
(3 xom.), 75
o
(1 xom.) n 80
o
(2 xom.).
H jesrpa oµ poxnana n jesrpa oµ xnapnnra xopnmhena cy sa nspaµy oµônraxa.
Knnnacra mnxpojesrpa
Hahena cy µna xnapnnrna npnmepxa (T. VII/1, 2) ca rpyôo npenapnpanom nnar]opmom.
Vrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocrn 70
o
(1 xom.) n 90
o
(1 xom.). Oôa xnnnacra mnxpojesrpa cnyxnna
cy sa nspaµy oµônraxa.
Knnnacra jesrpa
Knnnacra jesrpa sacryn¬ena cy ca ceµam npnmepaxa, oµ xojnx cy µna oµ poxnana (T.
VII/3, 4), a ner oµ xnapnnra (T. VII/5–7). Jeµno xnnnacro jesrpo oµ poxnana nspaheno je oµ peu-
nor oônyrxa n xopnmheno je sa µoônjane oµônraxa (ôp. 1332; T. VII/4), µox je ycxo xnnnacro
jesrpo ôp. 2251 (T. VII/3) nocnyxnno sa nspaµy ceunna. Hnar]opme na ona µna jesrpa cy rpyôo
npenapnpane. Vrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocrn 70
o
n 90
o
.
Ha jeµnom jesrpy oµ xnapnnra nnar]opma je rpyôo npenapnpana, µox je na uernpn nsne-
µena cxnµanem jeµnor neher oµônrxa, oµnocno xopnmhena je npnmapna nonpmnna noµyne. Cna
xnapnnrna jesrpa xopnmhena cy sa nspaµy oµônraxa, a yrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocr 70
o
- 90
o
(1
xom.), 80
o
(2 xom.) n 90
o
(2 xom.).
Hnnnnµpnuna mnxpojesrpa
Hponaheno je ocam nnnnnµpnunnx mnxpojesrapa, a cnn npnmepnn nspahenn cy oµ xnap-
nnra (T. VIII/1–5). Camo na jeµnom jesrpy nnar]opma je rpyôo npenapnpana, µox je na ceµam npn-
mepaxa nsneµena cxnµanem jeµnor nnn µna neha oµônrxa. Tpn jesrpa cy ncxopnmhena sa nspaµy
xparxnx ceunna, a ner sa nspaµy oµônraxa. Vrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocrn 70
o
(1 xom.), 75
o
- 80
o

(1 xom.), 80
o
- 85
o
(1 xom.), 80
o
- 90
o
(1 xom.) n 90
o
(4 xom.).
Hnnnnµpnuna jesrpa
Hnnnnµpnuna jesrpa cy sacryn¬ena ca ocam npnmepaxa n cnn cy nspahenn oµ xnapnnra
(T. VIII/6–9). ¡na jesrpa cy xopnmhena sa nspaµy xparxnx ceunna, a mecr sa nspaµy oµônraxa. Ha
jeµnom jesrpy nnar]opma je rpyôo npenapnpana, µox je na ceµam npnmepaxa nnar]opma nsneµena
cxnµanem jeµnor oµônrxa nnn je ncxopnmhena npnmapna nonpmnna noµyne. Vrao nnar]opme
nma npeµnocrn 70
o
(1 xom.), 75
o
(2 xom.), 70
o
- 80
o
(1 xom.), 80
o
(1 xom.) n 90
o
(3 xom.).
J. Bapnh APTEuAKTH O¡ OKPECAHOI KAMEHA CA HOKAHHTETA FHAIOTHH – HO÷HA
48
Inoôynapna mnxpojesrpa
Haheno je 11 rnoôynapnnx mnxpojesrapa, oµ xojnx je ceµam nspaheno oµ pasnnunrnx na-
pnjerera poxnana (T. IX/1–3), a uernpn oµ xnapnnra (T. IX/4–6). Inoôynapna mnxpojesrpa nmajy
nnme oµ jeµne nnar]opme c oôsnpom µa je oµônjane npmeno ns nnme npanana, mro n µonoµn µo
mane nnn nnme npannnnor rnoôynapnor oônnxa. Cna jesrpa cy cnyxnna sa nspaµy xparxnx oµôn-
raxa, a yrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocrn 80
o
(1 xom.), 85
o
- 90
o
(3 xom.), 90
o
(4 xom.) n 95
o
(1 xom.).
Inoôynapna jesrpa
Inoôynapnnx jesrapa nma ceµam, oµ xojnx je ner nspaheno oµ poxnana (T. IX/7–9), a µna
oµ xnapnnra (T. IX/10). H xoµ rnoôynapnnx jesrapa cranµapµnnx µnmensnja npnmennnan je ncrn
naunn nspaµe xao n xoµ mnxpojesrapa. Cnn npnmepnn cy xopnmhenn sa nspaµy oµônraxa, a na
jesrpnma ôp. 1328 (T. IX/9) n ôp. 879 µennmnuno je cauynan xoprexc peunor oônyrxa. Vrao nnar-
]opme nma npeµnocrn 80
o
(1 xom.), 80
o
- 90
o
(2 xom.) n 90
o
-100
o
(1 xom.).
Knaµapcxa mnxpojesrpa
Hahen je camo jeµan npnmepax nspahen oµ xnapnnra (T. X/1), oônnxa xapaxrepncrnunor
sa xnaµapcxa jesrpa, ca npanoyraonnm npecennma no cnnm ocama. ¡ennmnuno cauynan xoprexc
ynyhyje na excnnoarannjy xnapnnra ns npnmapnor nanasnmra. Jesrpo je cnyxnno sa nspaµy ce-
unna. Hnar]opma je xoprnxanna, a yrao nnar]opme nsnocn 90
o
.
Knaµapcxa jesrpa
Hahena cy camo µna npnmepxa oµ poxnana (T. X/2, 3). Jesrpo H-1078 (T. X/2) nma jeµny
npenapnpany nnar]opmy ca xoje je npmeno oµônjane xparxnx ceunna, a nspaheno je oµ nnouacre
noµyne. Jesrpo ôp. 1352 (T. X/3) nspaheno je oµ peunor oônyrxa, na je nnar]opma ca xoje cy cxn-
µann oµônnn xoprnxanna, µox je nnar]opma ca xoje cy oµônjana ceunna rpyôo npenapnpana camo
oµcrpannnanem xoprexca. Vrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocr 85
o
- 90
o
(na H-1087) n 90
o
- 95
o
(na ôp.
1352).
Fnnonapna („o¬ymrena”) mnxpojesrpa
Vs xnaµapcxa, camo jeµno „o¬ymreno” mnxpojesrpo npeµcran¬a najpehn rnn (T. X/4).
Jesrpo je oµ poxnana, a cnyxnno je sa nspaµy oµônraxa. Hnar]opma je xapaxrepncrnuna, ycxa,
nnnnjcxa.
Henpannnna mnxpojesrpa
Hponaheno je 16 npnmepaxa, oµ xojnx cy uernpn oµ poxnana, a 12 oµ xnapnnra. Ocnonna
xapaxrepncrnxa onor rnna je µa je oµônjane npmeno ca nnme crpana n ns nnme npanana, mro je
ocrannno nenpannnan oônnx jesrpa. Hnar]opma ce uecro ne oônnxyje noceôno, neh ce xopncrn
nerarnn nperxoµno cxnnyror oµônrxa nnn ceunna.
Hn na jeµnom oµ uernpn mnxpojesrpa oµ poxnana npnmapna nnar]opma nnje npenapn-
pana, neh je nsneµena cxnµanem jeµnor neher oµônrxa (T. X/5–7). Cnn npnmepnn cy cnyxnnn sa
nspaµy oµônraxa, a na npnmepxy ôp. 891 (T. X/7) µennmnuno je cauynan xoprexc peunor oônyrxa.
Vrao npnmapne nnar]opme nma npeµnocrn 70
o
(1 xom.), 80
o
- 85
o
(1 xom.) n 90
o
(1 xom.).
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
49
Henpannnna mnxpojesrpa oµ xnapnnra nmajy jeµnaxe mop]onomxe oµnnxe, a sôor xapa-
xrepncrnune crpyxrype crene nenpannnan oônnx jesrpa jom je nspaxennjn (T. X/8, 9; T. XI/1–3).
Ha ocam jesrapa npnmapna nnar]opma je ]opmnpana cxnµanem jeµnor neher oµônrxa, a na uern-
pn je rpyôo npenapnpana. Cnn npnmepnn cy xopnmhenn sa nspaµy oµônraxa, a yrao nnar]opme
nma npeµnocrn 55
o
(1 xom.), 60
o
(1 xom.), 70
o
(2 xom.), 50
o
- 70
o
(1 xom.), 70
o
- 80
o
(2 xom.), 80
o
(1
xom.), 80
o
- 90
o
(1 xom.), 90
o
(1 xom.) n 95
o
(1 xom.).
Henpannnna jesrpa
Hponaheno je 29 nenpannnnnx jesrapa, oµ xojnx je 13 oµ poxnana, a 16 oµ xnapnnra.
H na nenpannnnnm jesrpnma oµ poxnana, cranµapµnnx nennunna, npnmerno je nocrojane
npnmapne nnar]opme, xoja je na rpn npnmepxa rpyôo npenapnpana, µox na ocrannx 10 npeµcra-
n¬a panny, oµnocno ônaro xonxanny nonpmnny, ]opmnpany cxnµanem jeµnor oµônrxa (ôp. 381,
ôp. 380, H-1070/1, H-1070/2; T. XI/4–7). Cnyxnna cy yrnannom sa nspaµy oµônraxa, ocnm µna
npnmepxa ca xojnx cy oµônjana ycxa ceunna. Ha µna jesrpa cauynan je xoprexc peunor oônyrxa, a
na jeµnom – xoprexc xojn yxasyje na excnnoarannjy ns npnmapnor nanasnmra. Vrao nnar]opme
nma npeµnocrn 65
o
(1 xom.), 60
o
- 70
o
(1 xom.), 70
o
- 80
o
(1 xom.), 75
o
(2 xom.), 90
o
(4 xom.) n 100
o

(1 xom.).
Mehy 16 jesrapa oµ xnapnnra, na 10 je nnar]opma ]opmnpana cxnµanem jeµnor nnn µna
oµônrxa, µox je na mecr nsnpmena rpyôa npenapannja. Jesrpa cy y nehnnn cnyuajena cnyxnna sa
nspaµy oµônraxa (T. XII/1–6), a jeµno, yjeµno n najnehe jesrpo (T. XII/7), ca µnmensnjama 8,8 cm
x 7,0 cm x 4,7 cm, ncxopnmheno je sa nspaµy macnnnnx ceunna. Camo na jeµnom npnmepxy ocrao
je cauynan xoprexc peunor oônyrxa. Vrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocr 60
o
(1 xom.), 70
o
(1 xom.), 70
o
- 75
o
(1 xom.), 75
o
(1 xom.), 80
o
(2 xom.), 85
o
(1 xom.) n 90
o
(5 xom.).
uparmenronana jesrpa
Haheno je n ceµam ]parmenronannx jesrapa xojnma ne moxe µa ce oµpeµn rnn, a na ocno-
ny cauynannx nerarnnnnx ]anera jacno je µa cy cnyxnna sa nspaµy oµônraxa.
O¡FHHH H CEuHBA 3A HPHHPEMV JE3IAPA, O¡HOCHO HO¡MHATHBABE JE3IAPA
Hponaheno je 28 npnmepaxa oµônraxa n ceunna, oµ xojnx cy 23 oµ poxnana, a ner oµ
xnapnnra.
Oµônnn n ceunna xojnma je npmeno raxosnano noµmnahnnane jesrpa, mro noµpasymena
oônnxonane none nnar]opme (T. XIII/1–6), xao n npomeny opnjenrannje jesrpa xaxo ôn ce panno-
mepno rpomnno (T. XIII/7, 8), jeµan cy oµ nparehnx enemenara xojn yxasyjy na nspaµy apre]axara
oµ oxpecanor xamena na oµpehenom npocropy. Bnxone µyxnne nsnoce oµ 2,5 cm µo 5,1 cm, mn-
pnne oµ 0,7 cm µo 5,0 cm, a yrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocr 60
o
(1 xom.), 65
o
(1 xom.), 70
o
- 75
o
(1
xom.), 75
o
(2 xom.), 75
o
- 80
o
(2 xom.), 80
o
(1 xom.), 80
o
- 85
o
(1 xom.), 85
o
(2 xom.), 85
o
- 90
o
(3 xom.),
90
o
(3 xom.) n 95
o
- 100
o
(1 xom.).
J. Bapnh APTEuAKTH O¡ OKPECAHOI KAMEHA CA HOKAHHTETA FHAIOTHH – HO÷HA
50
HEPETVBHPAHH O¡FHHH
Hsyserno nennxn ôpoj neperymnpannx oµônraxa oµ poxnana (529 npnmepaxa) n xnapnnra
(917 npnmepaxa) n nesnarna xonnunna oµônraxa oµ xnapna (19 npnmepaxa) µnpexrna cy nocneµn-
na nspaµe apre]axara oxpecnnanem y oxnnpy camor nace¬a. Horoµan npnmapnn oônnx oµônraxa
omoryhanao je µa ce mnorn npnmepnn xopncre n ôes naxnaµnor perymnpana (T. XIII/9–18).
C oôsnpom µa je nponaheno 529 oµônraxa oµ poxnana, nsnenahyje µa cy rparonn yno-
rpeôe nspaxenn camo na 10 npnmepaxa. Vnorpeôna nonnrypa, saoô¬enocr pyôa n mnxpoôpasµe
saxomene y oµnocy na pyô, mro yxasyje µa cy apre]axrn xopnmhenn y nponecy ceuena, nspa-
xenn cy na mecr oµônraxa (T. XIV/1–6). Vnorpeônn mnxpomaprnnannn perym na ônaro xonxan-
nnm pyôonnma µna oµônrxa (T. XIV/7, 8) nacrao je ycneµ nnxonor xopnmhena npnnnxom oôpaµe
npeµmera xpyxnor npecexa, oµ µpnera, pora nnn xocrn. Oµônrax ôp. 853 (T. XIV/9) xopnmhen je
xao nocrpymxa, o uemy cneµoue ynorpeônn mnxpomaprnnannn perym, saoô¬enocr nenor pyôa n
mnxpoôpasµe ynpanne na pyô. Vnorpeôna nonnrypa, saoô¬enocr oôa pyôa na µncrannom xpajy n
mnxpoôpasµe ynpanne na ysµyxny ocy oµônrxa ôp. 1334 (T. XIV/10) pesynrar cy xopnmhena onor
apre]axra xao nep]oparepa – cnpµna.
¡yxnna neperymnpannx oµônraxa oµ poxnana xpehe ce nsmehy 1,5 cm n 5,5 cm, a mn-
pnna oµ 1,1 cm µo 3,8 cm. Vrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocr 45
o
(1 xom.), 50
o
(2 xom.), 50
o
- 55
o
(1
xom.), 55
o
(3 xom.), 60
o
(19 xom.), 65
o
(14 xom.), 65
o
- 70
o
(2 xom.), 70
o
(36 xom.), 70
o
- 75
o
(4 xom.),
75
o
(32 xom.), 75
o
- 80
o
(4 xom.), 80
o
(49 xom.), 80
o
- 85
o
(5 xom.), 85
o
(50 xom.), 85
o
- 90
o
(16 xom.),
90
o
(45 xom.), 90
o
- 95
o
(1 xom.), 95
o
(12 xom.), 95
o
- 100
o
(2 xom.), 100
o
(8 xom.), 105
o
(1 xom.), 110
o

(3 xom.) n 115
o
(1 xom.).
Ha Fnarornny je naheno uax 917 neperymnpannx xnapnnrnnx oµônraxa. Tnnonn jesrapa
cy nornpµnnn µa cy sa oµônjane xnapnnra xopnmhenn ncrn rexnonomxn nocrynnn xao n sa pox-
nan, raxo µa xnapnnrnn oµônnn ne noxasyjy noceône n cnenn]nune xapaxrepncrnxe (T. XV/1–
16). 3ôor nepanne nonpmnne n jaxe pe]nexcnje ynorpeônn rparonn nncy mornn µa ôyµy youenn,
a na ocnony oônnxa oµônraxa npernocran¬eno je µa cy y nponecnma ceuena, crpyrana n ôymena
xopnmhenn na ncrn naunn xao n neperymnpann oµônnn oµ poxnana n xnapna.
¡yxnna xnapnnrnnx oµônraxa nsnocn nsmehy 1,3 cm n 7,0 cm, a mnpnna oµ 1,1 cm µo 4,2
cm. Vrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocr 50
o
(5 xom.), 55
o
(2 xom.), 60
o
(17 xom.), 65
o
(19 xom.), 65
o
- 70
o

(2 xom.), 70
o
(45 xom.), 70
o
- 75
o
(5 xom.), 75
o
(37 xom.), 75
o
- 80
o
(2 xom.), 80
o
(56 xom.), 80
o
- 85
o
(3
xom.), 85
o
(41 xom.), 85
o
- 90
o
(4 xom.), 90
o
(71 xom.), 95
o
- 100
o
(2 xom.), 95
o
(15 xom.), 100
o
(13 xom.),
105
o
(4 xom.), 110
o
(3 xom.), 115
o
(3 xom.) n 125
o
(1 xom.).
HEPETVBHPAHA CEuHBA
Ca 341 npnmepxom, neperymnpana ceunna cy no ôpojnocrn µpyra xareropnja oxpeca-
nnx apre]axara na Fnarornny. Hponahena cy 253 npnmepxa oµ poxnana, 75 oµ xnapnnra, ocam
oµ xnapna, rpn oµ ôennx crena pasnnunror nocranxa n µna oµ oncnµnjana. Mehy neperymnpa-
nnm ceunnnma na Fnarornny, mnxpoceunna cy sacryn¬ena neoma mano n ne mory ce yôpojarn y
µomnnanrne xapaxrepncrnxe one nnµycrpnje (T. XVI/1–4). Behnna neperymnpannx ceunna je
]parmenronana, ann je you¬nno µa cy npannnna, ycxa, µyxnne µo 7,0 cm (T. XVI/5–15).
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
51
Kao nocneµnna µyxer xopnmhena, na 30 ceunna nspaxenn cy saoô¬enocr pyôona, no-
nnrypa n aôpasnnne mnxpoôpasµe. Ceµamnaecr ceunna nmajy ynorpeôny nonnrypy xoja noxpnna
nonpmnny y oônnxy rpoyrna, nnme nnn mane saoô¬en pyô n saxomene mnxpoôpasµe, mro yxasyje
na nnxono xopnmhene xao pesaua nnn xao µenona xomnosnrnor opyha – cpnona (T. XVII/1–17).
Ha 12 ceunna nonnrypa ce y ycxom nojacy npyxa nenom µyxnnom jeµnor nnn oôa pyôa, a saoô¬e-
nocr pyôona n mnxpoôpasµe napanenne cy ca pyôom, mro cy nocneµnne nnxonor xopnmhena xao
xnacnunnx noxena (T. XVII/18–24; T. XVIII/1–5). Camo na jeµnom ceunny (ôp. 513; T. XVIII/6),
ycneµ ynorpeôe y nponecy crpyrana, jan¬ajy ce nonnrypa, saoô¬enocr pyôa n mnxpoôpasµe yn-
panne na pyô. Ha manom ]parmenronanom ceunny oµ raxosnanor „ôanxancxor xpemena” nanasn
ce cauynan xoprexc peunor oônyrxa, xojn je noxasare¬ npnxyn¬ana ns cexynµapnor nanasnmra
n morao ôn µa ôyµe nyroxas sa nonnpane npnmapnor nanasnmra onor cnponnncxor marepnjana
nerµe na npocropy nenrpanne Cpônje (T. XVIII/7). Ceunno ôp. 771 (T. XVIII/8) naheno je ncnoµ
xprnennxa y semynnnn 3M 07. Vs npnmepxe ns ¡one Fpanennne (Bapnh 2005ô) n Vmha Kame-
nnuxor noroxa (Bapnh 1998), xojn cy nahenn xao rpoônn npnnosn, morno ôn µa ôyµe cneµox jom
ynex jaxor n noceônor nomronana npema xameny.
1
Koµ 23 nena ceunna oµ poxnana µyxnna ce xpehe oµ 2,5 cm µo 8,4 cm, a mnpnna oµ 0,9
cm µo 1,9 cm. Vrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocrn 50
o
(1 xom.), 60
o
(7 xom.), 65
o
(4 xom.), 60
o
- 65
o

(2 xom.), 65
o
- 70
o
(1 xom.), 70
o
(3 xom.), 70
o
- 75
o
(3 xom.), 75
o
(24 xom.), 80
o
(33 xom.), 80
o
- 85
o
(8
xom.), 85
o
(12 xom.), 85
o
- 90
o
(9 xom.), 90
o
(19 xom.), 90
o
- 95
o
(1 xom.), 95
o
(9 xom.), 100
o
(2 xom.) n
105
o
(1 xom.).
Heperymnpana xnapnnrna ceunna sacryn¬ena cy y snarno manem ôpojy. Kao n xoµ oµ-
ônraxa, sôor nenpannnne nonpmnne n jaxe pe]nexcnje nn na jeµnom apre]axry nncy youenn
rparonn ynorpeôe. Crpyxrypa crene onemoryhanana je oµônjane npannnnnx ceunna, na cy snarno
mannx µnmensnja oµ npnmepaxa nspahennx oµ poxnana (T. XVIII/9–16). Hponahena cy 23 nena
xnapnnrna ceunna, unja ce µyxnna xpehe oµ 1,8 cm µo 4,3 cm, a mnpnna nsmehy 0,7 cm n 1,9 cm.
Hsyserax cy µna ]parmenronana ceunna µyxnne 5,7 cm, oµnocno 6,8 cm, n mnpnne 2,3 cm n 3,5
cm. Vrao nnar]opme nsnocn 60
o
(1 xom.), 65
o
(2 xom.), 70
o
(8 xom.), 70
o
- 75
o
(1 xom.), 75
o
(4 xom.),
75
o
- 80
o
(2 xom.), 80
o
(3 xom.), 80
o
- 85
o
(3 xom.), 85
o
(4 xom.), 90
o
(5 xom.), 95
o
(3 xom.) n 100
o
(1
xom.).
Ceunna oµ xnapna – ropcxor xpncrana sacryn¬ena cy ca ocam npnmepaxa, npn uemy nn
na jeµnom nncy nspaxenn rparonn xopnmhena (T. XVIII/17–21). Knapn je nsyserno xnannreran
marepnjan, a nerona ynorpeôa orpannuena je na mane nojeµnnaune npnmepxe xpncrana nnn µpyse
xojn mory µa ce jane y nyxornnama n xanepnama ynyrap crena. ¡nmensnje apre]axara ycnon¬ene
cy nennunnom xnapnnnx xpncrana, xojn na npocropy Fnarornna ounro nncy ônnn nennxn jep ce
µyxnna xoµ rpn nena ceunna xpehe oµ 3,0 cm µo 4,2 cm, a mnpnna nsmehy 0,5 cm n 1,5 cm. Vrao
nnar]opme nsnocn 75
o
(1 xom.), 80
o
(2 xom.) n 85
o
(1 xom.).
Camo rpn ceunna oµ ôennx crena pasnnunror nocranxa (T. XVIII/22–24) n µna oµ oncn-
µnjana (T. XVIII/25, 26) nornphyjy µa cy cranonnnnn Fnarornna snann sa re npcre cnponnna, ann
µa cy one, xao n xnapn, nmane ôesnauajny ynory y nspaµn oxpecannx apre]axara na onom noxann-
rery. Tparonn ynorpeôe nncy nspaxenn nn na jeµnom oµ nomenyrnx npnmepaxa.
1
Ha noxannrery Tonone – Fau raxohe, xao npnnor y rpoôy ôp. 2, nponaheno je nennxo ceunno (Trajkovic 1988).
J. Bapnh APTEuAKTH O¡ OKPECAHOI KAMEHA CA HOKAHHTETA FHAIOTHH – HO÷HA
52
Vrao nnar]opme xoµ ceunna oµ ôennx crena pasnnunror nocranxa nsnocn 90
o
(2 xom.) n
95
o
(1 xom.).
PETVBHPAHH O¡FHHH
Perymnpann oµônnn sacryn¬enn cy ca yxynno 39 npnmepaxa, oµ xojnx cy 23 oµ poxnana,
a 16 oµ xnapnnra.
Mnxpomaprnnannn perym, xao µnpexran xonrnnynpann perym na jeµnom oµ narepannnx
pyôona, nsneµen je na uernpn oµônrxa (T. XIX/1–3), xao µnpexran napnnjannn na ner oµônraxa
(T. XIX/4–6) n xao nnnepsan napnnjannn na µna npnmepxa (T. XIX/7, 8). Ha jeµnom oµônrxy (T.
XIX/9) mnxpomaprnnannn perym je nsneµen na µncrannom xpajy, a xao nnnepsan na µna oµônrxa
(T. XIX/10, 11). Ha oµônrxy ôp. 706 (T. XIX/4) mnxpomaprnnannn perym je nmao ]ynxnnjy npn-
narohanana sa ycahnnane y µpmxy xomnosnrne anarxe – cpna.
Hopmannn perym npnmenen je na ner oµônraxa. Ha µna npnmepxa perym je µnpexran n
napnnjanan na jeµnom oµ narepannnx pyôona (T. XIX/12, 13), na µna npnmepxa je nnnepsan nap-
nnjanan (T. XIX/14), a na jeµnom je napnnjanan µnpexran na jeµnom pyôy, a napnnjanan nnnepsan
na µpyrom (T. XIX/15).
Honycrpm µo crpm perym nsneµen je na uernpn oµônrxa. Ha µna npnmepxa je µnpexran
xonrnnynpan (T. XIX/16, 17), a na µna nnnepsan napnnjanan (T. XIX/18, 19).
Vnorpeônn rparonn y nnµy nonnrype, saoô¬enocrn pyôa n saxomennx mnxpoôpasµa, na
oµônnnma ôp. 706, ôp. 510, H-1021, ôp. 152, ôp. 5 (T. XIX/7–9, 14) nocneµnna cy ynorpeôe rnx
apre]axara xao cacrannnx µenona xomnosnrnor opyha. Hpn rome, xoµ oµônrxa ôp. 152 peu je o
peyrnnnsannjn, c oôsnpom µa nonnrypa noxpnna npenom na µecnom pyôy. Ha oµônrxy ôp. 316 (T.
XIX/10) raxohe je npncyrna peyrnnnsannja, saro mro nonnrypa noxpnna npenom na npoxcnman-
nom xpajy, a mnxpoôpasµe ynpanne na pyô yxasyjy na ynorpeôy y nponecy crpyrana.
¡yxnna ner nennx perymnpannx oµônraxa oµ poxnana xpehe ce nsmehy 1,8 cm n 4,5 cm,
a mnpnna oµ 1,0 cm µo 4,0 cm. Vrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocr 65
o
(1 xom.), 70
o
(2 xom.), 75
o
(3
xom.), 75
o
- 80
o
(1 xom.), 80
o
(2 xom.), 85
o
(2 xom.), 85
o
- 90
o
(2 xom.) n 100
o
(1 xom.).
Bennxn ôpoj apre]axara oµ xnapnnra nahen na Fnarornny omoryhno je nsµnajane n 16
jacno perymnpannx npnmepaxa. 3ôor crpyxrype crene perym nema npannnnocr xoja ce nocrnxe
xoµ crena ca mxo¬xacrnm npenomom, ann ncrn rexnonomxn nocrynnn y oôpaµn pesynronann cy
nµenrnunnm rnnonnma peryma.
Mnxpomaprnnannn perym npncyran je xao µnpexran napnnjanan na jeµnom oµônrxy (T.
XX/1), a xao nnnepsan napnnjanan na µna npnmepxa (T. XX/2).
Hopmannn napnnjannn perym je xao µnpexran n xao nnnepsan npnmenen na no µna oµ-
ônrxa (T. XX/3, 4).
Hajsacryn¬ennjn je rpyô ysµnrnyrn perym, xojn je xopnmhen xoµ macnnnnjnx oµônraxa,
a nsneµen je na mecr npnmepaxa. Ha uernpn oµônrxa je µnpexran xonrnnynpan na jeµnom pyôy
(T. XX/5–7), na jeµnom oµônrxy je nnnepsan napnnjanan na jeµnom pyôy (T. XX/8), a na jeµnom
oµônrxy je ôn]annjanan na jeµnom pyôy (T. XX/9).
¡npexran nonycrpmn xonrnnynpann perym npncyran je camo na jeµnom oµônrxy (ôp.
2098; T. XX/10), a µnpexran nenpannnan ¬ycnacrn perym na µna oµônrxa (ôp. 1096; T. XX/11).
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
53
Koµ ocam nennx npnmepaxa µyxnna ce xpehe nsmehy 1,9 cm n 6,1 cm, a mnpnna oµ 1,7 cm
µo 5,8 cm. Vrao nnar]opme nsnocn 60
o
(2 xom.), 70
o
(2 xom.), 80
o
(1 xom.), 80
o
- 85
o
(1 xom.), 85
o
(1
xom.), 90
o
(2 xom.) n 95
o
(1 xom.).
PETVBHPAHA CEuHBA
Ha Fnarornny cy nponahena 63 perymnpana ceunna, n ro 59 npnmepaxa oµ poxnana, rpn
oµ xnapnnra n jeµan oµ xnapna.
Koµ ceunna oµ poxnana mnxpomaprnnannn perym sacryn¬en je na 38 npnmepaxa. ¡n-
pexran xonrnnynpan mnxpomaprnnannn perym na jeµnom pyôy npnmenen je na µna ceunna (T.
XXI/1), µnpexran napnnjannn na jeµnom pyôy – na 12 ceunna (T. XXI/2–7), nnnepsan xonrnny-
npann perym na jeµnom pyôy – na rpn ceunna (T. XXI/8, 9), nnnepsan napnnjannn na jeµnom pyôy
– na ocam ceunna (T. XXI/10–13), a nnnepsan µncxonrnnynpann perym na µna ceunna (T. XXI/14,
15). ¡npexran napnnjannn perym na oôa pyôa nsneµen je na µna ceunna (T. XXI/16, 17), a xomôn-
nannja µnpexrnor napnnjannor peryma na jeµnom pyôy n nnnepsnor napnnjannor na µpyrom pyôy
– na rpn ceunna (T. XXI/18–20). Ha jeµnom ceunny nsneµen je ôn]annjannn mnxpomaprnnannn
perym na jeµnom pyôy (T. XXII/1), a na ner ceunna – pasnnunre xomônnannje mnxpomaprnnannor
peryma:
– nnnepsan xonrnnnypan + µnpexran napnnjanan (T. XXII/2, 3);
– µnpexran xonrnnynpan + nnnepsan napnnjanan (T. XXII/4);
– µnpexran xonrnnynpan + nansmennuan (T. XXII/5);
– µnpexran napnnjanan + µnpexran µncxonrnnynpan (T. XXII/6).
Hopmanan µnpexran perym xao xonrnnynpan, oµnocno napnnjanan na jeµnom pyôy npn-
cyran je na uernpn ceunna (T. XXII/7–10), a na oôa pyôa camo na jeµnom ceunny (T. XXII/15).
Hopmanan nnnepsan perym, xao xonrnnynpan, oµnocno napnnjanan na jeµnom pyôy, nsne-
µen je raxohe na uernpn ceunna (T. XXII/11–14).
Honycrpm µo crpm perym nanasn ce na µna ceunna: na ceunny ôp. 137 (T. XXII/16) xao µn-
pexran napnnjanan na jeµnom pyôy, a na ceunny ôp. 987 (T. XXII/17) xao µnpexran xonrnnynpan
na jeµnom pyôy, a nnnepsan xonrnnynpan na µpyrom pyôy.
Hajpeha npcra peryma, rj. ¬ycnacrn perym je xao µnpexran npnmenen camo na jeµnom
ceunny (T. XXII/18).
Ha µener ceunna jan¬a ce xomônnannja pasnnunrnx npcra peryma:
– nnnepsan, xonrnnynpan, mnxpomaprnnanan µo nopmanan, na oôa pyôa (T. XXII/19);
– µnpexran, xonrnnynpan, nopmanan + µnpexran, xonrnnynpan, nonycrpm µo crpm (T.
XXII/21);
– µnpexran, xonrnnynpan, mnxpomaprnnanan µo crpm, na oôa pyôa (T. XXII/20);
– µnpexran, xonrnnynpan, nopmanan + nnnepsan, xonrnnynpan, mnxpomaprnnanan (T.
XXII/22);
– nnnepsan, napnnjanan, ysµnrnyr + µnpexran, xonrnnynpan, nonycrpm (T. XXII/23);
– nnnepsan, µncxonrnnynpan, mnxpomaprnnanan µo nopmanan + µnpexran, napnnjanan,
mnxpomaprnnanan (T. XXII/24);
J. Bapnh APTEuAKTH O¡ OKPECAHOI KAMEHA CA HOKAHHTETA FHAIOTHH – HO÷HA
54
– nnnepsan, napnnjanan, mnxpomaprnnanan + nnnepsan, µncxonrnnynpan, mnxpomaprn-
nanan µo nonycrpm (T. XXIII/1);
– ôn]annjanan, napnnjanan, ¬ycnacr n mnxpomaprnnanan + nnnepsan, napnnjanan, ¬yc-
nacr (T. XXIII/2);
– ôn]annjanan, napnnjanan, nopmanan + ôn]annjanan, µncxonrnnynpan, mnxpomaprnna-
nan n nopmanan µo ysµnrnyr (T. XXIII/3).
Ocnm mnxpomaprnnannor peryma, xojn je na nehnnn ceunna nsneµen neoma npennsno, cne
ocrane npcre peryma yrnannom cy rpyôe, nenpannnnnx nerarnnnnx ]anera.
Perym unja je ]ynxnnja npnnarohanane apre]axra sa ycahnnane y µpmxy xomnosnrnor
opyha npncyran je na mecr ceunna (T. XXI/11, 15; T. XXII/9, 10, 17; T. XXIII/1). Perym na npox-
cnmannom xpajy ceunna H-1025 (T. XXIII/3) n ôp. 172 (T. XXIII/2) xnacnuan je npnmep cyxanana
anarxn sa ycahnnane y µpmxy oµ µpnera, xocrn nnn pora, npn uemy je npnmepax H-1025 xo-
pnmhen xao nox, a ôp. 172 xao crpyrau, o uemy cneµoun saoô¬enocr pyôa na µncrannom xpajy.
Vnorpeônn rparonn y nnµy nonnrype, saoô¬enocrn pyôa n saxomennx mnxpoôpasµa, xojn
cy nocneµnna xopnmhena ceunna xao cacrannnx µenona xomnosnrnor opyha, npncyrnn cy na
µecer ceunna. Vnorpeônn rparonn na ceunny ôp. 112 (T. XXI/8) nacrann cy ycneµ xopnmhena
apre]axra xao noxa, a saoô¬enocr pyôa, nonnrypa n mnxpoôpasµe ynpanne na perymnpann pyô
na ceunny ôp. 173 (T. XXII/13) sôor ynorpeôe y nponecy crpyrana.
¡yxnna ceµam nennx perymnpannx ceunna oµ poxnana xpehe ce nsmehy 2,8 cm n 8,6 cm,
a mnpnna oµ 1,1 cm µo 2,1 cm. Vrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocrn 70
o
(3 xom.), 70
o
- 75
o
(1 xom.),
75
o
(2 xom.), 75
o
- 80
o
(2 xom.), 80
o
(6 xom.), 80
o
- 85
o
(2 xom.), 85
o
(4 xom.), 85
o
- 90
o
(2 xom.), 90
o
(6
xom.), 90
o
- 95
o
(2 xom.) n 95
o
(3 xom.).
Ha Fnarornny cy nponahena camo rpn perymnpana xnapnnrna ceunna. Ha ceunny ôp. 1071
(T. XXIII/4) npnmenen je µnpexran napnnjannn mnxpomaprnnannn perym, na ceunny ôp. 1657 (T.
XXIII/5) nenpannnan µnpexran xonrnnynpan, a na ceunny ôp. 1435 (T. XXIII/6) µnpexran xonrn-
nynpan nenpannnan nonycrpmn perym. 3ôor nenpannnne nonpmnne n jaxe pe]nexcnje, rparonn
ynorpeôe nncy youenn nn na jeµnom npnmepxy. Cna rpn ceunna cy ]parmenronana, µyxnne oµ 2,3
cm µo 2,9 cm n mnpnne oµ 1,1 cm µo 1,4 cm. Vrao nnar]opme nsnocn 100
o
(1 xom.).
Ha jeµnnom perymnpanom xnapnnom ceunny (T. XXIII/7) npnmenen je nenpannnan nap-
nnjanan ôn]annjannn mnxpomaprnnannn perym, ôes nspaxennx rparona ynorpeôe. Vrao nnar-
]opme nsnocn 80
o
- 85
o
.
CTPVIAuH
Haheno je 29 crpyraua, oµ xojnx je 19 oµ poxnana, a 10 oµ xnapnnra. Cnn crpyraun ns-
pahenn cy na oµônnnma, a jan¬ajy ce cneµehn rnnonn.
Crpyraun na oµônnnma
Onaj rnn opyha sacryn¬en je ca 25 npnmepaxa.
Ha ocam crpyraua perym je µnpexran, nonycrpm n na µncrannom xpajy ]opmnpa xon-
nexcan pyô. uanere cy nenpannnne na mecr npnmepaxa (T. XXIII/8–11), a na µna cy namenapne,
nonyxonneprenrne µo xonneprenrne (T. XXIII/12, 13).
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
55
¡npexran nonycrpmn perym npncyran je na jom mecr npnmepaxa, ann na nnma ]opmnpa
npan pyô, mane nnn nnme saxomen y oµnocy na ocy oµônrxa (T. XXIII/14–18). uanere cy nanpa-
nnnne, ocnm xoµ crpyraua ôp. 145 (T. XXIII/17), na xome cy namenapne napanenne.
Ha jeµnom oµônrxy µnpexran ysµnrnyrn perym namenapnnx xonneprenrnnx ]anera ]op-
mnpa cpnonnxn oônnx oµônrxa, na xome je sarnm nsneµen nopmanan µnpexran perym, xojn ce ca
µncrannor xpaja mnpn n na oôa narepanna pyôa (T. XXIII/19).
Ha oµônrxy ôp. 675 (T. XXIV/1) µnpexran ysµnrnyr n nonycrpm µo crpm perym npyxa ce
ca µncrannor xpaja na µecnn pyô xao µnpexran, a na nenn pyô xao nansmennuan perym. Herarnn-
ne ]anere cy nenpannnne, a perym je npennsan.
Tparonn ynorpeôe y nnµy nonnrype, saoô¬enocrn pyôona n mnxpoôpasµa ynpannnx na
perymnpany nonpmnny nspaxenn cy na ceµam npnmepaxa (T. XXIII/9–11, 13–16). Hoxannjom
ynorpeônnx rparona na µecnom pyôy, a ne na µncrannom xpajy, oµ ocrannx crpyraua nsµnaja ce
npnmepax ôp. 1022 (T. XXIII/19).
Ha crpyrauy na T. XXIII/14 ynorpeôna nonnrypa na yrny xojn ]opmnpajy µecnn pyô oµ-
ônrxa n perymnpan µncrannn pyô jom jeµan je µoxas µa je onaj rnn opyha uecro xopnmhen n y
nocnonnma pesana.
¡yxnne 12 nennx npnmepaxa oµ poxnana xpehy ce nsmehy 1,5 cm n 4,0 cm, a mnpnne oµ
1,3 cm µo 4,1 cm. Vrao nnar]opme na crpyraunma oµ poxnana nma npeµnocr 60
o
(2 xom.), 65
o
- 70
o

(1 xom.), 75
o
(1 xom.), 80
o
(2 xom.), 85
o
(2 xom.), 85
o
- 90
o
(2 xom.) n 90
o
(1 xom.).
Perym na 10 xnapnnrnnx crpyraua je nenpannnan µnpexran, ysµnrnyr µo nonycrpm n
nonnpan na µncrannom xpajy, rµe ]opmnpa xonnexcan pyô na mecr npnmepaxa (T. XXIV/5–8),
µox na jeµnom ]opmnpa npan pyô (T. XXIV/9). Hsyserax je crpyrau ôp. 1990 (T. XXIV/10), xojn
na µncrannom xpajy nma nsyserno rpyô ôn]annjannn perym y xomônnannjn µnpexrnor nonycrp-
mor n nnnepsnor ¬ycnacror peryma. Cnn npnmepnn cy nenn, µyxnne nsmehy 2,7 cm n 5,6 cm, a
mnpnne oµ 1,6 cm µo 3,3 cm. Vrao nnar]opme nsnocn 50
o
(1 xom.), 65
o
(2 xom.), 85
o
(2 xom.) n 90
o

(1 xom.).
¡nojnn crpyraun
Hahen je camo jeµan npnmepax nspahen ynorpeôom nnnepsnor, nenpannnnor ysµnrnyror
peryma na npoxcnmannom n µncrannom xpajy nenpannnnor oµônrxa (ôp. 307; T. XXIV/2). Vno-
rpeônn rparonn nncy nspaxenn.
Ipyôn µncxonµnn crpyraun na xoprnxannnm oµônnnma
Hanacxom µna npnmepxa oµ poxnana n µna npnmepxa oµ xnapnnra, noxannrer Fnarornn
cnpcrao ce ys Henencxn nnp n Knennmre (Bapnh 1998; idem 2000), na xojnma je raxohe ennµen-
rnpan onaj neoma peµax rnn crpyraua.
Ha oôa crpyraua oµ poxnana, µopsanna crpana je noµ xoprexcom peunor oônyrxa. Ha oµ-
ônrxy ôp. 723 (T. XXIV/3) npoxcnmannn xpaj je oµnom¬en, µox ce µyxnnom nenor pyôa npyxa
µnpexran rpyô nonycrpmn perym. H na oµônrxy ôp. 859 (T. XXIV/4), na µopsannoj crpann je
cauynan xoprexc peunor oônyrxa, µox ce na pyôy nanasn neoma rpyô nansmennunn perym. Hn na
jeµnom oµ ona µna crpyraua nncy nspaxenn rparonn ynorpeôe.
J. Bapnh APTEuAKTH O¡ OKPECAHOI KAMEHA CA HOKAHHTETA FHAIOTHH – HO÷HA
56
¡na ]parmenronana xnapnnrna npnmepxa nmajy xoprexc na µopsannoj crpann. Ha oôa
oµônrxa nnpxymnarepanno je nsneµen µnpexran, neoma rpyô nonycrpmn perym, xojnm cy ]opmn-
pann onn µncxonµnn crpyraun (T. XXIV/11, 12).
Hn na jeµnom oµ nnx nncy youenn rparonn ynorpeôe.
HOCTPVBKE
Hahena cy camo rpn apre]axra xojn npnnaµajy onom rnny opyha, n ro jeµan oµ poxnana,
a µna oµ xnapnnra.
¡nojne nocrpymxe
Camo na jeµnom npnmepxy onor rnna opyha (T. XXV/1) npnmenen je µnpexran nopma-
nan perym na oôa narepanna pyôa, c rnm mro je na nenom pyôy neoma rpyô, a na µecnom je neno
µe]nnncan. Tparonn ynorpeôe y nnµy saoô¬enocrn pyôa npncyrnn cy na µecnom pyôy. Vrao
nnar]opme nma npeµnocr 85
o
.
Jeµnocrpyxe nocrpymxe
Onaj rnn opyha sacryn¬en je ca µna xnapnnrna npnmepxa. Ha oµônrxy ôp. 261 (T. XXV/2)
npnmenen je µnpexran nenpannnan nonycrpmn perym na µecnom pyôy, µox je na µecnom pyôy
oµônrxa ôp. 2131 (T. XXV/3) npnmenena xomônnannja ôn]annjannor nopmannor µo ysµnrnyror
peryma. Tparonn ynorpeôe ne mory µa ce youe, a yrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocr 75
o
(1 xom.).
HEPuOPATEPH
Hponaheno je 10 npnmepaxa, n ro ocam oµ poxnana, a no jeµan oµ xnapnnra n xnapna.
Hep]oparepn na oµônnnma
Ha rpn oµônrxa napnnjannnm mnxpomaprnnannnm, µnpexrnnm nnn nnnepsnnm perymem
na jeµnom nnn µna pyôa camo je nesnarno norennnpan neh nocrojehn npx (ôp. 931, ôp. 1046, ôp.
205; T. XXV/4–6), a jeµnno je na oµônrxy ôp. 520 (T. XXV/7) npnmenen µnpexran crpmn perym
na oôa pyôa µncrannor xpaja, unme je nsnpmena snarna moµn]nxannja n oônnxonane y nep]opa-
rep. Tparonn ynorpeôe nncy nspaxenn. ¡yxnna µna nena npnmepxa nsnocn 1,9 cm, oµnocno 4,7
cm, a mnpnna 1,0 cm n 3,6 cm. Vrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocr 70
o
(1 xom.) n 85
o
(1 xom.).
Ha oµônnnma oµ xnapna (T. XXV/12), oµnocno xnapnnra (T. XXV/13), µnpexrnnm nap-
nnjannnm mnxpomaprnnannnm perymem camo je nasnarno norennnpan nocrojehn npx, unme cy
apre]axrn µe]nnncann xao nep]oparepn. Tparonn ynorpeôe nncy nspaxenn, a yrao nnar]opme
nsnocn 65
o
, oµnocno 80
o
.
Hep]oparepn na ceunnnma
Hponahena cy uernpn npnmepxa xoµ xojnx je perym na oôa pyôa snarno moµn]nxonao
ceunna, oônnxyjyhn nx y nep]oparepe. Ha ceunny H-1017 (T. XXV/8) npnmenen je µnpexran
xonrnnynpan crpmn perym na oôa pyôa, a na ceunny ôp. 1079 (T. XXV/9) nnnepsan xonrnnynpan
nonycrpmn perym. Ha ceunny H-1018 (T. XXV/10) nsneµen je xonrnnynpan nopmannn perym xao
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
57
µnpexran na µecnom, a xao nnnepsan na nenom pyôy. Ha ceunny ôp. 85 (T. XXV/11) nanasn ce nap-
nnjanan ysµnrnyrn perym, n ro xao nnnepsan na µecnom, a nansmennuan na nenom pyôy.
Tparonn ynorpeôe y nnµy saoô¬enocrn pyôona na camom npxy nspaxenn cy na jeµnnom
nenom nep]oparepy H-1018 (T. XXV/10), µyxnne 3,3 cm, µox µyxnna ]parmenronannx npnmepa-
xa nsnocn µo 4,1 cm, a mnpnna oµ 1,0 cm µo 1,6 cm. Vrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocr 75
o
(1 xom.),
85
o
(1 xom.) n 95
o
(1 xom.).
OPVTE CA CTPMO PETVBHPAHHM HPEHOMOM
Hponaheno je ocam npnmepaxa nspahennx na ceunnnma oµ poxnana. Perym je µnpexran
n nonnpan na µncrannom xpajy, ocnm na npnmepxy ôp. 1064 (T. XXVI/1), na xome ce nanasn na
npoxcnmannom xpajy. 3ôor mane µeô¬nne ceunna, xoµ npnmepaxa ôp. 118 (T. XXVI/5) n 167 (T.
XXVI/4) ne moxe ce ronopnrn o crpmom, neh o mnxpomaprnnannom perymy. Ha ner npnmepaxa
perymnpann pyô je npan, saxomen y oµnocy na ysµyxny ocy ceunna (T. XXVI/2–5; T. XXVI/1), na
µna je npan n ynpanan na ocy ceunna (T. XXVI/6, 7), a na jeµnom npnmepxy je xonxanan, ynpanan
na ocy ceunna (T. XXVI/8). Ha uernpn apre]axra nanasn ce n napnnjanan µnpexran nnn nnnepsan
mnxpomaprnnannn perym na jeµnom nnn oôa narepanna pyôa (T. XXVI/3, 5, 8; T. XXVI/1).
Vnorpeôna nonnrypa, saoô¬enocr pyôa n mnxpoôpasµe ynpanne na perymnpann pyô ns-
paxenn cy na µna apre]axra (T. XXVI/7, 8) n pesynrar cy ynorpeôe y nponecy crpyrana. Ha
µna npnmepxa (T. XXVI/1) xapaxrepncrnuna rpoyrnacra nonpmnna noµ ynorpeônom nonnrypom,
npahena saxomennm mnxpoôpasµama, nacrana je ycneµ xopnmhena onnx apre]axara xao cac-
rannnx µenona xomnosnrnor opyha – cpnona.
¡yxnna uernpn nena apre]axra xpehe ce oµ 2,1 cm µo 4,0 cm, a mnpnna xoµ onor rnna
opyha nsnocn oµ 0,9 cm µo 1,9 cm.
OPVTE CA ¡HETACTHM PETVBEM
Ha Fnarornny je nponaheno mecr apre]axara na xojnma je npnmenen µneracrn perym.
Ha oµônrxy H-1082 (T. XXVI/9) µneracrn perym je nsneµen ns npoxcnmannor cmepa na
nenom pyôy. Koprexc peunor oônyrxa na onom oµônrxy oµ raxosnanor ôanxancxor xpemena yxasyje
na npnxyn¬ane cnponnne ns cexynµapnor nanasnmra, mro ôn ônna nnµnxannja n sa moryhe no-
nnpane re npcre poxnana na npocropy nenrpanne Cpônje.
Ha rpn ceunna µneracrn perym je nsneµen ns npoxcnmannor cmepa na nenom, oµnocno
µecnom pyôy (T. XXVI/10–12), a na jeµnom npnmepxy ns µncrannor cmepa (T. XXVI/13). Camo na
jeµnom ceunny perym je npnmenen na npoxcnmannom xpajy, ann ca narepannor pyôa, ynpanno na
ocy ceunna (T. XXVI/14).
Vnorpeônn rparonn nspaxenn cy na jeµnom npnmepxy n nornyno pexoncrpynmy nerony
ynorpeôy (T. XXVI/12). Fnara nonnrypa na ncnynuennm µenonnma nonpmnne noµ xapôonarnnm
xoprexcom na µncrannom xpajy pesynrar je xperana neµono¬no npnunpmhenor ceunna y µpxa¬n
oµ µpnera, xocrn nnn pora (Winiarska-Kabacinska 1995). Fnara nonnrypa na camom npxy pyôa ca
µneracrnm perymem yxasyje µa je apre]axr xopnmhen xao anarxa sa rpannpane (Cemenon 1957:
pnc. 38, 79).
J. Bapnh APTEuAKTH O¡ OKPECAHOI KAMEHA CA HOKAHHTETA FHAIOTHH – HO÷HA
58
Cnn npnmepnn cy ]parmenronann, µyxnne oµ 2,4 cm µo 5,2 cm n mnpnne oµ 1,0 cm µo
1,7 cm. Vrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocr 60
o
(1 xom.), 80
o
(1 xom.) n 85
o
(2 xom.).
IEOMETPHJCKH MHKPOHHTH
Ieomerpnjcxo opyhe na Fnarornny sacryn¬eno je ca mecr rpanesa n jeµnnm cermenrom, a
cnn npnmepnn cy nspahenn oµ pasnnunrnx napnjerera poxnana.
Tpanesn
uernpn npnmepxa cy xnacnunn rpanesn ca saxomennm rpancnepsannnm perymem na npe-
nomnma. Ha ceunnnma ôp. 898, ôp. 7 n ôp. 719 (T. XXVI/15–17) perym je na oôa npenoma µnpex-
ran, a na ceunny ôp. 2268 (T. XXVI/18) na oôa npenoma je nnnepsan, c rnm mro ce µennmnuno
nporexe n na µyxoj crpannnn.
Tpanes ôp. 453 (T. XXVI/19) nsyseran je no ynorpeôn peryma n na yxoj crpannnn, xoja je
]opmnpana xonxannn pyô, n jeµnny µnpexrny ananornjy nma y npnmepxy ns Benecnnne (Bapnh
1998: 202, T. VII/10.), oµnocno y rapµenyasnjencxom marepnjany ca noxannrera Hanom y Pymy-
nnjn (Paunescu 1970).
Vnorpeônn rparonn y nnµy nonnrype npahene saxomennm mnxpoôpasµama nspaxenn cy
na nenpannnnom rpanesy na xome je perym nsneµen camo na jeµnom npenomy, µox je na µpyrom
xpajy ocran¬en npnmapnn pyô, nacrao naxon oµônjana ca jesrpa (T. XXVI/20).
Cermenrn
Camo jeµan cermenr ]opmnpan je ynorpeôom µnpexrnor nopmannor µo nonycrpmor pery-
ma (T. XXVI/21). Vnorpeônn rparonn nspaxenn cy y nnµy xapaxrepncrnune rpoyrnacre nonpmn-
ne noµ nonnrypom, xoja je npahena saoô¬enomhy pyôa n saxomennm mnxpoôpasµama.
OPVTE CA JAMHuACTHM PETVBEM
Hponaheno je 16 npnmepaxa, oµ xojnx je 10 nspaheno oµ pasnnunrnx napnjerera poxnana,
a mecr oµ xnapnnra. Ha uernpn ceunna (T. XXVII/1, 2) n jeµnom oµônrxy (T. XXVII/3) npnmenen
je µnpexran napnnjanan mnxpomaprnnannn perym, a raxohe na uernpn ceunna (T. XXVII/4, 5) n
jeµnom oµônrxy (T. XXVII/6) nnnepsan napnnjanan mnxpomaprnnannn perym. Tparonn ynorpeôe
nncy nspaxenn nn na jeµnom apre]axry oµ poxnana.
Heo je camo apre]axr ôp. 2239 (T. XXVII/3), µyxnne 3,4 cm n mnpnne 2,2 cm, µox ce
µyxnna ]parmenronannx apre]axara xpehe y rpannnama oµ 1,2 cm µo 3,8 cm, a mnpnna oµ 1,1
cm µo 2,1 cm. Vrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocr 55
o
(1 xom.).
Mnxpomaprnnannn napnnjannn perym npnmenen je xao nnnepsan na µna xnapnnrna oµ-
ônrxa (T. XXVII/7), a xao µnpexran raxohe na µna oµônrxa (T. XXVII/8, 9). Ha µna oµônrxa nsne-
µen je napnnjannn µnpexrnn ysµnrnyrn perym (ôp. 1681; T. XXVII/10).
Ha xnapnnrnnm oµônnnma ca jamnuacrnm perymem, sôor nenpannnne nonpmnne n nspa-
xene pe]nexcnje, nncy mornn µa ce youe rparonn ynorpeôe. ¡yxnna µna nena npnmepxa nsnocn
2,7 cm n 3,0 cm, a mnpnna 3,2 cm n 3,4 cm. ¡yxnna ]parmenronannx npnmepaxa xpehe ce µo 3,5
cm. Vrao nnar]opme nma npeµnocr 80
o
(3 xom.) n 85
o
(1 xom.).
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
59
„O÷VBTEHO” OPVTE
Ha noxannrery Fnarornn „o¬ymrenn” apre]axrn nncy sacryn¬enn y snauajnnjem ôpojy.
Hponahena cy rpn oµônrxa oµ poxnana (T. XXVII/11, 12) n µna oµ xnapnnra (T. XXVII/13, 14),
ca xapaxrepncrnunnm nerarnnnnm ]anerama cynporcran¬ennm ns npoxcnmannor n µncrannor
cmepa. Tparonn naxnaµne ynorpeôe nncy nspaxenn nn na jeµnom apre]axry.
¡yxnna npnmepaxa oµ poxnana nsnocn oµ 1,9 cm µo 2,7 cm, a mnpnna oµ 1,9 cm µo 2,7
cm, µox je µyxnna xnapnnrnnx npnmepaxa oµ 2,6 cm µo 3,6 cm, a mnpnna oµ 1,8 cm µo 2,1 cm.
Vrao nnar]opme xoµ poxnauxnx oµônraxa nma npeµnocr 85
o
(1 xom.) n 90
o
(1 xom.), a xoµ xnap-
nnrnnx 85
o
n 90
o
.
KOMFHHOBAHO OPVTE
Camo jeµan npnmepax na oµônrxy oµ poxnana (ôp. 2257; T. XXVII/15) cjeµnnno je y ceôn
]ynxnnje rpn anarxe:
µnojnn crpyrau + nocrpymxa + opyhe ca jamnuacrnm perymem.
¡npexrnnm ysµnrnyrnm perymem na npoxcnmannom xpajy n crpmnm na µncrannom xpajy
]opmnpan je µnojnn crpyrau. ¡npexran nopmanan µo ysµnrnyr perym na µecnom pyôy ]opmnpa
nocrpymxy, a napnnjanan µnpexran mnxpomaprnnannn na nenom pyôy ]opmnpa opyhe ca jamn-
uacrnm perymem. Tparonn ynorpeôe nncy nspaxenn.
“CHOPPING TOOLS”
Hponahena cy µna apre]axra xoja npeµcran¬ajy npann anaxponnsam (Mnxannonnh 1993:
13–16) n nsyserny nojany y oµnocy na cne µpyre noxannrere ca xojnx nornue marepnjan oôpahen
y onom paµy. Peu je o peunnm oônynnma na xojnma je npnmenen napnnjanan ôn]annjannn perym
cxnµanem nehnx rpyônx oµônraxa, xojn cy ocrannnn nenpannnan nnxnax pyô nacnpam xora je
ocrana neomrehena nonpmnna noµ xoprexcom peunor oônyrxa, noroµna sa µpxane y pynn (T.
XXVII/16; T. XXVIII/1). Oôa apre]axra cy xopnmhena xao yµapaun, sa rpyô¬e npcre nocnona, a
o rome cneµoun n rpyô ynorpeônn perym ]opmnpan na ceunny neher apre]axra (T. XXVIII/1)
HPOJEKTHHH
Kao rnn oxpecannx apre]axara xojn y oxnnpy crapuenauxe xynrype nema jaxo ynopnmre,
npojexrnnn cy na Fnarornny sacryn¬enn jeµnnm npnmepxom xojn je, xao n “chopping tools”, nsy-
serna n remxo oôjamnnna nojana. Peu je o oµônrxy na xome je xomônnannja µnpexrnor ysµnrny-
ror µo crpmor peryma ]opmnpana µna rpancnepsanna npana n saxomena pyôa, mro my µaje ]opmy
neoma nncoxor rpanesa (ôp. 2241; T. XXVII/17; Šaric 2005a). Taxan rnn rpanesa nnje y cnaxom
cnyuajy xopnmhen xao cacrannn µeo xomnosnrnor opyha, a µnpexrne ananornje nma y npnmep-
nnma ca mesonnrcxnx n neonnrcxnx nanasnmra y Cxanµnnannjn (Müller-Karpe 1968; Sieveking
1975; Brindley 1986). Ieorpa]cxn n xynrypno µna snarno ônnxa ananorna npnmepxa nornuy ns
Crapueno – Kpnm xomnnexca, ca pymyncxor noxannrera Kynna Typxynyj (Cuina Turcului) – ¡y-
ôona (Dubova) (Paunescu 1970).
J. Bapnh APTEuAKTH O¡ OKPECAHOI KAMEHA CA HOKAHHTETA FHAIOTHH – HO÷HA
60
H nopeµ ananornja na repnropnjn Pymynnje, nojana rpancnepsanne crpene na Fnarornny
morna ôn µa npeµcran¬a rnnnuan cnyuaj xonneprenrne enonynnje y rexnonomxnm nocrynnnma
xojn, nesanncno oµ nepnoµa, reorpa]cxor npocropa n xynrypne rpaµnnnje, pesynryjy nµenrnu-
nnm pemennma y nponecy nspaµe, a napounro y xonaunom oônnxy apre]axra.
***
Oµ 2349 oxpecannx apre]axara ca Fnarornna, uax 1343 npnmepxa cy ce nanasnna y ox-
nnpy cramôennx oôjexara oôenexennx xao semynnne 3M 03, 3M 04, 3M 06 n 3M 07. V semynnnn
3M 03 nponaheno je 11, y semynnnn 3M 04 – 189, y semynnnn 3M 06 – 759 n y semynnnn 3M
07 – 384 oxpecannx apre]axara. V cnaxoj oµ one uernpn semynnne, ocnm perymnpannx n rnno-
nomxn jacno µe]nnncannx apre]axara, nahen je n nehn ôpoj neoôpahennx xomaµa cnponnncxor
marepnjana, jesrapa n neperymnpannx oµônraxa n ceunna. Vs nomenyrnx 14 npnmepaxa opyha sa
nspaµy oxpecannx apre]axara, namehe ce necymnnn sax¬yuax µa cy ce y oxnnpy onnx oôjexara
nanasnna ne camo paµna mecra neh npane paµnonnne.
Ha 32 apre]axra rparonn ropena nspaxenn cy y roj mepn µa ce nn sa jeµan npnmepax
ne moxe pehn µa je na nemy npmena repmnuxa oôpaµa paµn noôo¬mana nen¬nnocrn. C µpyre
crpane, ner npnmepaxa nornue ns semynnne 3M 04, a µna ns semynnne 3M 06, sa xoje nocroje
ynep¬nnn µoxasn µa cy ônne paµnonnne n rµe je ônno neoma moryhe µa je, npnnnxom nspaµe ox-
pecannx apre]axara, µeo oµônraxa µocneo y ornnmre n nnamen. Cnn ocrann npnmepnn nornuy
ca pasnnunrnx nonpmnna n ns pasnnunrnx orxonnnx cnojena, mro ôn ôno jom jeµan nocpeµan
µoxas µa xonnenrpannja naropennx apre]axara ca Vmha Kamennuxor noroxa yxasyje na pasapane
axo ne nenor, onµa ôap jeµnor µena nace¬a.
Knannreran cnponnncxn marepnjan, xora je na Fnarornny ônno y nennxnm xonnunnama,
nnje ôno µono¬an µa nnµycrpnja y nennnn ocrann yrncax n xnannrernor paµa.
Hnax, ceunna cy neoma sacryn¬ena y nnµycrpnjn oxpecanor xamena na Fnarornny, a nn-
xono yuemhe oµ 14,51% neperymnpannx n 2,68% perymnpannx npnmepaxa µenyje penarnnno
cxpomno camo sôor nsyserno nennxor ôpoja oµônraxa oµ poxnana n xnapnnra, xojn cy nesann sa
necymnnn nonoxaj paµnonnna y semynnuxnm oôjexrnma 3M 04, 3M 06 n 3M 07. 3narna yxynna
sacryn¬enocr ceunna, xao n ôpoj ceunna ca nspaxenom nonnrypom nocneµnna cy npnpoµnnx
ycnona xojn cy y ônarom noôphy oxo Fnarornna omoryhanann pasnnrax sem¬opaµne. Cranµap-
µnsannja oônnxa n nojana nennxor ôpoja ceunna, xpahnx (ca nspaxenom nonnrypom) n µyxnx (na
xojnma moxe µa ôyµe nspaxena nonnrypa, ann y manem oônmy nero xoµ xparxnx ceunna), nncy
xapaxrepncrnxe camo crapuenauxe xynrype. Peu je o nojann nponsamnoj ns npomene exonomnxe,
rj. o cne nehem snauajy sem¬opaµne n rajeny xnrapnna, xoje cy ceuene npannm cpnonnma, ca
nehnm ôpojem yxoco ycahennx xparxnx ceunna nnn reomerpnjcxnx mnxponnra, n xomnosnrnnm
noxennma y xoje je, napanenno ca ocom µpmxe, ônno ycaheno jeµno, µna nnn nnme µyxnx ceun-
na. ¡omnnannjy maxponnrcxnx ceunna, noceôno onnx ca nonnrypom (“sickle-gloss”), P. Tpnnram
oôjamnana nonnm ]ynxnnjama opyha, xoje cy oµnene npenary naµ ]ynxnnjama xoje cy nyµnna
mnxponnrcxa ceunna, n nnxony nojany youana y panom n cpeµnem neonnry Ipuxe, oµnocno y
oxnnpy xynrype Kapanono I, xao n y crapuenauxoj xynrypn (Tringham 1968).
O nonnoj exonomnnn, xoja nnje ônna nanymrena, a neponarno je µoôpnm µenom ônna ôa-
snpana na samxama n opyxjy oµ marepnjana xojn nnje cauynan, mehy oxpecannm apre]axrnma
nocpeµne noµarxe npyxa nanas rpancnepsanne crpene.
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
61
Kaµa je peu o nnµycrpnjn oxpecanor xamena y crapnjem n cpeµnem neonnry na rny Cp-
ônje, Fnarornn npeµcran¬a cnenn]nxym xaxo no nanasy apxanunnx “chopping tools” raxo n no
apre]axrnma xao mro cy rpyô µncxonµnn crpyrau na xoprnxannom oµônrxy, rpanes ca xonxannom
yxom crpannnom n rpancnepsanna crpena (Šaric 2000). ¡a nn je nojana onnx apre]axara ônna pe-
synrar xynrypnnx yrnnaja nnn je peu o ycam¬ennm npnmepnma xonneprenrne enonynnje, noxasahe
rex napeµna ncrpaxnnana n nopehene ca npnmepnnma ns ôyµyhnx sônpxn apre]axara oµ oxpeca-
nor xamena. V cnaxom cnyuajy, nnµycrpnja ceunna nnje na cnnm npocropnma snaunna xonauan n
nornyn npexnµ ca mnxponnrcxnm ceunnnma n nnµycrpnjom rpanesa mesonnrcxnx xynrypa, xaxo
ro npernocran¬a P. Tpnnram (Tringham 1968). Heonnr je µoneo nsnecny cranµapµnsannjy xoja ce
orneµa y cmanenom ôpojy ocnonnnx rnnona opyha, mehy xojnma najnaxnnja nocrajy ceunna, xoja
najnehy npnmeny nanase y xomnosnrnnm anarxama, maµa uecro nonpnmajy n xapaxrep opyha ca
nnmecrpyxnm ]ynxnnjama. Bnmenamencxo xopnmhene ce na ocnony ynorpeônnx rparona youana
n na apre]axrnma xao mro cy crpyraun nnn nocrpymxe, opyhe ca crpmoperymnpannm npenomom,
oµnocno ca µneracrnm perymem, a noceôno je nspaxena ynorpeôa xomônnonanor opyha xoje y
ceôn moxe µa cjeµnnn ]ynxnnje µo rpn ocnonna rnna.
Toxom crapnjer n cpeµner neonnra enonyrnnnn npanan apre]axara oµ oxpecanor xamena,
a nanasnmre na Fnarornny camo je jeµan oµ penpesenara, jacno noxasyje nspaxene xapaxrepnc-
rnxe crarnannje n nocrenenor onaµana re nnµycrpnje, mro naronemrana neymnran xpaj y µyroj
enonynnjn re npcre opyha n opyxja.
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1993 Making Silent Stones Speak, human evolution and the dawn of technology. New York: Simon &
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J. Bapnh APTEuAKTH O¡ OKPECAHOI KAMEHA CA HOKAHHTETA FHAIOTHH – HO÷HA
64
Josip Šaric
Chipped stone artefacts from the site Blagotin–Poljna
Summary
Chipped stone artefacts are the most enduring and often the only evidence of human presence in a
place, and on archaeological sites they often occur in association with tools used for core preparation and shap-
ing, for knapping the core and subsequent retouching. Except for scars left on artefacts themselves, information
about the manner of their manufacture, subsequent shaping and modiÞcation to suit the intended purpose is
provided by the tools used in the process. For making anvils, percussors and retouchers, stone, bone, antler and
wood are used.
From the examples discovered on the site of Blagotin, the following classes may be identiÞed at
present:
1. anvils
2. anvils-percussors
3. percussors (direct percussion)
4. percussors-retouchers
6. retouchers
With a total of 2349 chipped stone artefacts, Blagotin is a relatively rich Neolithic site, and it is also
characteristic for a remarkably large number of quartzite artefacts producing an almost completely developed
typological picture, which includes pieces of raw materials, precores, cores, unretouched and retouched ßakes
and blades, scrapers, sidescrapers, perforators, tools with a notched retouch and “peeled” tools.
Relative proportions of the raw materials used are as follows:
– chert: 1004 pieces (42.74%)
– quartzite: 1311 pieces (55. 81%)
– quartz: 29 pieces (1.23%)
– white rock of varied origin: 3 pieces (0.12%)
– obsidian: 2 pieces (0.08%)
Typological and morphological analysis coupled with the raw materials has given the results shown
in Table 1.
Of 2349 chipped stone artefacts from Blagotin as many as 1342 were found within residential struc-
tures labelled as pit dwellings ZM 03, ZM 04, ZM 06 and ZM 07, which yielded 11, 189, 759 and 384 artefacts
respectively. Apart from retouched and typologically unambiguous artefacts, each of the four pit dwellings
yielded a large number of unworked pieces of raw materials, cores and unretouched ßakes and blades. When
the above 14 tools for making chipped stone artefacts are added, it clearly follows that these structures housed
not just working places but true workshops.
Thirty-two artefacts show traces of burning to the extent that none can be said to have been heat-
treated for improving ßaking quality. On the other hand, Þve pieces come from ZM 04 and two from ZM 06,
two pits convincingly proved to have been workshops where debitage could have easily ended up in the hearth
or Þre. All other examples came from different sections and different excavation layers, which may be another
circumstantial proof that the concentration of scorched artefacts at the conßuence of the Kamenicki Potok is
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
65
indicative of the destruction of the settlement, if not of the entire then at least of a part of it.
The raw material of good quality, abundantly available at Blagotin, was not enough for the industry as
a whole to give the impression of Þne craftsmanship. Nonetheless, the presence of blades in the chipped stone
industry of Blagotin is signiÞcant and their proportions of 14.51% unretouched and 2.68% retouched appear
as comparatively modest only in relation to the exceptionally large number of chert and quartzite ßakes, which
are related to the unquestionable location of workshops in pits ZM 04, ZM 06 and ZM 07. The signiÞcant pres-
ence of blades and the number of blades with a marked polish should be ascribed to the natural environment
of Blagotin, gentle hillsides favourable to agriculture. A standardization of shapes and the presence of a large
number of blades, both shorter (with a marked polish) and longer (on which polish may be marked but less than
in shorter), is not characteristic only of the Starcevo culture. It is a phenomenon resulting from a shift in the
economy reßected in the increasing importance of agriculture and the growing of cereal crops harvested with
straight sickles, with a number of short blades or geometric microliths obliquely Þtted into the handle, and with
composite knives with two or more blades Þtted parallel with the axis of the handle. The predominance of mac-
rolithic blades, especially those with a polish (“sickle-gloss”), Ruth Tringham explains by the new functions of
tools which now prevailed over the functions offered by microlithic blades, and she detects their appearance in
the Early and Middle Neolithic of Greece, and in Karanovo I and Starcevo cultures.
The hunting economy, which was not abandoned but probably largely depended on traps and weapons
made of perishable materials, is indirectly suggested by the Þnd of a transverse arrowhead among the ßaked
artefacts.
In the Early and Middle Neolithic chipped stone industry in Serbia, Blagotin is a speciÞc case both
by the Þnds of archaic chopping tools and by the artefacts such as a rough discoid scraper on a cortical ßake, a
trapeze with the concave narrower side and the transverse arrowhead. Whether the presence of these artefacts
is the result of cultural inßuences or they are lonely examples of convergent evolution is yet to be shown by fu-
ture research and comparison with other lithic assemblages. At any rate, the blade industry did not mean a total
and Þnal break with the microlith and trapeze industries of Mesolithic cultures, as suggested by R. Tringham.
The Neolithic brought about a certain degree of standardization reßected in the reduced number of basic tool
types, with blades coming to the fore and being mostly used in composite tools, although often assuming the
character of multipurpose tools. This multipurpose use is obvious from usewear marks even for artefacts such
as scrapers and sidescrapers, tools with a steep-retouched break or burinate retouch, and especially intense is
the use of tools combining the functions of up to three basic tool types.
The evolutionary trend of chipped stone artefacts during the Early and Middle Neolithic, and the site
at Blagotin is just one of the representatives, shows clear signs of the stagnation and decline of the industry,
presaging the inevitable end in the long evolution of that kind of tools and weapons.
V¡K 903.21.01 (497.11 Fnarornn)’’634’’
J. Bapnh APTEuAKTH O¡ OKPECAHOI KAMEHA CA HOKAHHTETA FHAIOTHH – HO÷HA
66
Haxonnn (1–3); naxonnn-nepxyrepn (4–6)
Anvils (1–3); anvils-percussors (4–6)
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna I / Plate I
67
Hepxyrepn
Percussors
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna II / Plate II
68
Hepxyrepn
Percussors
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna III / Plate III
69
Hepxyrepn (1–2); nepxyrepn-perymepn (3–4); perymepn (5–7)
Percussors (1–2); percussors-retouchers (3–4); retouchers (5–7)
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna IV / Plate IV
70
Hpejesrpa (1–2); xonnuna mnxpojesrpa (3–8)
Precores (1–2); conical microcores (3–8)
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna V / Plate V
71
Konnuna jesrpa
Conical cores
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna VI / Plate VI
72
Knnnacra mnxpojesrpa (1–2); xnnnacra jesrpa (3–7)
Wedge microcores (1–2); wedge cores (3–7)
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna VII / Plate VII
73
Hnnnnµpnuna mnxpojesrpa (1–5); nnnnnµpnuna jesrpa (6–9)
Cylindrical microcores (1–5); cylindrical cores (6–9)
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna VIII / Plate VIII
74
Inoôynapna mnxpojesrpa (1–6); rnoôynapna jesrpa (7–10)
Globular microcores (1–6); globular cores (7–10)
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna IX / Plate IX
75
Knaµapcxa mnxpojesrpa (1); xnaµapcxa jesrpa (2–3);
ônnonapna „o¬ymrena” mnxpojesrpa (4); nenpannnna mnxpojesrpa (5–9)
Cuboid microcores (1); cuboid cores (2–3); bipolar “peeled” microcores
(4); irregular microcores (5–9)
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna X / Plate X
76
Henpannnna mnxpojesrpa (1–3); nenpannnna jesrpa (4–7)
Irregular microcores (1–3); irregular cores (4–7)
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XI / Plate XI
77
Henpannnna jesrpa
Irregular cores
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XII / Plate XII
78
Oµônnn n ceunna sa npnnpemy, oµnocno sa noµmnahnnane jesrapa (1–8);
neperymnpann oµônnn (9–18)
Flakes and blades for core preparation or rejuvenation (1–8); unretouched ßakes (9–18)
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XIII / Plate XIII
79
Heperymnpann oµônnn
Unretouched ßakes
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XIV / Plate XIV
80
Heperymnpann oµônnn
Unretouched ßakes
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XV / Plate XV
81
Heperymnpana ceunna
Unretouched blades
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XVI / Plate XVI
82
Heperymnpana ceunna
Unretouched blades
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XVII / Plate XVII
83
Heperymnpana ceunna
Unretouched blades
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XVIII / Plate XVIII
84
Perymnpann oµônnn
Retouched ßakes
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XIX / Plate XIX
85
Perymnpann oµônnn
Retouched ßakes
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XX / Plate XX
86
Perymnpana ceunna
Retouched blades
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XXI / Plate XXI
87
Perymnpana ceunna
Retouched blades
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XXII / Plate XXII
88
Perymnpana ceunna (1–7); crpyraun na oµônnnma (8–19)
Retouched blades (1–7); scrapers on ßakes (8–19)
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XXIII / Plate XXIII
89
Crpyraun na oµônnnma (1, 5–10); µnojnn crpyraun (2); rpyôn µncxonµnn crpyraun
na xoprnxannnm oµônnnma (3–4, 11–12)
Scrapers on ßakes (1, 5–10); double scrapers (2); crude discoid scrapers on cortical ßakes (3–4, 11–12)
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XXIV / Plate XXIV
90
¡nojne nocrpymxe (1); jeµnocrpyxe nocrpymxe (2–3);
nep]oparepn na oµônnnma (4–7, 12–13); nep]oparepn na ceunnnma (8–11)
Double sidescrapers (1); single sidescrapers (2–3); perforators on ßakes (4–7, 12–13);
perforators on blades (8–11)
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XXV / Plate XXV
91
Opyhe ca crpmo perymnpannm npenomom (1–8);
opyhe ca µneracrnm perymem (9–14); reomerpnjcxn mnxponnrn (15–21)
Tools with steep-retouched break (1–8); tools with burinate retouch (9–14); geometric microliths (15–21)
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XXVI / Plate XXVI
92
Opyhe ca jamnuacrnm perymem (1–10); „o¬ymreno” opyhe (11–14);
xomônnonano opyhe (15); “chopping tool” (16); npojexrnn (17)
Tools with notched retouch (1–10); “peeled” tools (11–14); combined tools (15);
“chopping tools” (16); projectile (17)
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XXVII / Plate XXVII
93
“Chopping tool”
J. Bapnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna XXVIII / Plate XXVIII
2$-$)!*,"-+ -+/1$*&%+ ./&,'+ &!
$K1$3-$%/2/&$&%/2 $ F$#/3! ,./*"+L!
36T5>;9Q H5;5=6Q5<
Feorpaµ
!=>?89@?: 1(4$C+ ;20$%+ ( O5,-/(0+ :(,(0$45*,(7 ,+2>(4B-(7 ;2B5#$ B$ (">(%,(-2:/B(B-2: 5 B*;B-20
$*7+2>2@(0( #2 B$#$ ,(0+ *$B;*$%I$,2 5 %+S20 :+*(. X+#(,2 0+ ;*2O. G(>20+ K$B(S, 1936. @2#(,+, 2#*+#(2
2%$-%+ ;2B5#+, 8+" 28"(*$ ,$ C(72%5 %+>(&(,5, -$2 ,+-5 %*B45 >$:;( ,$ 5I+. J$,$?C(: 5%(#2: 5 8*20 (
O5,-/(2,$>,+ -$*$-4+*(B4(-+ :(,(0$45*,(7 ;2B5#$ B$ B(B-2:, &(,( B+ #$ 2,+ ,+ :2@5 ;*+#B4$%I$4(
,+-5 %*B45 >$:;(, ,(4( #$ B5 5;24*+8I$%$,+ "$ #*<$C+ (>( ;*2:+4 4+&,2B4(. L$ 2B,2%5 +4,2>2?-+,
;2B+8,2 +4,2:+#(/(,B-+ >(4+*$45*+ ( &(C+,(/+ #$ 0+ ?(*2: M$>-$,B-2@$ ;2>52B4*%$ >+&+C+ #(:2:
*$",(7 8(I$-$ 8(>2 ?(*2-2 *$B;*2B4*$C+,2, :(,(0$45*,+ ;2B5#+ :2@5 B+ B$@>+#$4( ( 5 #*5@$&(0+:
B%+4>5. ) 42: -2,4+-B45, 2%( ;*+#:+4( ,(B5 %*B4$ ;2B5#$ %+S ,+2>(4B-+ >5>+.
%ABCDE 8EC5: ,+2>(4, :(,(0$45*,+ ;2B5#+ B$ B(B-2:, >$:;$, >5>$, +4,2>2@(0$, >+&+C+, -$A+C+, ;5-
?+C+, $*2:$4(&,+ 4*$%+.
Hpoônemy ]ynxnnje mnnnjarypnnx neonnrcxnx nocyµa ca nsnnnnnxom/cncxom y µomahoj
apxeonornjn µo caµa nnje nocnehnnana noceôna naxna. ¡oµyme, y nexonnxo paµona ayropn cy ce
ôannnn nnrannma nojane n ]ynxnnje mnnnjarypnnx nocyµa y najmnpem cmncny, ys xpahn ocnpr
n na onaxne nocyµe sa nsnnnane (Hernna 1967; ÷amnh-Banonnh 1983). C µpyre crpane, ôpoj µo
caµa oôjan¬ennx npnmepaxa je neoma mann, mro moxµa npeµcran¬a jeµan oµ pasnora nesann-
repeconanocrn crpyunaxa sa ony npoônemarnxy. Taxohe, nojeµnnn npnmepnn nyônnxonann cy
y npemencxom pasmaxy nehem oµ 70 roµnna, raxo µa nnje ônno naxo carneµarn nnxony peanny
xonnunny, nnrn nx nonesarn jeµne ca µpyrnma.
Behe neonnrcxe nocyµe ca nsnnnnnxom/cncxom raxohe nncy npnnyxne naxny ncrpaxn-
naua, a nnrannma nnxone ]ynxnnje najnnme ce ôanno npo]. Mnnoje Bacnh jom, caµa µanne,
1936. roµnne (Bacnh 1936: 22 n µa¬e). Beh na nouerxy cnor jesrponnror npnnora, on je narnacno
µa 5;24*+8$ %$"$ B$ -I5,2: (>( B$ B(B-2: ,(0+ ;25"#$,2 2#*+A+,$ (ibid.) n noxymao je µa nx
oôjacnn xao nocyµe xoje cy xopnmhene xao namne, oµnocno xao nexa npcra neonnrcxnx xnxaxa,
a cncax je oµpeµno xao mecro sa nocran¬ane crenaxa, rj. ]nrn¬a. Hn xoµ jeµne nocyµe Bacnh ne
nanoµn µa je cncax cnyxno sa nsnnnane reunocrn, uax ce n npornnn roj nµejn, a xao jeµan oµ ap-
rymenara nomnne ananornje ca xnmnnma ns I mnnennjyma crape epe, ca repnropnje Ipuxe (ibid.).
96
Hapanno, on je oôyxnarno nocyµe pasnnunre nennunne n nocne pasnnunrnx cncaxa, oµnocno ns-
nnnnnxa: mannx n nehnx ornopa, nocran¬ennx ynpanno na nocyµy, re onnx xojn ce nanase n noµ
omrpnm n noµ rynnm yrnom nnn ce npenamajy nexom npcrom „xonena” narope, xao n ornopennx
nsnnnnnxa na camome oôoµy nocyµe (nnp. ibid.: 81, cn. 115/N
o
965).
Ayrop onora paµa nema namepy µa ce ôann ononprananem sax¬yuaxa npo]. Bacnha neh
µa, nanpornn, µonexne xpene yrprom nnrepnperarnnnom crasom nerone 1*+(B42*(0B-+ K(,&+,
µa y cnerny nonnx nanasa na nexn naunn µonynn cam xopnyc n µa npyxn jeµno oµ moryhnx oôja-
mnena ]ynxnnje onnx nocyµa.
***
Ha ocnony nyônnxonannx nanasa n xonernjanne nomohn, µo caµa je nsµnojeno 14 npnme-
paxa mnnnjarypnnx nocyµa ca cncxom xojn nornuy ca repnropnje Cpônje.
1. Hoxannrer Fynnmre y Xyjnnny xoµ Hpemena, crapuenauxa xynrypa (Fynaronnh, Tomonnh n Kanypan
2005: 415, T. III/11).
Mnnnjarypna ônxonnuna nocyµa µeôennx snµona, ramnonpnene ôoje, ca cncxom xojn crojn ynpanno na
pennnnjenr. Bncnna 52 mm, npeunnx ornopa 35 mm, npeunnx µna 22 mm, µeô¬nna snµa 8 mm, npeunnx
ornopa cncxa 3.5 mm (T. I/1).
2. Hoxannrer Hnounnx, nnnuancxa xynrypa (Crojnh n Jonnh 2005: 203, T. LXXXII/3).
Mnnnjarypna ônxonnuna nocyµa ca nnnnnµpnunnm nparom, yrnauane nonpmnne, ramnocnne ôoje, ca cnc-
xom. Bncnna 70 mm, npeunnx ornopa 45 mm, npeunnx µna 11 mm, µeô¬nna snµa 5 mm, npeunnx ornopa
cncxa 3.3 mm (T. I/2).
3. Hoxannrer Hpxnnne, nnnuancxa xynrypa (nenyônnxonano).
1
Mnnnjarypna nonracra nocyµa cpeµne rpyôe ]axrype n neoôpahene nonpmnne, cnne ôoje, ca cncxom xojn
crojn ynpanno na pennnnjenr. Bncnna 53 mm, npeunnx ornopa 47 mm, npeunnx µna 24 mm, µeô¬nna snµa
3.3 mm, npeunnx ornopa cncxa 4 mm (T. I/3a, b).
4. Hoxannrer Iomonana, nnnuancxa xynrypa (Craponnh 2004: 42).
Mnnnjarypna ônxonnuna nocyµa neoôpahene nonpmnne, oxep ôoje, ca xpahnm cncxom nocran¬ennm ônaro
nannxe, oxapaxrepncana xao „nynnna” (ibid.). Ha ynyrpamnoj crpann npara nanase ce ypesann „snann”.
Bncnna 38 mm, npeunnx ornopa 23 mm, npeunnx µna 24 mm, µeô¬nna snµa 5 mm, npeunnx ornopa cncxa
3.5 mm (T. I/4a-c).
5. Hoxannrer Bnnua, nnnuancxa xynrypa (ncxonanana 1912, nenyônnxonano,
2
¡nennnx ncxonanana, Bnnua
1912, crp. 71).
1
3axna¬yjem ce Paµnnojy Apcnhy ns 3anoµa sa samrnry cnomennxa xynrype Ba¬eno, na nnycrpannjn n oµoôpeny µa
nyônnxyjem onaj nanas.
2
C oôsnpom na unnennny µa je µeo marepnjana ca Bnnue noxpanen y Hapoµnom mysejy y Feorpaµy n µa je rpenyrno
neµocrynan ycneµ naxonana sônpxe sôor pexoncrpyxnnje srpaµe Myseja, nanasn µo 1929. roµnne ca Bnnue ônnn cy
neµocrynnn. 3axna¬yjem ce npo]. µp Henaµy Tacnhy na µonymreny µa xopncrnm µnrnrannsonann µnennnx Mnnoja
Bacnha, ns xojer cy ysern noµann sa npnmepxe µo roµnne 1929.
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
97
B. unnnnonnh MHHHJATVPHE HEOHHTCKE HOCV¡E CA H3HHBHHKOM/CHCKOM H BHXOBA VHOTPEFA
Ipyô¬a nnnnnµpnuna nocyµa ca pannnm µnom n µyxnm cncxom nocran¬ennm ynpanno na pennnnjenr.
Hoµann o µnmensnjama n pasmepn ne nocroje, ann ce, na ocnony Bacnhenor „crnna” nprana marepnjana y
µnennnnnma, unnn µa je y nnrany mana nocyµa. Orxpnnena je na µyônnn oµ 2.3 m (T. II/1).
6. Hoxannrer Bnnua, nnnuancxa xynrypa (ncxonanana 1929, nenyônnxonano,
3
¡nennnx ncxonanana, Bnnua
1929, crp. 11).
Ipyô¬a xonnuna nocyµa ca cncxom nocran¬ennm nannxe, ys xojy je Bacnh y µnennnxy nanncao :(,(0$-
45*,$. Fes µnmensnja, orxpnnena na µyônnn oµ 4.1 m (T. II/2).
7. Hoxannrer Bnnua, nnnuancxa xynrypa (ncxonanana 1929, nenyônnxonano, ¡nennnx ncxonanana, Bnnua
1929, crp. 15).
Mana ônxonnuna nocyµa ca µyrauxnm cncxom nocran¬ennm ynpanno na pennnnjenr. Fes µnmensnja, or-
xpnnena na µyônnn oµ 4 m (T. II/3).
8. Hoxannrer Bnnua, nnnuancxa xynrypa (ncxonanana 1929, nenyônnxonano, ¡nennnx ncxonanana, Bnnua
1929, crp. 101).
Mana nocyµa ca µyrauxnm cncxom xojn nma „xonenne” n nonnja ce ônaro nannme. Ho Bacnhennm peunma,
%(B2- 2# #,$ #2 %*7$ B(B-$ 4.2 cm. Hahena na µyônnn oµ 5.7 m (T. II/4).
9. Hoxannrer Bnnua, nnnuancxa xynrypa (ncxonanana 1933, nenyônnxonano, ¡nennnx ncxonanana, Bnnua
1933, crp. 52).
Mana xpymxonnxa nocyµa ca µyxnm cncxom nocran¬ennm ônaro nannme y oµnocy na pennnnjenr. Bncnna
51 mm, npeunnx ornopa 44 mm, µeô¬nna snµa 3.5 mm. Ha ocnony Bacnhenor nprexa unnn ce µa nocyµa
nema jacno narnameno µno. Orxpnnena na µyônnn oµ 3.2 m (T. II/5).
10. Hoxannrer Bnnua, nnnuancxa xynrypa (nnn. 752, Hernna 1967: 118, T. V/15).
¡ennmnuno ]parmenronana nnnrxa xonnuna nocyµa npnene ôoje, rpyôe neoôpahene nonpmnne, ca xparxnm
cncxom nocran¬ennm nannxe. Vnyrap pennnnjenra nanase ce ocrann najneponarnnje oprancxe marepnje.
Bncnna 19 mm, npeunnx ornopa 29 mm, npeunnx µna 23 mm, snµonn pasnnunre µeô¬nne, npeunnx ornopa
cncxa 2 mm. Orxpnnena na µyônnn oµ 4.1 m (T. II/6).
11. Hoxannrer Bnnua, nnnuancxa xynrypa (nnn. 753, Hernna 1967: 117, T. V/14).
Hocyµa nenpannnnor xonnunor oônnxa, ramnocnne ôoje, rpyôe oôpaµe nonpmnne, ca xparxnm cncxom xojn
crojn ynpanno na pennnnjenr. Bncnna 33 mm, npeunnx ornopa 24 mm, npeunnx µna 15 mm, snµonn pasnn-
unre µeô¬nne, npeunnx ornopa cncxa 1.65 mm. Orxpnnena na µyônnn oµ 4.4 m (T. II/7).
12. Hoxannrer Bnnua, nnnuancxa xynrypa (Bacnh 1936: 116, T. LXVII/147, cn. 196a).
Ipyôa nnnnnµpnuna nocyµa ca xpahnm cncxom, µeôennx snµona, cnnonpne ôoje n rpyôe nepanne nonpmnne
(ibid.). Bncnna 66 mm, npeunnx ornopa 32 mm, npeunnx µna 39 mm (T. II/8).
3
Marepnjan ce nanasn y Apxeonomxoj sônpnn unnoso]cxor ]axynrera y Feorpaµy. Hcxpeno ce saxna¬yjem µp ¡yô-
panxn Hnxonnh na ycryn¬enoj rpahn n ynnµy y opnrnnanne Bacnhene µnennnxe, xao n na npemeny xoje je nponena
rpaxehn npeµmere y µenoy 3ônpxe.
98
13. Hoxannrer Bnnua, nnnuancxa xynrypa (F.F. 78, H.F. 110, ncxonanana 1978, nenyônnxonano).
Ipyô¬a nnnnnµpnuna nocyµa oxep ôoje, rpyôe nonpmnne, µeôennx snµona, oônor µna, ca macnnnnjnm cnc-
xom xojn crojn ynpanno na pennnnjenr. Bncnna 45 mm, npeunnx ornopa 25 mm, µeô¬nna snµa oxo 5 mm,
npeunnx ornopa cncxa 2 mm (T. III/1a-c).
14. Hoxannrer Ipnnan, nnnuancxa xynrypa (Draškovic 2004: 375, T. II.4/g).
Ipyôa ônxonnuna am]opa µeôennx snµona, ca xpahnm cncxom xojn crojn ynpanno na pennnnjenr. Bncnna
63 mm (T. III/2).

Kao mro je naneµeno y ynoµy onora paµa, ]ynxnnjy neonnrcxnx nocyµa ca cncxom µo
caµa je oµpeµno jeµnno npo]. M. Bacnh, a ry nerony resy y nehoj mepn cy npnxnarnnn µomahn
apxeonosn.
Onaj µeo paµa oµnocn ce na moryhnocrn ocner¬anana nomohy mnnnjarypnnx nocyµa ca
nsnnnnnxom/cncxom, npn uemy cy npeµcran¬ene pasnnxe y oµnocy na nehe neonnrcxe nocyµe
ncrora rnna. Hohnmo, najnpe, oµ pasmarpana samro onaxne mnnnjarypne nocyµe ne ôn morne
npeµcran¬arn cnern¬xe. Ha npnom mecry, rpeôa yxasarn µa ce one jacno pasnnxyjy oµ anrnuxnx
cnern¬xn, xoje nmajy nspasnro nnnrxo reno, nennxo n panno µno, µna nnn nnme ornopa, npn uemy
ce xao ropnonnx xopncrn nennxn ornop, unjn je npeunnx oônuno nehn oµ 1 cm. Cnn ornopn na
anrnuxnm namnama, napanno ns ]ynxnnonannnx pasnora, oxpenyrn cy narope, µox cy na nojeµn-
nnm npnmepnnma onµe npnxasannx nocyµa cncnn nocran¬enn naµone y oµnocy na reno nocyµe,
xao mro cy xar. 6 n 10. Koµ mnnnjarypnnx neonnrcxnx nocyµa ca cncxom uecro ce jan¬a oôno
nnn nepanno µno, xao mro je cnyuaj ca xar. 9, 11 n 13, µox je xoµ nexnx npnmepaxa µno manor
npeunnxa n unnn nocyµy necraônnnom. Jeµan oµ ocnonnnx ]ynxnnonannnx ycnona xnxaxa jecre
nnxona craônnnocr, mro ce jacno ounryje xoµ npnmepaxa ns anrnuxor nepnoµa. ¡pyrn, moxµa n
naxnnjn npoônem sa xopnmhene onnx nocyµa xao cnern¬xn jecre nnrane ropnna, rj. y¬a. He-
µanna cryµnja A. Hpnoôpne (2006: 39 n µa¬e) jacno noxasyje xonnxo je µncxyraônnna ynorpeôa
macnnnonor y¬a sa ocner¬ene uax n y anrnuxom nepnoµy, ys cne rpronauxe n xomynnxannjcxe
noroµnocrn xaxne je oôesôehnnana Pnmcxa nmnepnja, a ayrop narnamana n exonomcxy nencnna-
rnnocr ynorpeôe macnnnonor y¬a sa ocner¬anane (ibid.: 47). C µpyre crpane, mano je neponarno
µa cy neonnrcxe nonynannje na nenrpannom Fanxany n y Hoµynan¬y yonmre ônne n ynosnare ca
macnnnonnm y¬em. 3ôor mane xonnunne y¬a xoja ce µoônja ns cemena nana, naneno y¬e, jeµnno
xnnmarcxn oµronapajyhe na onnm npocropnma, nnje xopnmheno nn y anrnuxom nepnoµy (ibid.:
43). Hn ynorpeôa xnnornncxnx macrn nnje moryha y nocyµama ca cncxom, c oôsnpom na unne-
nnny µa cy one unpcre na coônoj remneparypn n µa ne mory xannnapano µa ce neny ys ]nrn¬
(ibid.: 42). Konauno, nocmarpano y ernonomxom xonrexcry, nonynannje na nenrpannom Fanxany
opnrnnanno nncy nosnanane ynorpeôy namnn na y¬e, neh cy sa ocner¬anane xopncrnne naxo
µocrynna ropnna, nonyr xnnornncxor noja, nocxa nnn uernnapcxnx cmona (ibid.: 47; Crojanonnh
n µp. 1977: 49). Hpnrom, one npcre ropnna oôesôehyjy ncro nnn uax jaue cnerno, a nocax npyxa n
moryhnocr nononnor xopnmhena (Hpnoôpna 2006: 42). Hojeµnne neonnrcxe nocyµe ynyhyjy na
ynorpeôy xnnornncxor noja sa ocner¬anane, nonyr soomop]ne namne (T. III/3a-c) ca noxannrera
Hernnna - Hace¬e ncnpeµ Mane nehnne, y unjem cy xpymxonnxom pennnnjenry youenn macnnxa-
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
99
nn ocrann.
4
Hamne nojannne raxohe nemajy µoµarny pyny nnn nnme nnx, na je mano neponarno µa
je xoµ onµe npnxasannx nocyµa ca nsnnnnnxom xao ropnno xopnmhen xnnornncxn noj.
V norneµy oµnoca nsmehy mnnnjarypnnx n nehnx nocyµa, nocrojn pasnnxa y nonoxajy n
nennunnn cncxa, y nexnm cnyuajennma npanor nsnnnnnxa. Hanme, na mnnnjarypnnm nocyµama ne
jan¬a ce ornopenn nsnnnnnx na oôoµy, y nnµy neronor nsnyuenor n moµenonanor µena, nnn mnpn
nenacr nsnnnnnx npn oôoµy, nyuno nsnnjen n oxpenyr narope, nnn nax nsnnnnnx npn oôoµy oxpe-
nyr naµone (Bacnh 1936: 81, cn. 115/N
o
964, 965, 968). Ha mnnnjarypnnm nocyµama cncax nnxaµa
nnje nocran¬en ônnsy oôoµa, mro snaun µa je xonnunna reunocrn xojy cy morne µa npnme ônna
neoma mana n µa ce ns onaxnnx npnmepaxa nnje nnmra nn nsnnnano. unnn ce µa cy nmane cacnnm
µpyraunjy ]ynxnnjy, a na onaxan sax¬yuax nanoµe n npeunnnn ornopa cncaxa, xojn nsnoce µo 5
mm. Haxanocr, µnpexrne ]opmanne ananornje ne nanase ce y µonnnjnm nepnoµnma npancropnje
nnn, ôapem, µo caµa nncy nosnare.
Hexo he ce moxµa sannrarn rµe je pemene one mane saronerxe. Ernuxn, moxµa je ôo¬e
µarn n norpemny nnrepnperannjy nexe nojane nnn npoônema, re yxasarn na nnx, nero sarnaparn
oun n ryparn nejacan apxeonomxn marepnjan nasaµ y xaproncxy xyrnjy saôopana nnn, y najôo¬em
cnyuajy, nomohy jeµne peuennne – y xynrne npeµmere. Meroµonomxn, µo pemena nnrana ]ynx-
nnje onnx mnnnjarypnnx nocyµa ca cncxom moxµa ce moxe µohn nyrem ne raxo ônncxe ]opman-
no-rnnonomxe ananornje, ann n xopnmhenem ernomeµnnnncxe nnreparype.
Ho oônnxy, unnn ce µa cy mnnnjarypnnm nocyµama ca nsnnnnnxom najcnnunnje nyne.
Ocnm re, camo nnsyenne n ]opmanne cnnunocrn, one „neonnrcxe nyne” nmajy n oµronapajyhe
]ynxnnonanne ocoônne, nonyr nehe µeô¬nne snµona, nspasnro ycxor ornopa, re manor „nsnnn-
nnxa”, y crnapn cncxa na xojn ce nocran¬ana µyxa µpnena nen sa nymene (xamnm). Ono mro
raxohe nsµnaja nnnuancxe nyne oµ µpyrnx mnnnjarypnnx nocyµa jecre n nemapna, xpajne rpyôa
oôpaµa nonpmnne, xao n oµcycrno ônno xaxnnx yxpaca. ¡eô¬nna snµona y oµnocy na µnmensnje
npeµmera yxasyje na ]ynxnnjy ronnorne nsonannje, xao mro je cnyuaj n xoµ moµepnnx nyna.
Moryhe je µa je y neonnry nyna sa nymene ônno snarno nnme, yxonnxo npernocrannmo nnxony
nspaµy oµ µpnera, xao mro je ônno na namem noµpyujy roxom nperxoµnnx croneha. ¡pnene nyne
pasnnx oônnxa nspahyjy ce najnnme oµ µpnera m¬nne, opaxa, jacena n janopa (¡ymxonnh 2006:
27), a xoµ nexnx moxemo younrn n ]opmanne cnnunocrn ca neonnrcxnm npnmepnnma (T. III/4a-
c). Hcro raxo, jacno ce nnµn µa je y nojeµnnnm cnyuajennma xamnm nocran¬en ca ornopom na-
µone, xao na npnmepxy ca T. III/4b. Haxanocr, sem¬nmre namer noµneô¬a arpecnnno je n npema
apxeonomxnm npeµmernma oµ snarno rpajnnjnx marepnjana, nonyr xepamnxe n xocrn, rµe-rµe n
xamena, na je neponarnoha sa nanasax µpnenor npeµmera nspasnro mana.
Ho, onµe ce µonasn n µo µpyror npoônema nesanor sa naneµeny nnrepnperannjy mnnnja-
rypnnx nocyµa ca cncxom, c oôsnpom na ro µa cy ns µanamne nepcnexrnne ynorpeôa nyne n cam
unn nymena nonesann jeµnno ca µynanom. Kao mro je nosnaro, µynan je y name xpajene crnrao
ner mnnennjyma µonnnje oµ npemena xaµa cy xopnmhene one sem¬ane nynnne, re ce nocran¬a
nornuno nnrane mra cy npnnaµnnnn nnnuancxe nonynannje nymnnn y nnma. Crora nomoh mo-
pamo norpaxnrn y ernonomxoj n, noceôno, y ernomeµnnnncxoj rpahn ca name repnropnje, rµe ce
jacno nnµn µa cy y onome µeny Fanxana ôn¬xe, neperxo n orponne, uecro xopnmhene sa neuene
4
3axna¬yjem ce Anµpejy Craponnhy, xycrocy Hapoµnor myseja y Feorpaµy, na ycryn¬enoj ]ororpa]njn.
B. unnnnonnh MHHHJATVPHE HEOHHTCKE HOCV¡E CA H3HHBHHKOM/CHCKOM H BHXOBA VHOTPEFA
100
ôonecrn nymenem n naxahnnanem. Hoµ nojmom xahene y nnreparypn ce nanoµe µna pasnonnxa
nocrynxa – „oônuno xahene” n nnxanannja.
Oônuno xahene ynorpeô¬anano je ns pasnnx npaxrnunnx n marnjcxnx noôyµa, a xaµnno
ce oµ crnapnnx ôonecrn, ann n oµ „yoôpaxennx” (Tpojanonnh 1990: 209). ¡ena cy noceôno xahe-
na oµ mnornx ôonecrn, ann n sôor crpaxa, n ro pasnnm rpanama – ycryxom, oµôerom, crpanom,
cpuannxom, µnn¬om ôenom nosom, maxonnnom, omanom nrµ. (ibid.: 215 n µa¬e). ¡nmom oµo¬ena
(Valeriana ofÞcinalis) uecro cy xahenn oµpacnn ¬yµn n croxa, xao n ôonecna µena, unme ce ôopn-
no npornn snnx µyxona (Co]pnh 1912: oµpeµnnna oµo¬en) xojn cy y namoj rpaµnnnjn cmarpann
yspounnnnma ôonecrn. Oman (Inula Helenium) ce xopncrno sa neuene µncajnnx oprana, a ne-
ronnm µnmom pacrepnnann cy n xomapnn (Tynaxon 1948: 525). Co]pnh nanoµn µa cy Hyxnuxn
Cpôn nymnnn oman, sajeµno ca µynanom, sa npeme xyre (1912: oµpeµnnna oman). Kaµnno ce n
orponnnm pysmapnnom (Rosmarinus ofÞcinalis), xojnm ce nsasnnao n noôauaj (Tynaxon 1948: 597).
Hopoµn¬e cy xahene µnmom pasnor ôn¬a xaxo ôn nm ce onaxmane nopohajne myxe, ann ce perxo
nomnny ôn¬xe ynorpeô¬anane y re cnpxe.
Jom je nnme noµaraxa o neueny nyrem nnxanannje, xaxo o meroµama raxo n o npcrama
ôn¬axa n ôonecrnma xoje neue. Ho Tpojanonnhennm peunma (1896: 50), y nnporcxom oxpyry sôor
xam¬a n xnjannne ôonecnnx ce napn raxo mro ce ,$@,+ ,$# -2,2;I+,2 B+:+, -20+ 0+ ;2 <$*5
;2B542, 4+ B+ %$I$,2 ,$-$#(... Hcro raxo, xaµa y Hpnoj Iopn nexora ôonn syô µnmn ce syônom
rpanom (ôynnxa, Hyoscyamus niger) (ibid.: 53; Tynaxon 1948: 91). Hnmxn Pomn cy npe II cnercxor
para cran¬ann jesrpo opaxa y myna¬ syô nnn cy ra nymnnn y nynn (Hnxonnh 1940: 44). Oµ syôo-
ôo¬e ce neunno n xahenem ocymennm nnmhem cnarxe nanparn (Polypodium vulgare) (uajxanonnh
1994: 188), µox: -2:+ B5 -(>+ 5 @+*>2 -$#(4( B >2%2*2%(: ;*+>(0+4-2: (Laurus nobilis) (¡pa-
rnhennh 1961: 223). Knexa (Juniperus communis) je xopnmhena xao µnypernx, npornn naseôa,
ronopeje, ôonona y cromaxy, ann je n nnxannpana npornn acrme n xam¬a (Tynaxon 1948: 553; Ka-
snmnponnh 1941: 169). Hnxanannja xonon¬nnnm ncnapennma µoxymenronana je y ncropnjcxnm
nsnopnma, ann n apxeonomxnm ncxonanannma. Hanme, Xepoµoron onnc cxnrcxor napnor xyna-
rnna noxnana ce ca orxpnhem pycxor apxeonora Pyµenxa na nexpononn y Hasapnxy, 1929. roµnne,
rµe je nahen ôponsann xornnh nyn xamena n yr¬en¬a, re cemena xonon¬e, xopnjanµepa n ramja-
na (Filipovic 2001). Vs µpyre noµarxe ns anrnuxnx nsnopa, onaj apxeonomxn nanas jacno cneµoun
o ncxoncxom nosnanany n xopnmheny µnma ôn¬axa y meµnnnncxe n marnjcxe cnpxe.
Ernonomxnx noµaraxa o nymeny pasnnx rpana, apomarnunnx, xanynnnorennx nnn „oô-
nunnx”, jom je nnme nero y nperxoµnnm cnyuajennma. Fn¬xe cy ce najuemhe nymnne xao nex oµ
nnyhnnx ôonecrn, xam¬a n acrme. Hajnnme je xopnmhena oônuna xonon¬a (Cannabis sativa),
xoja ce nymnna n xopncrnna xao ceµarnn, napxornx n xnnnornx, ann n npornn pasnnx ôonecrn:
acrme, cromaunnx n npennnx oôo¬ena, reranyca, rpuena, xncrepnje, nennxor xam¬a, peyme, rn-
xra, mnrpene, neypanrnje (Tynaxon 1948: 805). Onµe je neonxoµno nomenyrn µa ne rpeôa memarn
oônuny n nnµnjcxy xonon¬y, c oôsnpom na ro µa je xonnunna xanynnnorenor rerpaxnµpoxana-
ônnona y oônunoj xonon¬n n no nexonnxo nyra mana nero y nnµnjcxoj. Hner ôoxypa (Paeonia
ofÞcinalis) nymno ce y cennma upymxe rope npornn rpuennror xam¬a n acrmarnunnx nanaµa (Ty-
naxon 1977: 201), a rarynnn nncr (Datura stramonium) nymnnn cy acrmarnuapn, pehe ra n nnnn y
uajennma (ibid.: 197). Hcro raxo, nnmhem raryne napoµnn nexapn -$#+ B4$*/+ ( 8$8+ 2# B(;C+
(Kasnmnponnh 1941: 173). Comnna, orponnn rpm nnn mano µpno (Juniperus Sabina), xopncrnna
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
101
ce sa nsasnnane noôauaja y Focnn, rµe ce nymnna n sôor acrme. Xnnornne je ne jeµy, a na xoxn
nsasnna nnnxone (uaônjannh 1982: 37). Koµ crouapcxnx nonynannja na ¡yôamnnuxoj nonpmn,
npnnnxom acrmarnunnx nanaµa nymn ce ôn¬xa xosja ôpaµa nnn xonôyjnh (Tragopogon pratensis)
(¡nn¬anonnh, uepnennh n Tynnh 1977: 212). Kopon rypunnax nnn µnn¬n max (Papaver Rhoeas)
xopncrno ce sa nymene npornn nnyhnnx ôonecrn. Tynaxon nanoµn µa rypunnax nema mop]nna
xao npann max, ann µa cy ra ¬yµn xopncrnnn sôor cnnunocrn maxy. Hanoµn n µa ra croxa ne
jeµe, re µa nnje µono¬no ncnnran (Tynaxon 1948: 64). Beneôn¬e (Atropa Belladona), orponna
ôn¬xa xoja pacre y namnm mymama, ynorpeô¬anano ce sa cmnpnnane cnnx npcra ôonona, xao n
npornn xncrepnje n ennnencnje, a nymnno ce npornn xam¬a n acrme (ibid.: 77). O neronom onn-
jarcxom µenonany ronope n napoµna nmena: ôyn, nyµaua, nyµa rpana, nomamnnna. Taryna, neoma
orponan xopon (Datura Stramonium), xopncrnna ce npornn acrme n xam¬a (ibid.: 86), a xyxyra
(Conium maculatum) n xao ananrernx, ceµarnn, ann n npornn xam¬a n acrme (ibid.: 99). uemepnxa
(Veratrum album), nama ôpµcxa orponna ôn¬xa, ynorpeô¬anana je npornn nennxor xam¬a, rpos-
nnne n cromaunnx ôonecrn (ibid.: 232), a ne ronnxo nosnara rpôy¬a (Oenanthe Phellandrium) – sa
nnyhne ôonecrn n cromaune reroôe, xao n sa rposnnny n pane. Tynaxon nanoµn µa rpôy¬a noce-
µyje napxornuny cyncranny cnnuny onnjymy (ibid.: 522). Fphanxa (Arnica montana) ce xopncrnna
xao anrncenrnx, sa ncnnpane pana n rpna, neuene nepana, cromaxa n nnyha, re xao cpeµcrno sa
noôauaj. Tynaxon xaxe µa noxanno cranonnnmrno ynorpeô¬ana ôphanxy xao sameny sa µynan
(ibid.: 592), µox ce y ncrounoj Xepneronnnn ns ncrnx pasnora nymn npnjecax (Saturea montana)
(unnnnonnh-uaônjannh 1968: 52). Konauno, rpeôa nomenyrn n ôn¬xe sa xoje ce cnrypno sna µa
ne caµpxe nnxaxne anxanonµe nnn xanynnnorene cyncranne, ann cy raxohe xopnmhene npornn
xam¬a n acrme. Peu je o oµo¬eny (Valeriana ofÞcinalis) (Tynaxon 1948: 429) n cnarxoj nanparn
(Polypodium vulgare) (ibid.: 369). Ho µonomeny na enponcxn xonrnnenr, µynany cy ce raxohe
npnnncnnana nexonnra cnojcrna n xopncrno ce sa neuene mnornx, nonajnnme nnyhnnx ôonecrn
(¡ymxonnh 2006: 6), mro cneµoun o nosnarom n pamnpenom meroµy neuena µnmom mnpom raµa-
mne Enpone.
Ha xpajy, nomennmo noµarxe ¡annne Bnµocan¬ennh (1935) ns cena Bpôe, o nexonnxo
ôn¬axa xoje cy nymene ns meµnnnncxnx pasnora. To cy, npe cnera, cymene narnne rypunnxa,
xoje ce nyme µa ôn ce yônaxnnn ônno xojn ôononn, xao n nnµycrpnjcxa xonon¬a xoja ce mema ca
µynanom, ann ce oµ ne xyna n uaj. Ona nenn n µa ce µena npnnnxom rymena nnxannpajy rpanom
crpamnnx (crpamno se¬e, crpana, ouaj, snarna nanpar, Ceterach ofÞcinarum). 3a yônaxanane
ôonona nyme ce n cymene neuypxe, ann nnje snana xoje (najneponarnnje poµ Amanita), a sann-
m¬nno je µa nanoµn µa cy nymenn n cynn nnmajenn, maµa nnje snana xojn, nnrn xoje cy ôonecrn
neunnn.
***
Ha ocnony cnera µo caµa nsnoxenor, jacno je µa cy pasne ôn¬ne npcre jom oµ ncxona uo-
nexona nmane snauajny ynory y neronom neueny. Cne rope naneµene ôn¬xe pacry na repnropnjn
Fanxana (o xopnmheny ôn¬axa mnpom cnera nnµn: Rec 2001), a nnxona ynorpeôa y meµnnnncxe
cnpxe jacno je µoxymenronana, xao n meroµe npnoônrnor neuena nyrem cna¬nnana n yµncana
ôn¬nnx ncnapena. Ernonomxn noµann noxasyjy µa ce µnm ynocno y reno nyrem nnxanannje, ann
uecro n nymenem. Hs ror pasnora rpeôa npernocrannrn µa je mnnnjarypne xepamnuxe nocyµe ca
cncxom nnnuancxa nonynannja xopncrnna sa nymene nexonnrnx rpana, µox ce nocrojane raxnnx
B. unnnnonnh MHHHJATVPHE HEOHHTCKE HOCV¡E CA H3HHBHHKOM/CHCKOM H BHXOBA VHOTPEFA
102
µpnennx nyna y rom nepnoµy ne moxe µoxasarn. Hs ernonomxnx nsnopa raxohe ce nnµn µa cy jeµ-
naxo, axo ne n uemhe, xopnmhene ôn¬xe xoje noceµyjy nexy ncnxoaxrnnny cyncranny. V rom xon-
rexcry, ynorpeôa nocyµa ca cncxom npyxa nnoµno rne n sa mnoroôpojne npnue o nnxonoj xynrnoj
n pennrnjcxoj namenn, c oôsnpom na unnennny µa je Fanxan µonnnje nocneµouen xao noµpyuje ca
mnornm uynennm npopounmrnma n oôpeµnma pnryannor rpanca, xojn rpajy µo µanamnnx µana.
Hnax, unnn ce µa je npnmapna ]ynxnnja onnx npeµmera ônno nymene sapaµ neuena nnn, uax,
sôor cnaxoµnennor yxnnana y uaconnma „neonnrcxe µoxonnne”.
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
L$L1$/G"!H$)!
LB;9?6Q5<, !., *6X6Q5<, 2. 5 %9=B89D, !.
2005 Pesynrarn samrnrnor conµaxnor ncxonanana na noxannrery Fynnmre y Xyjnnny xoµ Hpemena.
Crp. 397–437 y =*7+2>2?-$ (B4*$<(%$C$ Y-75, cn. 1/2004, yp. M. Hasnh. Feorpaµ: Penyônnuxn sanoµ sa
samrnry cnomennxa xynrype.
39>5<, 2.
1936 1*$(B42*(0B-$ K(,&$ IV. F+*$:(-$. Feorpaµ: ¡pxanna mramnapnja Kpa¬ennne Jyrocnannje.
'5QA9D6Q5<, '., JE8DE;5<, 2. 5 VB;5<, K.
1977 Ernomeµnnnna n ernonerepnna xoµ cesoncxnx crouapa na ¡yôamnnnn. Crp. 163–237 y Y4,2>2?-$
@*$A$ 2 <(%245 ( 28(&$0(:$ B42&$*$ ,$ J58$?,(&-20 ;2%*?( 5 B+%+*2(B42&20 D*8(0(, yp. H. Bnaxonnh
n ¡. Anronnh. Feorpaµ: Penyônnuxa xon]epennnja mnaµnx ncrpaxnnaua Cpônje n ¡pymrno mnaµnx nc-
rpaxnnaua na Feorpaµcxom ynnnepsnrery.
'89:5<EQ5<, ".
1961 Jeµna nenosnara ¬exapyma. R>$B,(- Y4,2@*$OB-2@ :5"+0$ ,$ Z+4(C5 I: 219–225.
DraškoviM, R.
2004 Minijaturno posude, tegovi od pecene zemlje, kružne plocice, muzicki instrumenti, predmeti kultne
namene. Str. 365–378 u Grivac - naselja protostarTevaTke i vinTanske kulture, ur. M. Bogdanovic. Kragujevac:
Centar za naucna istraživanja SANU i Univerziteta u Kraguvcu i Narodni muzej.
'BP@6Q5<, 3.
2006 154 #5%$,$ 5 D*8(0(. Karanor nsnoxôe. Feorpaµ: Ernorpa]cxn mysej.
%9[5X586Q5<, ". -.
1941 [$*$C+, @$4$C+, %*$&$C+ ( ;*2*(/$C+ 5 ,$?+: ,$*2#5. Feorpaµ: Knnxapnnna Mnnopaµa H. Mn-
nanonnha.
1E?5U9, K.
1967 Mnnnjarypnn cyµonn ns Bnnue. '82*,(- *$#2%$ L$*2#,2@ :5"+0$ (Feorpaµ) V: 77–126.
103
09X5<-39;6Q5<, -.
1983 Mnnnjarypnn cyµonn y parnncxom xepamnuxom nnnenrapy n nexe xapaxrepncrnune nparehe nojane.
'82*,(- *$#2%$ L$*2#,2@ :5"+0$ (uauax) XIII: 45–52.
-5@6;5<, 3.
1940 Hs napoµne meµnnnne y Hnmy sa npeme rypcxe nnaµannne. R>$B,(- Y4,2@*$OB-2@ :5"+0$ 5 M+2@*$#5
XV: 41–48.
ReS, K.
2001 ReTnik svetih i magijskih biljaka. Beograd: IP Babun.
&6\85<, ..
1912 R>$%,(0+ 8(I+ 5 ,$*2#,2: %+*2%$C5 ( ;+%$C5 -2# ,$B D*8$. Feorpaµ: Bramnapnja „Cn. Cana”.
&?986Q5<, !.
2004 ',$/( /(%(>("$/(0+. Karonor nsnoxôe. Honn Caµ: CAHV, Orpanax y Honom Caµy n Hncrnryr sa
apxeomnronornjy (CA¡).
&?6T9D6Q5<, '. 5 78.
1977 ¡omahn xnnor. Crp. 43–50 y Y4,2>2?-$ @*$A$ 2 <(%245 ( 28(&$0(:$ B42&$*$ ,$ J58$?,(&-20 ;2-
%*?( 5 B+%+*2(B42&20 D*8(0(, yp. H. Bnaxonnh n ¡. Anronnh. Feorpaµ: Penyônnuxa xon]epennnja mnaµnx
ncrpaxnnaua Cpônje n ¡pymrno mnaµnx ncrpaxnnaua na Feorpaµcxom ynnnepsnrery.
&?6T5<, 2. 5 )6U5<, 2.
2005 =*7+2>2?-$ @*$A$ D*8(0+ - L(?. Feorpaµ: Apxeonomxn nncrnryr, Hnm: Hapoµnn mysej.
*86T9D6Q5<, &.
1896 D4$*(,B-$ B*;B-$ 0+>$ ( ;(S$. Feorpaµ: Cpncxa xpa¬encxa axaµemnja.
1990 K$4*$ 5 28(&$0(:$ ( <(%245 B*;B-2@ ,$*2#$. Fnônnorexa Famrnna 34. Feorpaµ: Hpocnera.
*BU9@6Q, ).
1948 N$*:$-2@,2"(0$. Feorpaµ: Vnnnepsnrer y Feorpaµy n Hayuna xnnra.
1977 Hapoµna ]nrorepannja y upymxoj ropn xpos nexone. Crp. 131–348 y L$*2#,$ "#*$%B4%+,$ -5>45*$
5 D. D*8(0(. 2, yp. J. Tynaxon. Feorpaµ: Canes nayunnx µpymrana sa ncropnjy sµpancrnene xynrype Jyro-
cnannje.
H9]5T9D5<, ".
1982 Hapoµna meµnnnna ¡pexnaxa. R>$B,(- '+:$IB-2@ :5"+0$ M(E 5 D$*$0+%5, Y4,2>2@(0$, H.C. 37:
33–45.
H5;5=6Q5<-H9]5T9D5<, ".
1968 Hapoµna meµnnnna ncroune Xepneronnne. R>$B,(- '+:$IB-2@ :5"+0$ M(E 5 D$*$0+%5, Y4,2>2@(0$,
H.C. XXIII: 35–76.
B. unnnnonnh MHHHJATVPHE HEOHHTCKE HOCV¡E CA H3HHBHHKOM/CHCKOM H BHXOBA VHOTPEFA
104
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
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2001 Holly smoke - Arheološka znanja o drogama. Internet Tasopis ANARHEOLOGIA, br. 3. (http://www.
anarheologija.org/clanci/Þlipovic/index.php)
48D6]8^9, !. -.
2006 F5>4,$ ,$:+,$ *(:B-(7 <(<$-$ 5 R2*C20 G+"(0(. Feorpaµ: unnoso]cxn ]axynrer, Henrap sa ap-
xeonomxa ncrpaxnnana n Mysej rpaµa Feorpaµa.
J9T@9D6Q5<, 3.
1994 .+&,(- B*;B-(7 ,$*2#,(7 %+*2%$C$ 2 8(I-$:$, npnpeµno n µonynno B. Typnh. Feorpaµ: CK3, FHI3,
Hpocnera n Haprenon.
Vojislav Filipovic
Neolithic miniature spouted/nozzled vessels and their use
Summary
The question of the emergence and function of Neolithic miniature vessels with a spout/nozzle has
not been discussed in any detail in Serbian archaeology. A few papers addressed the question of the emergence
and function of miniature vessels in general, brießy referring to such vessels used for pouring out liquids. Also,
another reason for the lack of scholarly interest may be the very small number of such vessels published so far.
Nor has larger Neolithic spouted vessels drawn much attention, and their function was discussed primarily by
Prof. Miloje Vasic in 1936. His paper stressed at the outset that the purpose of nozzled or beaked vases had not
been established reliably and attempted to interpret them as lamps, and their spouts as intended for the wick.
He never considered the use of the spout for pouring, indeed, he opposed the idea.
Let us Þrst see why such miniature vessels could not be interpreted as lamps. In the Þrst place, they
clearly differ from antique lamps with their markedly shallow bodies, large and ßat bases, two or more open-
ings, with the large opening usually over 1 cm in diameter used as the burner. All openings in antique lamps are
upward-turned, for functional reasons of course, while in some of the examples presented here the openings
are down-facing. Neolithic miniature nozzled vessels often have rounded or uneven bases and some have bases
of a small diameter, which makes them unstable. One of the basic functional requirements for lamps, however,
is their stability, as clearly seen from antique examples. Another, and perhaps more important, problem is the
question of fuel, i.e. oil. A recent study by A. Crnobrnja clearly shows how debatable is the assumed use of
olive oil for lightning, even in the period of antiquity. Nozzled vessels do not allow the use of animal oils which
are solid at room temperature and cannot be drawn up by the wick through capillary action. Finally, seen in the
ethnological context, originally the central-Balkan populations did not know the use of oil lamps, but resorted
to easily available fuels such as animal tallow, wax or evergreen tree resins.
Compared with larger vessels, the miniature ones differ in the position and size of the spout, which
sometimes takes the form of a true nozzle. In miniature vessels the spout is never near the rim, which means
105
that they could only hold a tiny amount of liquid and were not used for pouring. Their function seems to have
been quite different, as additionally suggested by the diameters of the nozzle mouths which do not exceed 5
mm. Unfortunately, in later periods of prehistory direct formal analogies are not found or are as yet unknown.
Methodologically, the question of the function of these vessels may perhaps be resolved through for-
mal typological analogies, but also on the basis of the ethno-medical literature.
In terms of shape, the miniature spouted vessels seem closest to pipes. Apart from this merely visual
and formal similarity, these Neolithic “pipes” show similar functional properties such as thicker walls, very
narrow openings and small “nozzles”, in fact spouts onto which a longer wooden pipe stem was Þtted. Another
feature in which these Vinca pipes differ from other miniature vessels is the utterly careless treatment of sur-
faces and the absence of all ornament. The thickness of their walls in relation to their size suggests the function
of heat insulation, as in modern pipes. Neolithic pipes might have been much more copious if we assume they
were made of wood as well, as was the practice in our regions during the previous centuries, and some of these
show formal similarities to the Neolithic examples.
Another problem in interpreting the miniature spouted vessels is the fact that the modern use of pipes
and the very act of smoking are associated exclusively with tobacco. Therefore, help should be looked for in the
ethnological, in particular ethno-medical, material from our territory, which clearly shows that in these parts of the
Balkans, plants, often poisonous, have been used for medical treatment illnesses by smoking and fumigating.
According to Trojanovic, in Pirot County cough and common cold are treated by inhaling the fumes
from hemp seeds sprinkled over live coals… In Montenegro, toothache is relieved by inhaling henbane (Hyo-
scyamus niger). Juniper (Juniper communis) is inhaled for asthma and cough. Plants were usually smoked as a
remedy for lung diseases, cough and asthma, most of all common hemp (Canabis sativa), which was smoked
and used as a sedative, narcotic and hypnotic, but also for various illnesses: asthma, gastrointestinal disorders,
tetanus, hysteria, spasms, rheumatism, gout, migraine, neuralgia. The ßower of peony (Paeonia ofÞcinalis)
was smoked in the villages of Fruška Gora in spasmodic cough and asthma attacks, and the leaf of jimsonweed
(Datura stramonium) was smoked by asthmatics. The pastoral populations on Dunašnicka Površ smoke goat-
sbeard or meadow salsify (Tragopogon pratensis) in asthma attacks. A weed, corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas),
was smoked for lung diseases. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladona) was used to relieve all kinds of pain, but
also in hysteria and epilepsy, and it was smoked for cough and asthma. A very poisonous weed, jimsonweed
(Datura stramonium), was used for cough and asthma, while poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) was used
as a sedative and analgesic, but also to relieve cough and asthma. White hellebore (Veratrum album) was used
in whooping cough, fever and stomach disorders. Once introduced into Europe, tobacco was also believed to
possess medicinal properties and was used in treating many, most of all lung diseases, as evidenced by the well-
known method of fumes therapy widespread in Europe at the time.
From all this it becomes clear that since the dawn of mankind various plant species have played an
important, perhaps even decisive, medicinal role. All the species cited above are native to the Balkans, and their
medicinal use and the original methods of burning herbs and inhaling the fumes are well documented. Ethno-
logical data show that fumes were taken in by inhalation but also by smoking. Therefore it should be assumed
that the Vinca population used miniature pottery vessels with nozzles for smoking medicinal herbs, while the
existence of a wooden version of such vessels cannot be attested. Ethnological sources also show that herbs
containing a psychoactive substance were used as often as others, if not more often. In that context, the use of
nozzled vessels is fertile ground for copious stories about their ritual and religious purpose, taking into account
the fact that in later periods the Balkans is documented as an area with many famous oracles and trance rituals
surviving till this day. Yet, the primary use of these artefacts seems to have been for therapeutic smoking or
even for daily pleasure in the hours of “Neolithic leisure”.
V¡K 903.2 (497.11)’’634’’
B. unnnnonnh MHHHJATVPHE HEOHHTCKE HOCV¡E CA H3HHBHHKOM/CHCKOM H BHXOBA VHOTPEFA
106
B. unnnnonnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna I / Plate I
107
B. unnnnonnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna II / Plate II
108
B. unnnnonnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna III / Plate III
#,2%! $K L"/-K!-/G '/L! -! 1/%!1$*+*,
&!3$- 1!%!* %/' ."$)+./0!
1
2586>;9Q 19[5<
unnoso]cxn ]axynrer y Feorpaµy
!=>?89@?: D$%(, >$-$4 0+ ;*+%20 ,$ 05@2(B42&,(: 28*2,/(:$ :$B(%$ R*$#(,$, -20( *$"#%$0$ #2>(,+
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<+,$ 1990. @2#(,+. \4-*(%+,2 0+ B+#$: @*282%$ (,75:(*$,(7 ( -*+:(*$,(7 ;2-20,(-$, B$ ;*$4+S(:
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5-$"505 ,$ B>2<+,+ ;2@*+8,+ *(45$>+, -$2 ( ,$ #*5?4%+,+ 2#,2B+ -20( B5 ;2&(%$>( ,$ 8>(B-(: *2#8(,-
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%ABCDE 8EC5: 1*(0+;2I+, D$%(, >$-$4, ;*$(B42*(0B-$ 75:-$, (,75:$/(0$, -*+:$/(0$, 8*2,"$,2 #28$.
Toxom anrycra n cenremôpa 1990. roµnne, Henrap sa apxeonomxa ncrpaxnnana unno-
so]cxor ]axynrera y Feorpaµy n Mysej y Hpnjeno¬y, noµ pyxonoµcrnom npo]. µp ¡parocnana
Cpejonnha, oprannsonann cy apxeonomxo ncrpaxnnane npancropnjcxnx xymxn na noxannrery
Cannn naxar, xoµ cena Jaôyxa, neµanexo oµ Hpnjeno¬a.
Cannn naxar je sanojnr nnannncxn npenoj na jyroncrounnm oôponnnma macnna Ipaµnna
xojn pasµnaja µonnne Hnma n Texornne (xapra 1). ¡o nera ce µonasn crapnm maxaµamcxnm nyrem
xojn npexo Ce¬amnnne n cena Jaôyxa nonesyje Hpnjeno¬e n H¬en¬a. Oµ Jaôyxe, npema ncroxy,
yµa¬en je nexonnxo xnnomerapa. Hanasn ce na pyôy npocrpane n xpmennre xpeunauxe nnco-
pannn, ca mnomrnom mxpana, ynana n npraua (cn. 1). Haµmopcxa nncnna onor npenoja nsnocn
npnônnxno 1100 m, a oxonnnx ysnnmena – nsmehy 1297 m (Jaôyuxo npncoje, na ceneposanaµy) n
1269 m (¡onaua, na sanaµy). Oxpyxen je mnoroôpojnnm nsnopnma n xparxnm noµoµepnnama xoje
ce cnnnajy y 3nnjesµancxy pexy – rnanny µecny npnroxy Ce¬amnnne (xapra 2).
Ha apxeonomxom noxannrery xoµ Cannnor naxra ennµenrnpane cy rpn npancropnjcxe
xymxe, oµ xojnx je jeµna cncremarcxn ncrpaxena. Hacyre cy npn µny ycxe sapannn nsnaµ xoje, na
jyry, µomnnnpa xpmennro ysnnmene uennnax, oôpacno xnexom n µpyrnm nnxnm uernnapcxnm
1
Texcr je nacrao y oxnnpy nayuno-ncrpaxnnauxor npojexra =*7+2>2?-$ @*$A$ – 2B,2%$ "$ ;*25&$%$C+ -5>45*,2@ -2,-
4(,5(4+4$ 5 ;*$(B42*(0( ( $,4(/( ,$ 4+*(42*(0( D*8(0+ (en. ôp. 174071), xojn peannsyje unnoso]cxn ]axynrer
y Feorpaµy, a ]nnancnpa ra Mnnncrapcrno sa nayxy Penyônnxe Cpônje.
110
pacrnnem. ¡yôoxo yceuena jyxna mxapna crapor nyra yrpoxana noxannrer, nperehn µa nocrene-
nnm ocnnanem n oµponananem ynnmrn npeocrane xymxe (cn. 2).
Xymxe cy nacyre y nnsy, npn uemy ce µne cxopo µoµnpyjy, µox je cenepna nnnna rpehe xym-
xe yµa¬ena oµ cyceµne nexonnxo merapa. Bnxona ouynana nncnna, mepena oµ nonpmnne oxonnor
rna, nsnocn nsmehy 1,5 m n 2,0 m, a npeunnnn nm napnpajy oµ 15 m µo 18 m (cn. 3). Xymxe cy µo-
ôpo ouynane, ôes you¬nnnx rparona naxnaµnnx pacxonanana. Kanore cy nm npannnne n oôpacne
cy nncoxom rpanom, y xojoj ce moxe sanasnrn nonexn xamen ns ropnnx cnojena nacnna.
2+*/'/1/G$)! $&*"!($3!F!
Ha ocnony sanaxana o nonoxajy, nponenn nennunne, xao n onene yrpoxenocrn cnaxor
rymyna noceôno, oµnyueno je µa ce ncnnra cpeµna xymxa, ca npeunnxom ocnone oµ npnônnx-
no 15 m n ouynanom nncnnom oµ 1,5 m (cn. 4).
2
Hcrpaxena je nocrynxom xojn je noµpasymenao
noµeny na uernpn cermenra npnônnxno jeµnaxe nonpmnne, n ro: ceneponcrounn, ceneposanaµ-
2
Xymxa xoja je y µoxymenrannjn o pesynrarnma ncrpaxnnana osnauena xao Xymxa I. Opnrnnanna µoxymenrannja uyna
ce y Henrpy sa apxeonomxa ncrpaxnnana unnoso]cxor ]axynrera y Feorpaµy.
Kapra 1 • Map 1
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
111
nn, jyroncrounn n jyrosanaµnn. Cermenrn cy ônnn
oµnojenn xonrponnnm npo]nnnma µeô¬nne 0,5 m,
rpacnpannm no npannnma cenep – jyr n ncrox – sa-
naµ, raxo µa cy ce cexnn y cpeµnmry xymxe (T. I/1).
V namepn µa ce apxeonomxn nanasn n npnxyn¬enn
noµann o xapaxrepncrnxama nacyrnx cnojena rauno
nonnpajy, npe nouerxa ncrpaxnnana ]opmnpan je xo-
opµnnarnn cncrem, ca nynrom rauxom (0) y cpeµnmry
rymyna n xnaµpanrnma xojn oµronapajy pannje yrnphe-
nnm cermenrnma. 3a npennsno nosnnnonnpane cnnx
apxeonomxnx nanasa n noµaraxa, y cnaxom xnaµpanry
(cermenry) xopnmhena je mpexa noceôno osnauennx
xnaµpara, ca crpannnama oµ 1 m. Taxohe, naµmopcxa
nncnna ocnona orxonnnx cnojena n cnojena xojnma je
xymxa nacyra xornpana je y remennma xnaµpara.
3

Kapra 2 • Map 2
Cn. 1. Cannn naxar
Fig. 1. Savin lakat
3
Mepena naµmopcxe nncnne apxeonomxnx nanasa n ocnona cnojena npmena cy y oµnocy na nomohnn penep (oônnxna
ôeroncxa ôasa sa renexomynnxannonn ypehaj), unja anconyrna nncnna raµa nnje ônna nosnara. Bncnncxe pasnnxe
nonoxaja mepennx rauaxa nspaxene cy penarnnnnm npeµnocrnma y oµnocy na nomohnn penep, xome je µara npeµnocr
0,00 m.
M. Hasnh XVMKA H3 FPOH3AHOI ¡OFA HA HOKAHHTETV CABHH HAKAT KO¡ CEHA JAFVKA...
112
Apxeonomxa ncxonanana one xymxe oôan¬ena cy y µne erane. Hajnpe cy ncrpaxenn ce-
neposanaµnn n jyroncrounn, a norom, y µpyroj erann, ceneponcrounn n jyrosanaµnn cermenr.
Ceneposanaµnn n jyroncrounn cermenr ncxonanann cy orxonnnm cnojennma npoceune µeô¬n-
ne nsmehy 10 cm n 15 cm, µox cy npeocrana
µna ncnnrana yxnananem xynrypnnx cnojena
(nacyra sem¬a n xamen ca apxeonomxnm ma-
repnjanom) xojn cy jacno µe]nnncann y np-
noj erann ncrpaxnnana (cn. 5).
&*"!*$G"!H$)!
Hcrpaxena xymxa nounnana je na
xyroj cmonnnn y xojoj nnje ônno apxeonom-
xnx nanasa (sµpannna). Hajcrapnjn xynrypnn
cnoj, npoceune µeô¬nne 20 cm, sareuen je y
ocnonn rymyna n cacrojao ce oµ rnnnonnre
sem¬e mpxe ôoje, y xojoj cy sanaxenn rpa-
ronn rapn. Ocnm rora, y onom cnojy ônnn cy
npncyrnn n ycnrnenn ]parmenrn pasnnun-
rnx xepamnuxnx nocyµa. V ceneposanaµnom
n, µennmnuno, ceneponcrounom cermenry
ôno je cauynan µeo „npcrena” nnn „nenna”
rymyna, npeunnxa oµ npnônnxno 14 m, xojn
je ]opmnpan pehanem xpynnor xamena y na-
mepn µa ce onaj n xacnnje nacyrn cnojenn
sem¬e cauynajy oµ eposnje (T. I/1–2).
Hapeµnn cnoj cacran¬en je oµ ns-
pasnro mpxe rnnne, y xojoj cy youenn rpa-
ronn rapn. Hacyr je n oônnxonan xao xpyx-
na sem¬ana nnar]opma npeunnxa 11 m. Ty
cy, nenocpeµno ncnoµ xamena ns nenrpanne
xoncrpyxnnje rymyna, nahenn µncnonnpann
ocrann ¬yµcxnx xocrnjy, µenonn pasnnunrnx
xepamnuxnx nocyµa, apre]axrn oµ xpemena
n ¬ymrype nyxena. Ha onom cnojy nexana je
xpyxna xamena nnar]opma, ca npeunnxom oc-
none oµ npnônnxno 11 m n µeô¬nne µo 0,30
m. Haunnena je oµ rycro nacyror xamena, a
xpyxna nnnna y nnµy „npcrena” oµ xpynnnx xamennx rpomaµa npyxana je onoj xoncrpyxnnjn
craônnnocr, cnpeuanajyhn neno ocnnane (T. I/1; cn. 6). Hpocrop nsmehy nacyror xamena ôno je
ncnynen mpxom pacrpecnrom sem¬om, y xojoj cy sareuenn rap, neneo, ]parmenrn xepamnuxnx
nocyµa n apre]axrn oµ xpemena (T. I/2).
Cn. 3. Hpancropnjcxe xymxe na noxannrery Cannn
naxar
Fig. 3 Prehistoric mounds on the site of Savin Lakat
Cn. 4. Xymxa npe ncrpaxnnana
Fig. 4 Mound before excavation
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
Cn. 2. Cannn naxar
Fig. 2. Savin lakat
113
Henrpanna xoncrpyxnnja rymyna ]opmnpana je oµ nspasnro xpynnor xamena. To je ônna
monymenranna ]opmannja y nnµy sapyô¬ene xyne, ca ocnonom npeunnxa oµ 5,5 m n nncnnom
oµ 1,5 m (cn. 7). Hpocrop nsmehy xamennx rpomaµa ncnynanana je mpxa pacrpecnra sem¬a, y
xojoj cy youene nehe xonnenrpannje nenena n rapn. Ty cy nahenn: µncnonnpann ocrann xpemn-
pannx ¬yµcxnx xocrnjy, ]parmenrn orpnnne ca npnnecnnma oµ ôponse, ôponsana µyrmaµ, nepne
oµ hnnnôapa, apre]axrn oµ xpemena n neoma ycnrnenn µenonn pasnnunrnx xepamnuxnx nocyµa.
Koncrpyxnnja xymxe noxpnnena je nacnnanem cnernocmehe necxonnre sem¬e nomemane ca rpy-
menem rnnne. V rom cnojy, µeô¬nne µo 1,15 m, xojnm je rymyn xonauno n oônnxonan, nahenn cy
]parmenrn xepamnuxnx nocyµa n apre]axrn oµ xpemena.
Ha nonpmnnn rymyna orxpnnen je ranax cnoj rycro pacnopehenor xamena, µeô¬nne ns-
mehy 25 cm n 30 cm, npexpnnen penenrnnm xymycom. uopmnpan je y namepn µa ce xymxa sam-
rnrn oµ eposnnnor µejcrna armoc]epnnnja (cn. 8). V cnojy xamena n nenocpeµno ncnoµ nera
sareuenn cy: rpnuapnja y µenonnma, apre]axrn oµ xpemena, xao n npnnesax oµ ôponse.
G"/L/3$
V ncrpaxenoj xymnn na noxannrery Cannn naxar orxpnneno je ceµam rpoôona nnxymnpa-
nnx noxojnnxa, maµa nx je ônno nnme, mro ce moxe sax¬yunrn na ocnony pasôanannx n ycnrne-
nnx µenona xocrnjy y nenrpannoj xoncrpyxnnjn n y nenoj nenocpeµnoj oxonnnn. Hsnecno je µa
Cn. 5. Jyxna nononnna xymxe
Fig. 5 South half of the mound
M. Hasnh XVMKA H3 FPOH3AHOI ¡OFA HA HOKAHHTETV CABHH HAKAT KO¡ CEHA JAFVKA...
114
cy y onom rymyny ônnn caxpanenn n ocrann
najmane jeµnor xpemnpanor noxojnnxa, mro
noxasyjy naropene xocrn ns nenrpanne xon-
crpyxnnje. Ipoôonn nnxymnpannx noxojnnxa
sareuenn cy y cnnm cermenrnma – µna ncnoµ
nenrpanne xoncrpyxnnje (rpoôonn ôp. 5 n
ôp. 6), rpn y sem¬anom nacnny nsnaµ xamene
nnar]opme (rpoôonn ôp. 1–4) n jeµan (rpoô
ôp. 7) y npocropy nsmehy „npcrena” rymyna
n nerone xamene nnar]opme (cn. 9).
4

Ipoô ôp. 1
Ipoô je nahen y ceneposanaµnom cer-
menry, nopeµ xonrponnor npo]nna 0-3 (cn.
9). Fno je yxonan y cnernocmehy necxonnry
sem¬y, nenocpeµno ncnoµ cnoja xamena na
nonpmnnn xymxe. To je ôno rpoô nnxymnpa-
nor noxojnnxa, ôes jacno µe]nnncane rpoône
xoncrpyxnnje. Pacnopeµ sareuennx xocrnjy
yxasyje µa je noxojnnx ôno caxpanen ca ônaro
cannjennm norama, µa je ôno opnjenrncan no
npanny cenep – jyr n µa je nnnem ôno oxpenyr
xa sanaµy, oµnocno cpeµnmry xymxe. Pyxe cy
my ônne cannjene y naxronnma, a maxe no-
cran¬ene ncnoµ ouynanor µena noôane (T.
II/1; cn. 10). Ocrann cxenera cacrojann cy ce
oµ mannx µenona noôane, ]parmenara µone
nnnnne, sarnm µenona xymepyca n mannx
]parmenara ôyrne xocrn. Vnpxoc neoma no-
moj ouynanocrn n manoôpojnocrn nahennx
xocrnjy, moxe ce npernocrannrn µa je onaj
cxener npnnaµao oµpacnoj ocoôn. V rpoôy
nnje ônno npnnora.
Ipoô ôp. 2
V jyroncrounom cermenry orxpnnen
je nnnrxo yxonan rpoô nnxymnpanor noxoj-
nnxa, xojn ce nanasno ys nnnny xymxe, y µeny y xome neµocraje nen „npcren” (cn. 9). Ty je sare-
uen nome ouynan cxener ocoôe caxpanene ca ônaro nonnjennm norama n pyxama (T. II/2; cn. 11).
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
4
Hpennmnnapny anannsy ocraraxa cnnx cxenera oôannna je µon. µp Co]nja Cre]anonnh, na joj ce onom npnnnxom
cpµauno saxna¬yjem. Fyµyhn µa nena anannsa nnje oôjan¬ena, y onncy rpoôona ns one xymxe nehe ônrn naneµene cne
merpnuxe n µpyre xapaxrepncrnxe ouynannx xocrnjy.
Cn. 6. Henrpanna xoncrpyxnnja ca nepn]epnnm
npcrenom
Fig. 6 Central structure and the circumferential ring
Cn. 7. Henrpanna xoncrpyxnnja – npecex
Fig. 7 Central structure – cross-section
Cn. 8. 3anpmnn cnoj xamena
Fig. 8 Top layer of stone
115
Cn. 9. Pacnopeµ rpoôona
Fig. 9 Arrangement of burials
Hoxojnnx je ôno nonoxen na µecnn ôox n opnjenrncan y cmepy ncrox – sanaµ, ca µennjannjom
npema cenepy oµ 38
0
.

Hnnem je ôno oxpenyr xa jyry. Caxpanen je y rpoôny jamy oxpyxeny xame-
nom xoncrpyxnnjom ennnrnunor oônnxa, xoja je omrehena roxom ncxonanana nnamra xymxe. Cxe-
ner je nome ouynan. Hahenn cy camo ]parmenrn noôane, µenonn pyxy, µeo xapnnne, oôa ]emypa n
oôe rnônje, unjom anannsom nnje morao µa ce yrnpµn non noxojnnxa. Vcranon¬eno je µa je cxener
npnnaµao mnahoj nnµnnnµyn (iuvenilis), crapoj npnônnxno 15 roµnna, ca renecnnm pacrom oxo
1,25 m. Hoxojnnx je caxpanen ôes npnnora.
Ipoô ôp. 3
V jyroncrounom cermenry, nenocpeµno ys xonrponnn npo]nn 0-J, nahenn cy ocrann nn-
xymnpanor noxojnnxa caxpanenor y ennnrnuny xoncrpyxnnjy oµ pehanor xamena (cn. 9). Fno je
M. Hasnh XVMKA H3 FPOH3AHOI ¡OFA HA HOKAHHTETV CABHH HAKAT KO¡ CEHA JAFVKA...
116
yxonan nnnrxo, nenocpeµno ncnoµ nonpmnncxor cnoja xamena xojnm je xymxa ônna samrnhena
oµ eposnje. Hoxojnnx je ôno nonoxen na µecnn ôox, ca ônaro nonnjennm norama; pyxe cy my ônne
cannjene y naxronnma, a maxe cy µocesane µo
rnane (T. II/3; cn. 12). Fno je opnjenrncan y
cmepy ncrox – sanaµ, ca manom µennjannjom
xa ceneponcroxy. Cxener je ôno omrehen, na
cy sareuenn camo µenonn noôane, ]parmen-
rn oôe nnnnne, nojeµnne xocrn pyxy, nexo-
nnxo peôapa, mann µeo xapnnne, omrehenn
]emypn n nonom¬ene rnônje. Vcranon¬eno
µa cy xocrn npnnaµane oµpacnom mymxapny
(adultus), crapom nsmehy 20 n 40 roµnna.V
rpoôy nnje ônno npnnora.
Ipoô ôp. 4
V jyrosanaµnom cermenry nahen je
neoma omrehen rpoô, ôes jacno ]opmnpane
rpoône xoncrpyxnnje (cn. 9). Vxonan je y cnoj
cmehe necxonnre sem¬e, y nnnenern nnar-
]opme oµ xamena. Anannsom caxyn¬ennx
xocrnjy yrnpheno je µa cy y nemy caxpanena
µna µerera, crapocrn nsmehy 8 n 10 roµnna.
Kocrn sareuene in situ (µenonn xanore, noµ-
naxrnne, µenonn xapnnne n ]parmenronann
]emypn) ônne cy nomemane n µncnonnpane,
na ce nnje morno rauno yrnpµnrn y xaxnom cy
nonoxajy µena caxpanena (T. II/4). Ha ocno-
ny merpnuxnx xapaxrepncrnxa ]emypa, ycra-
non¬eno je µa je renecnn pacr crapnjer µere-
ra ôno 1,16 m, a na macronµnnm nacrannnma
xoncraronann cy naneonaronomxn rparonn,
nacrann moxµa xao nocneµnna ocreomnje-
nnrnca (osteomielitis). V onom rpoôy nahenn
cy µenonn yxpaca sa xocy (Noppenring), na-
unnenn oµ cnnpanno ynnjene ôponsane xnne
(T. IV/15).
Ipoô ôp. 5 (nenrpannn rpoô)
uopmnpan je na sµpannnn y cpe-
µnmry xymxe, ncnoµ cnoja mpxocmehe rnnnonnre sem¬e na xojy cy nanerane nnar]opma oµ xame-
na n nenrpanna xoncrpyxnnja (cn. 9). Cxener noxojnnne caxpanene y onom rpoôy nounnao je na
npanoyraonoj xamenoj noµnosn saoô¬ennx remena, xoja ce npyxana y npanny ceneposanaµ – jy-
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
Cn. 10. Ipoô ôp. 1
Fig. 10 Grave 1
Cn. 11. Ipoô ôp. 2
Fig. 11 Grave 2
Cn. 12. Ipoô ôp. 3
Fig. 12 Grave 3
117
roncrox. Honyr nexor mosanxa, noµnora je ônna naunnena oµ ôpnx¬nno n rycro pacnopehenor
xamena nennunne µo 5 cm (T. II/5; cn. 13). ¡yxnna raxo oônnxonane noµnore nsnocnna je 2,10 m,
a mnpnna nsmehy 0, 65 m n 0,70 m. Hoxojnnna je ônna nocran¬ena na nenn ôox, ca norama ônaro
cannjennm y xonennma, µox cy pyxe saysnmane raxan nonoxaj µa cy maxe µonnpane ncnoµ rnane.
Cxener je µoôpo ouynan; noôana je nena, xao n µyre xocrn. Hornyno je cauynana n xapnnna, maµa
cy joj µenonn ônnn µennmnuno µncnonnpann sôor npnrncxa sem¬e n xamena xojnm je rpoô ôno
sacyr.
Anrpononomxa anannsa noxasyje µa je cxener npnnaµao oµpacnoj xenn, crapoj npnônnx-
no 30 roµnna (adultus), mesoxpane noôane n rpannnne renecne rpahe. Ben renecnn pacr nsnocno
je 1,55 m.
V rpoôy nnje ônno npnnora. Tpeôa nomenyrn, mehyrnm, µa je y neronoj ônnsnnn sana-
xena nonehana xonnenrpannja rapn n nenena, npahena cnrnnm µenonnma xepamnuxnx nocyµa n
xpemennm apre]axrnma.
Ipoô ôp. 6 (y ocnonn xymxe)
Ipoô je orxpnnen y ceneoncrounom cermenry, ncnoµ nenrpanne xoncrpyxnnje n nnar]op-
me na xojy je ona nanerana (cn. 9). Fno je yxonan npnônnxno 0,30 m ncnoµ nnnenere na xojoj je
sanouero nacnnane xymxe, n ro nocne ]opmnpana xamene nnar]opme y ocnonn n nenrpanne xon-
crpyxnnje. Ocnona rpoôa ônna je nonnouana xamenom, a nnnna npanoyraone rpoône jame ônna je,
raxohe, samrnhena napehannm xomaµnma xpeunaxa (T. II/6; cn. 14). Ipoô je ôno sarpnan xamenom
cnrnnjnm oµ onora xojn je xopnmhen sa rpaµny nnar]opme y onoj xymnn. Berona opnjenrannja
ônna je cenep – jyr, ca µennjannjom xa ceneposanaµy.
Hoxojnnx je ôno nonoxen na µecnn ôox y srpuenom nonoxajy, ca norama nonnjennm y xy-
xonnma n xonennma, µox cy my pyxe ônne cannjene y naxronnma, raxo µa cy xocrn maxa sareuene y
ônnsnnn nnna. Cxener je µoôpo ouynan, nopounro xpynne xocrn. Hpnnaµao je mymxapny crapom
npnônnxno 25 roµnna, renecnor pacra oµ 1,75 m.
V npeµeny cromaxa noxojnnxa, ca nerone npeµne crpane, nahen je nornyno ouynan xe-
pamnuxn nexap, a nopeµ pamena ônno je nexonnxo neoma ycnrnennx n nome ouynannx xnno-
Cn. 13. Ipoô ôp. 5
Fig. 13 Grave 5
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rnncxnx xocrnjy. V onom rpoôy nahenn cy µna µenca µpyror nparnor npm¬ena n jeµan monap xojn
cy npnnaµann cxenernma µpyrnx nnµnnnµya.
5
Ipoô ôp. 7
Ipoô je nahen y jyroncrounom cermenry, neµanexo oµ jyxnor xonrponnor npo]nna n pyôa
xamene nnar]opme (cn. 9). Hnje sareuena nnxaxna xoncrpyxnnja, a xocrn cxenera, nahene y cnojy
cnernocmehe necxonnre sem¬e xojom je rymyn ]opmnpan (T. II/7), neoma nome cy ouynane. Hax-
naµnom anannsom yrnpheno je µa cy y onom rpoôy caxpanene µne nnµnnnµye: µere crapo 10
roµnna, renecnor pacra 1,15 m, n oµpacna ocoôa (adultus) xojoj cy npnnaµann µnja]nsa µecnor
xymepyca n µeo xapnnune xocrn. Ha ocnony nonoxaja cauynannx xocrnjy pyxy n nory, moxe ce
sax¬yunrn µa je rpoô ôno opnjenrncan y npanny sanaµ – ncrox, ca µennjannjom xa jyrosanaµy.
Taxohe, ôo¬e cauynane xocrn µerera noxasyjy µa je ônno caxpaneno na nenom ôoxy, ca ônaro ca-
nnjennm norama n pyxama nonnjennm y naxronnma, raxo µa cy maxe µonnpane µo nnna. Hpnnora
y onom µnojnom rpoôy nnje ônno.
Omrehenn rpoôonn
Toxom ncrpaxnnana, na nnme mecra orxpnnene cy n µncnonnpane xocrn noxojnnxa xoje
cy nornnane ns nornyno ynnmrennx rpoôona. Taxo, y sanaµnom xonrponnom npo]nny nahenn
cy µenonn cxenera µne ocoôe – jeµne oµpacne nnµnnnµye (npoxcnmannn oxpajax nenor paµnjy-
ca, npoxcnmannn oxpajax µecne ynne n ]parmenr peôpa) n jeµnor µerera, crapor npnônnxno
10 roµnna (]parmenrn noôane, manµnôyne, xnannxyne, ]nôyne, µna npm¬ena, peôapa n µecnor
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
5
Homro nnje ônno nnxaxnnx nnµnnnja µa je y onom rpoôy oôan¬ena rpynna caxpana, npnpoµno je npernocrannrn µa
cy xocrn µpyrnx noxojnnxa µocnene ca crpane n µa nornuy ns rpoôona xojn cy pannje ynnmrenn.
Cn. 14. Ipoô ôp. 6
Fig. 14 Grave 6
119
paµnjyca). V cnojy nacyre sem¬e n mehy xamenom y nenrpannoj xoncrpyxnnjn rymyna nahene cy
µne manµnôyne xoje cy npnnaµane µenn crapoj µo 10 roµnna.
C µpyre crpane, unnennna µa je nehnna npeµmera oµ ôponse n hnnnôapa ônna xonnenrpn-
cana y nenrpannoj xoncrpyxnnjn oµ xamena ynyhyje na sax¬yuax µa ce ry nanasno rpoô cna¬enor
noxojnnxa, mro raxohe nornphyjy n ]parmenrn naropennx xocrnjy nahenn y rom µeny rymyna.
./%"+*-$ !"#+/1/I%$ -!1!K$
Apxeonomxn nanasn ns rymyna na Cannnom naxry nncy mnoroôpojnn. Haheno je nexonn-
xo µecernna ycnrnennx µenona pasnnunrnx xepamnuxnx nocyµa, µecerax yxpacnnx npeµmera oµ
ôponse, nexonnxo hnnnôapcxnx nepnn, xao n nnme oµônraxa oµ oxpecanor xamena. Behnna apxe-
onomxnx nanasa, mehyrnm, nnje orxpnnena y rpoôonnma. Camo je y rpoôy ôp. 6, y ocnonn rymyna,
nahen µnoyxn xepamnuxn nexap, µox ns rpoôa ôp. 4 nornue yxpac sa xocy oµ cnnpanno ynnjene
ôponsane xnne (Noppenring).
Ipnuapnja
V xymnn na Cannnom naxry sacryn¬enn cy ]parmenrn nehnx nocyµa (am]opa) panno
saceuenor oôoµa n nenxacror npara, xoje cy nspahene oµ npeunmhene rnnne ca µoµarnm cnrnnm
necxom (xnapn). Heuene cy raxo µa nm ôoja napnpa y mpxocnnnm nnjancama. Cno¬amnocr nexnx
nocyµa je yrnauana (T. III/3), µox cy µpyre µexopncane cnononnma xoco ypesannx napanennnx
nnnnja (T. III/2, 6). Hcroj npcrn rpnuapnje, maµa rpyô¬e nspaµe, npnnaµajy ynomnn oµ neuene
rnnne xojoj cy µoµara xpynna spnna ôenyrxa. Ha pameny onnx nocyµa sanaxa ce µyôoxo ypesana
noµopanna nnnnja (T. III/5). V rpnuapnjy ôo¬e ]axrype cnaµajy µyôoxe xonnune sµene sapanne-
nor oôoµa, ncnoµ xora je nnnhe xopnsonranno yµyô¬ene. Taxne sµene nspahene cy oµ µoôpo
npeunmhene rnnne xojoj je µoµar cnran necax, a neuene cy y cnernocmehnm nnjancama (T. III/1).
Hahena je n nononnna µncxonµno npo]nnncanor xepamnuxor npm¬enxa, raxohe nspahenor oµ
rnnne ca µoµarnm npnmecama (necax pasnnunror cacrana n rpanynannje) n neuenor y mpxoc-
mehnm nnjancama (T. III/4).
Ipnuapnja xnannrerne nspaµe sacryn¬ena je ca nexonnxo µecernna ]parmenara pasnn-
unrnx nocyµa (sµene n am]ope), nspahennx oµ µoôpo npeunmhene rnnne nomemane ca neoma
cnrnnm necxom. Heuene cy y npnenocmehnm rononnma. V ony rpyny cnaµajy n rnauane, nonracre
nnn ônaro ônxonnune sµene npcrenacro npo]nnncanor oôoµa (T. III/7, 8). Ha nonpmnnn nexnx
nocyµa nnµ¬nne cy mpxe nonpmnne (black topped). Ty cy n µenonn nehnx am]opa rannx snµo-
na, ca nenxacro n mnpoxo pasrpnyrnm nenpo]nnncannm oôoµom (T. III/9, 12, 13). Ha pamennma
xnannrerno nspahennx am]opa youana ce µexopannja y nnµy cnonona nemapno ypesannx nnnnja
(T. III/9). ¡pyrnma je nonpmnna namepno orpyô¬ena (naxnn ôapôornn) nanomenem raner cnoja
]nno npeunmhene rnnne (T. III/11).
V najôo¬e nspahene nocyµe cnaµa nexap, unjn cy µenonn nahenn neµanexo oµ nenrpannor
rpoôa (rpoô ôp. 5). Hexap je xpymxonnx, xynacror npara, ca nacnpamno nocran¬ennm nyunnm
rpaxacrnm µpmxama, xoje na npxy nmajy xpahn poxacrn µoµarax. Cauynana µpmxa npomnpennx
xpajena nonasn oµ nnnne oôoµa n y ônarom nyxy µonnpe µo pamena nocyµe. Hexap je nspahen oµ
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xnannrerno npeunmhene rnnne n neuen je raxo µa na npenomnma µomnnnpa npnenxacrocmeha
ôoja. Ha cnnoj nonpmnnn nnµ¬nn je rann yrnauann npemas (T. III/10).
Jeµnna nornyno ouynana nocyµa nornue ns rpoôa y ocnonn rymyna (rpoô ôp. 6). To je
nemapno moµenonan xpymxonnxn nexap, ca µne nacnpamno nocran¬ene rpaxacre µpmxe. Oôoµ
je nenpo]nnncan n ennnrnuno pasnyuen. Bnpoxe µpmxe nonnjennx nnnna, ca npecexom y nnµy
pasnyuenor cnona V (ansa lunata), ne npenasehn oôoµ µocexy µo pamena nocyµe. Fnaro saoô¬en
xonnunn rpôyx sanpmana ce nenpo]nnncannm µnom. Hexap je rpyôo nspahen oµ npeunmhene
rnnne xojoj je µoµar necax pasnnunre rpanynannje. Ha nonpmnnn je rann rnauann npemas cmehe-
cnnnx ronona (T. IV/1a-d).
Hpeµmern oµ ôponse
Cnn npeµmern oµ ôponse, ocnm Noppenring-a ns rpoôa ôp. 4, nahenn cy y jyroncrounom
cermenry xymxe, na pasnnunrnm µyônnama, pacyrn y nenrpannoj xoncrpyxnnjn.
V najsnauajnnje nanase cnaµajy uernpn xpyxna npnnecxa ca µyrnm xonycnnm rpnom
y cpeµnmry. Hspahenn cy oµ raner ôponsanor nnma ocpeµner xnannrera, na cy sôor xoposnje
nperpnenn pasnnunra omrehena. ¡exopncann cy ca uernpn xonnenrpnuno xanenonana xpyxna
xneôa, a na nnxonoj ropnoj crpann nanase ce µenonn sa xauene, naunnenn cannjanem ranxnx
rpaxacrnx npoµyxeraxa (T. IV/2–5). V npeme ynorpeôe, npnnecnn cy ônnn nannsann na orpnnny
oµ cnnpanno nsynnjane ôponsane xnne rpoyraonor npecexa (saltaleone), unjn ocrann cy cauyna-
nn y µeny sa xauene jeµnor oµ nnx (T. IV/6, 7).
V rymyny je naheno n ceµam xynacrnx µyrmaµn (roxa) oµ ranxor ôponsanor nnma (T.
IV/8–14). Ho oônnxy oôoµa, mory ce pasnpcrarn y µne napnjanre. Hpna je sacryn¬ena npnmep-
nnma ca pacxynannm oôoµom n nnsom xpyxnnx ncnynuena (T. IV/9, 13), µox oôoµ npeocrannx
ner (II napnjanra) nnje µexopncan. Ha cnnm µyrmaµnma nnµ¬nne cy cnmerpnune nep]opannje
– ornopn sa npnmnnane na ocnony.
Vxpac sa xocy (N2ppenring) nahen je y nenocpeµnoj ônnsnnn noôane noxojnnxa caxpane-
nor y rpoôy ôp. 4. Maµa je npeµmer snarno omrehen, neron oônnx moxe ce nornyno pexoncrpy-
ncarn. Haunnen je oµ xomaµa ôponsane xnne y oônnxy pasnyuene onpyre, xoja je na xpajennma
ynnjena y cnnpane (T. IV/15).
Hpeµmern oµ hnnnôapa
Hsmehy xamena, y cpeµnmnem µeny nenrpanne xoncrpyxnnje, nexano je n ner hnnn-
ôapcxnx nepnn xoje cy npemenom nperpnene pasnnunra omrehena, raxo µa nm je nonpmnna rpy-
ôa n npexpnnena xapaxrepncrnunom xpananom narnnom. Hajneha nepna je nnouacra, nenpannn-
nor xpyxnor oônnxa, ca manom nep]opannjom y cpeµnnn. Hpeocrann npnmepnn cy nonracror
nnn µncxonµnor oônnxa. Mannx cy µnmensnja n raxohe noceµyjy xpyxne ornope y cpeµnnn (T.
IV/16).
Apre]axrn oµ oxpecanor xamena
Toxom ncrpaxnnana xymxe na noxannrery Cannn naxar orxpnneno je nnme apre]axara
nspahennx oxpecnnanem xamena pasnnunrnx npcra (T. V/1–11). Hanaxenn cy y cnnm cermenrnma
rymyna, xaxo y nonpmnncxnm cnojennma nacnna raxo n y onnm µyô¬nm. To cy rnannom oµônnn
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
121
nenpannnne ]opme, µoônjenn oxpecnnanem poxnana, xnapnnra n, pehe, xpemena. 3acryn¬ena
cy neperymnpana ceunna pasnnunror oônnxa (T. V/3, 7), xomônnannja neperymnpannx ceunna ca
mn¬xom (T. V/9), sarnm crpyraun, oµ xojnx je camo jeµan perymnpan (T. V/1), xao n µpyrn nep-
rerymnpann oµônnn.
***
Tymyn na noxannrery Cannn naxar cnaµa y ôo¬e ouynane npancropnjcxe xymxe. Honoµ
sa nen nacranax ônna je cmpr xene caxpanene y cpeµnmry. Hsrpaµna xymxe sanouera je ]op-
mnpanem xpyxnor nenna oµ xpynnor xamena, unme je oµpehen n nen ôyµyhn npeunnx. Horom,
na raxo orpannueny nonpmnny naner je cnoj rnnnonnre sem¬e, c namepom µa ce oµ rycro pacno-
pehanor xamena noµnrne panna nnar]opma sa oµap na xojn je noxojnnna ônna nonoxena. Kaµa cy
sanpmenn oôpeµn nesann sa neny caxpany, sanouero je ]opmnpane rymyna. Kpynnnm xamenom
oônnxonana je nerona nenrpanna xoncrpyxnnja ca xanoracrom xynom y cpeµnmry n npn rome je
oôan¬ena caxpana xpemnpanor noxojnnxa, unjn cy ocrann ca nomaue n naxnr xojn my je npnnaµao
pacyrn nsmehy xamena. Ho sanpmerxy nsrpaµne xamenor µena rymyna, nacyr je neron sem¬ann
nacnn, ca rannm cnojem xamena na npxy xojnm je xymxa samrnhena oµ eposnje.
¡oôpo cy ouynann camo rpoôonn nnxymnpannx noxojnnxa y cpeµnmnem µeny rymyna,
µox cy µpyrn nperpnenn snarna omrehena. Vnpxoc rome, moryhe je µonern nnme sax¬yuaxa o
naunny caxpannnana n norpeônnm oônuajnma. Hanme, pasnnxe y nonoxajy cxenera noxasyjy µa
nnxymannja nnje oôan¬ana no ycra¬ennm npannnnma xoja cy naxnna sa cne caxpanene nnµnnn-
µye. Hoceôna naxna nocnehena je ocoôama xoje cy caxpanene y cpeµnmry (rpoôonn ôp. 5 n 6),
µox cy noxojnnnn naxnaµno yxonann y nepn]epnjy rymyna caxpanenn jeµnocrannnje. Hpn rome,
n rpoôonn y cpeµnmry mehycoôno ce snarno pasnnxyjy (cn. 15). Ipoô xene (rpoô ôp. 5) nema
rpoôny xoncrpyxnnjy n rpoôny jamy. Hpe caxpane ]opmnpan je oµap oµ rycro nopehanor cnrnor
xamena, na xojn je ona nonoxena na µecnn ôox, ca ônaro cannjennm xonennma n ca maxama ncnoµ
rnane. ¡pyrn rpoô (rpoô ôp. 6) je nornyno pasnnunr. Mnaµ mymxapan caxpanen je y nonnouany
rpoôny jamy, oxpyxeny xpynnnm xamenom. Honoxen je na µecnn ôox y nspasnro srpuenom no-
Cn. 15. Ipoôonn 5. n 6.
Fig. 15 Graves 5 and 6
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noxajy n ca manom nocyµom y npeµeny rpôyxa. Vsponn pasnnunror nsrneµa onnx rpoôona mory
ônrn xpononomxe npnpoµe jep je rpoô mnaµnha yxonan naxnaµno, nocne nacnnana rymyna, mro
ce jacno nnµn no µyônnn neronor µna ncnoµ ocnone xymxe. Taxohe, xamen xojnm je onaj rpoô
sacyr ôno je µpyxunje nennunne n xnannrera oµ xamena ns nenrpanne xoncrpyxnnje. Hnax, ne
rpeôa ncx¬yunrn nn moryhnocr µa pasnnxe nsmehy ona µna rpoôa y cpeµnmry xymxe mory ônrn n
oµpas oµnoca npema noxojnnnnma pasnnunror nona nnn cy, moxµa, nocneµnna nnxone pasnnunre
ernnuxe npnnaµnocrn.
Ipoôonn nnxymnpannx noxojnnxa (maxom µene) ns nepn]epnnx µenona xymxe cnnunn
cy rpoôy xene caxpanene y cpeµnmry xoncrpyxnnje (rpoô ôp. 6). Cnn cy caxpanenn ca ônaro
cannjennm norama n maxama y ônnsnnn rnane. Honarann cy na nenn nnn µecnn ôox, ôes npnnora,
n pasnnunro cy opnjenrncann, nonexaµ y cacnnm cynpornom cmepy, ann raxo µa nm je reno ynex
napanenno ca xpyxnom nnnnom rymyna. Hnjeµan oµ nepn]epno yxonannx rpoôona nnje nmao
jacno nasnaueny xoncrpyxnnjy. V jeµnom oµ nnx (rpoô ôp. 4) caxpanena cy µna noxojnnxa (µena
yspacra 8 n 10 roµnna), n ro je jeµnna µnojna caxpana y onoj xymnn. Vnopeµo ca nnxymannjom,
ônna je npncyrna n xpemannja, maµa y snarno manem oônmy. Ocrann xpemnpanor noxojnnxa ca
naxnrom, nahenn y xynacrom µeny nenrpanne xoncrpyxnnje rymyna, nncy ônnn cmemrenn y ypny.
Vr¬enncane xocrn n naxnr ônnn cy pacyrn nsmehy xamena, na ce crnue yrncax µa je noxojnnx
xpemnpan n caxpanen roxom ]nnannnx erana nacnnana xymxe.
Pacnopeµ rpoôona n nnxon crparnrpa]cxn nonoxaj jacno noxasyjy peµocneµ xojnm cy
nacrann. Hajcrapnjn je rpoô y cpeµnmry xymxe jep ce nanasn na nenoj ocnonn, nsnaµ nenope-
mehene nenrpanne xoncrpyxnnje oµ xamena. 3a nnm cneµn rpoô cna¬enor noxojnnxa unjn cy
ocrann nahenn y xynacroj xoncrpyxnnjn rymyna. unnennna µa je crapnjn rpoô nacrao na nouerxy
]opmnpana xymxe, a napeµnn npn nenom sanpmerxy, µonoµn one rpoôone y ncry xpononomxy
panan, na ce mory cmarparn ncronpemennm. Hocne nacnnana xymxe yxonann cy n npeocrann
rpoôonn. Vnaµ¬nna cnnunocr rpoôona ns nepn]epnnx µenona rymyna ca rpoôom xene y neronom
cpeµnmry yxasyje µa cy onn raxohe xpononomxn neoma ônncxn. Ocraje µonexne nejacno xaµa je
morao ônrn caxpanen mnaµnh ns rpoôa ôp. 6. Crparnrpa]nja neronor rpoôa n µpyre xapaxrepnc-
rnxe ynyhyjy µa je yxonan xacnnje oµ noxojnnxa caxpanennx y cpeµnmry rymyna (rpoô ôp. 5 n
rpoô xpemnpanor noxojnnxa), na ôn morao ônrn xpononomxn ônnsax rpoôonnma y nepn]epnnm
µenonnma nnn mnahn oµ nnx. Axo je rpoô mnaµnha yxonan ncronpemeno ca rpoôonnma y nepn-
]epnom µeny rymyna, npeocraje sax¬yuax µa je ns nama nenosnarnx pasnora caxpanen µpyraunje
oµ ocrannx. V cnyuajy µa je neron rpoô mnahn, moxe ce npernocrannrn µa je caxpanen cexynµap-
no, y neh nanymreny xymxy, xao npnnaµnnx nexe µpyre ernnuxe sajeµnnne. Vouene xapaxrepnc-
rnxe onor rpoôa (nnnenera µna, nerona xoncrpyxnnja, nonoxaj noxojnnxa n npnnoxena nocyµa)
nµy y npnnor µpyroj moryhnocrn.
Ha raj naunn, y xymnn xoµ Cannnor naxra moryhe je nsµnojnrn µne erane caxpannnana:
crapnjy, xojoj npnnaµajy rpoô y cpeµnmry n nparehn rpoôonn na nepn]epnjn (rpoôonn ôp. 1–5,
ôp. 7 n rpoô cna¬enor noxojnnxa), n mnahy, y xojy cnaµa rpoô mnaµnha (rpoô ôp. 6) orxpnnen
ncnoµ nenrpanne xoncrpyxnnje (cn. 16).
C µpyre crpane, pacnopeµ rpoôona ynyrap xymxe, xao npojexnnja oµnoca y sajeµnnnn,
neµnocmncneno yxasyje na µpymrnenn craryc caxpanennx ocoôa. V cpeµnmry je cnaxaxo noxo-
nana najyrneµnnja unannna sajeµnnne, mro ce nnµn no nonoxajy rpoôa n naunny na xojn je ]op-
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
123
mnpan. Hcror, axo ne n nnmer panra ôno je xpemnpann noxojnnx caxpanen y cpeµnmry xynacror
µena nenrpanne xoncrpyxnnje, xome je npnµoµar µparonenn naxnr oµ ôponse ca hnnnôapcxom
orpnnnom. Cnn ocrann noxojnnnn, noxonann y nepn]epnnm µenonnma rymyna, nmann cy nnxn
µpymrnenn nonoxaj, mro je n npnpoµno jep cy ro yrnannom ônna µena. Homro ¡HK anannse nncy
oôan¬ene, ocraje nejacno µa nn cy noxojnnnn ônnn y cpoµcrny. Ipoô mnaµor mymxapna y ocnonn
xymxe ne npyxa mnoro noµaraxa o neronom crarycy. Ha ocnony ôpnx¬nno ]opmnpane rpoône
xoncrpyxnnje y xojoj je caxpanen, xao n nocyµe xoja je npnnoxena, moxe ce camo npernocrannrn
µa je ôno jeµan oµ yrneµnnjnx unanona sajeµnnne.
Pesynrarn ncrpaxnnana na noxannrery Cannn naxar npyxajy noµarxe o pennrnjcxnm na-
uennma n pnryannma nesannm sa caxpannnane. Hpe cnnx, namehe ce sanaxane µa je neronan
ônpnryannn naunn caxpannnana. Cyµehn no xonnunnn n npcrn naxnra nahenor ca xpemnpannm
xocrnma y nenrpannoj xoncrpyxnnjn xymxe, unnn ce, mehyrnm, µa je xpemannja ônna npeµnnhena
sa najyrneµnnje unanone sajeµnnne. Hpn rome, ocraje nejacan craryc noxojnnne ns cpeµnmra xym-
xe. V uemy ce orneµao nen noceôan snauaj, remxo je oµronernyrn jep je caxpanena ôes npnnora.
Moxµa je ônna cynpyra xpemnpanor noxojnnxa ns nenrpanne xoncrpyxnnje nnn xena xprnonana
y pennrnjcxnm oôpeµnma xojn cy nperxoµnnn noµnsany xymxe xao ôyµyhe poµoncxe nexponone.
Hocroje nnµnnnje µa cy y rymynnma ns ôponsanor µoôa y sanaµnoj Cpônjn npncyrnn rpoôonn
xprnonannx ocoôa, mro cy npnn sanasann ncrpaxnnaun nexponona y Fenornhy n Fenoj Hpxnn
(Iapamannn 1973: 259; Garašanin 1983b: 741).
Kpemannja noxojnnxa ns nenrpanne xoncrpyxnnje oôan¬ena je na ycrpnnn nsnan ocnone
rymyna. Horom cy ocrann ca nomaue noxyn¬enn n pacyrn y xameno cpeµnmre xymxe. C µpyre
crpane, na yxpacnnm npeµmernma oµ ôponse n hnnnôapa nema rparona narpe, na nponcrnue µa
noxojnnx nnje xpemnpan ca naxnrom xojn my je npnnaµao.
Cnn nnxymnpann noxojnnnn caxpanenn cy y nonoxajy cnanaua, mro je µpennn oônuaj
nacnehen ns pannjnx npancropnjcxnx enoxa. Bnxona opnjenrannja, mehyrnm, nnje noµnerana
nnxaxnnm npannnnma, na cy nonarann y pasnnunrnm npannnma, na nenn nnn µecnn ôox. Behnna
rpoôona yxonana je neoma nnnrxo y nepn]epne µenone xymxe, ôes rpoônnx xoncrpyxnnja, mro
Cn. 16. Ipoôonn 5. n 6.
Fig. 16 Graves 5 and 6
M. Hasnh XVMKA H3 FPOH3AHOI ¡OFA HA HOKAHHTETV CABHH HAKAT KO¡ CEHA JAFVKA...
124
nnµnnnpa jeµnocranne oôpeµe npn caxpanama. Vs ro, y onnm rpoôonnma yrnannom nnje ônno
npnnora.
Vnomnn rpnuapnje n oµônnn oµ xpemena cneµoue o pnryannma xojn cy ce oµnnjann roxom
nacnnana xymxe. Ipnuapnja je nanaxena y cnnm nennm µenonnma n na pasnnunrnm µyônnama, y
nnµy ycnrnennx ]parmenara pasnopoµnnx nocyµa. Hpema rome, nocyµe cy namepno (pnryanno)
pasônjane, a µenonn cy pasôannnann roxom nacnnana xymxe. Cnnuno je ônno n ca anarxama oµ
oxpecanor xamena, xoje cy raxohe ônne npncyrne y cnnm µenonnma xymxe, raxo µa je nnxon pn-
ryannn cmncao necymnnn, napounro axo ce nma na ymy nnmesnauna n cnoxena cnmôonnxa one
npcre nanasa (xpemena). V npeµmere pnryannor xapaxrepa moxe ce ynpcrnrn n µeo µncxonµnor
npm¬enxa sa npereno. Kepamnuxn npm¬ennn pasnnunror oônnxa uecrn cy y ypnama ns ôponsa-
nor µoôa n mory ce nonesarn ca µpennnm neponanem o nocrojany xnnorne nnrn xojom rpn cyhaje
oµpehyjy µyxnny xnnora cnaxor cmprnnxa (Hasnh 1998).
***
Xpononornjy xymxe na Cannnom naxry nnje remxo oµpeµnrn. Ha npeme nenor nacranxa
jacno ynyhyjy npeµmern oµ merana n ocnonne xapaxrepncrnxe rpnuapnje. Kpyxnn npnnecnn oµ
ôponse, ca xonnunnm rpnom y cpeµnmry, npncyrnn cy y cnrypno µaronannm ocranama npeµmera
oµ snara n ôponse ns Honaca n Byxonapa, xoje nornuy ns pannx ]asa pasnoja cpeµner (pasnnjenor)
ôponsanor µoôa nnn erana B1 n B2 Pajnexeone nepnoµnsannje ôponsanor µoôa y cpeµnoenpon-
cxom noµpyujy (Garašanin 1983b: 741). Cnnunn npeµmern ncre crapocrn nahenn cy y xymnn I
y Xan-Ocony, sarnm y xymnn III nexponone y Fenoj Hpxnn, xao n y jeµnoj xymnn ns Iopne ¡o-
ôpnne (Kosoric 1976: T. XXVI/1, 2). ¡eo nexapa ca ouynanom µpmxom, nahen nopeµ rpoôa xene
caxpanene y cpeµnmry xymxe, npnnaµa xepamnuxnm oônnnnma xapaxrepncrnunnm sa narnncxy
xynrypy, oµnocno sa neny sanaµnocpncxy napnjanry, mro je y cxnaµy ca xpononornjom nanasa oµ
ôponse. C µpyre crpane, µnoyxn nexap npnnoxen mymxapny caxpanenom y ocnonn xymxe, maµa
nma enemenre xnacnune narnncxe moµenannje, npe cnera yrnacro pasnyuen n nenpo]nnncan oôoµ,
xao n mnpoxe rpaxacre µpmxe, saµpxao je apxanuny ]opmy xoja ynyhyje na pannje enoxe pasnoja
one xynrype (Forµanonnh 1986). Kapaxrepncrnxe xepamnuxnx ]opmn ns panor ôponsanor µoôa
noceµyjy jom nexn ]parmenrn ns one xymxe, na npnmep µeo nocyµe yxpamen nceyµo-ôapôornnom
n ]parmenr pamena am]ope µexopncane rpyôo nsneµennm ypesnma.
Kpaj panor n nouerax pasnnjenor ôponsanor µoôa npeµcran¬ajy pasµoô¬e y xome cy pas-
nopoµne rpyne crouapa n nomaµa yx¬yuene y sajeµnnuxn erno-xynrypnn xpyr xojnm cy ônnn sax-
nahenn µenonn ncroune Focne, Hoµpnne, sanaµna Cpônja, Canuax n Bymaµnja (Cpejonnh 1993).
Vnopeµo c rnm, ycnocran¬ajy ce rpronauxe n xynrypne nese ca cpeµnoenponcxnm noµpyujem,
oµaxne ce µonpemajy nponsnoµn ns paµnonnna sa nspaµy naxnra, opyxja n µpyrnx npeµmera oµ
ôponse. Honesanocr cranonnnmrna ôpµcxonnannncxnx npeµena Henrpannor Fanxana n jyxno-
nanoncxnx oônacrn nouerxom pasnnjenor ôponsanor µoôa, jacno nornphyjy n xepamnuxe nocyµe
nahene mnpom sanaµne Cpônje n ncroune Focne. Ho crnncxnm n rexnonomxnm ocoônnama, one
ce npnnncyjy nocnonnma narnncxe xynrype, raunnje nenom sanaµnocpncxom ]annjecy (sanaµno-
cpncxa napnjanra narnncxe xynrype) (Iapamannn 1973: 319; idem 1983a: 504). Ipnuapnja ns one
xymxe raxohe jacno noxasyje µa je Honnm¬e xpajem panor n nouerxom pasnnjenor ôponsanor µoôa
npnnaµano rom xynrypnom xpyry, mro snarno nomepa nerony jyxny rpannny, sa xojy ce µo caµa
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
125
L$L1$/G"!H$)!
L6:79D6Q5< 2.
1986 ]5I$/( – ,$B+I+ ;*242%$4(,B-+ ( %$4(,B-+ -5>45*+. Kparyjenan: Hapoµnn mysej.
G989P9D5D 2.
1973 1*$(B42*(0$ ,$ 4>5 D. D*8(0+. Feorpaµ: Cpncxa xnnxenna saµpyra.
1983a Vatinska grupa. Str. 504–519 u Praistorija jugoslavenskih zemalja IV: Bronzano doba, ur. A. Benac.
Sarajevo: Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Bosne i Hercegovine.
1983b Zapadnosrpska varijanta vatinske grupe. Str. 736–753 u Praistorija jugoslavenskih zemalja IV: Bronzano
doba, ur. A. Benac. Sarajevo: Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Bosne i Hercegovine.
KosoriM M.
1976 Kulturni, etniTki i hronološki problemi ilirskih nekropola Podrinja. Tuzla: Muzej istocne Bosne.
19[5< 2.
1988 62;2@*$O(0$ ( 4(;2>2@(0$ ;*$(B42*(0B-(7 45:5>$ 5 D*8(0( ( Z*,20 R2*(. Feorpaµ: unnoso]cxn
]axynrera, Henrap sa apxeonomxa ncrpaxnnana.
1998 Iamsnrpaµcxa xynrypa – nocneµne orxpnhe ¡parocnana Cpejonnha. Crp. 147–158 y .$#2%( J*$@2B>$%$
D*+02%(S$ ,$ (B4*$<(%$C5 ;*$(B42*(0+ /+,4*$>,2@ M$>-$,$, yp. H. Tacnh. Memopnjan ¡parocnana
Cpejonnha. 3ôopnnx paµona I. Kparyjenan: Henrap sa nayuna ncrpaxnnana Cpncxe axaµemnje nayxa n
ymernocrn n Vnnnepsnrera y Kparyjenny
19[5< 2. 5 L9@6Q5< 2.
1992 Pesynrarn apxeonomxor ncrpaxnnana npancropnjcxe xymxe na noxannrery „Cannn naxar” xoµ cena
Jaôyxa. Crp. 153–159 y D(:;2"(05: D+2B-( #$,( D*+4+,$ K5-2B$%I+%(S$ XIV. Hpnjeno¬e: uonµ sa
xynrypy Onmrnne Hpnjeno¬e.
&8ET6Q5< '.
1993 Kynrype cpeµner n nosnor ôponsanor µoôa. Crp. 44–53 y !B42*(0$ B*;B-2@ ,$*2#$, yp. Cnma
Tnpxonnh. Feorpaµ: Cpncxa xnnxenna saµpyra.
M. Hasnh XVMKA H3 FPOH3AHOI ¡OFA HA HOKAHHTETV CABHH HAKAT KO¡ CEHA JAFVKA...
cmarpano µa ne npenasn cenepne naµnne 3narnôopa (Iapamannn 1973: 259; idem 1983b: 741). C
µpyre crpane, ncrpaxnnana na Cannnom naxry jacno cy nornpµnna pannja sanaxana o norpeô-
nnm pnryannma y rymynnma ns panor n pasnnjenor ôponsanor µoôa y sanaµnoj Cpônjn. Taxo ce
napanenna npnmena nnxymannje n xpemannje noxojnnxa y onoj xymnn cacnnm yxnana y mnpoxo
pacnpocrpaneny nojany ônpnryannor naunna caxpannnana y xymxama ns ror nepnoµa (Hasnh
1988: 48).
126
Miroslav Lazic
A Bronze Age mound on the site of Savin Lakat near Prijepolje
Summary
Savin Lakat is a winding mountain pass in the southeast fringes of Gradina, the massif separating the
valleys of the Lim and Cehotina rivers (Map 1, 2). One of the three prehistoric mounds registered there was
systematically excavated in 1990. The mounds were aligned in such a way that two were nearly touching one
another, while the north perimeter of the third was a few meters away from the neighbouring one (Þgs. 1–3).
They were preserved to a height of 1.5 m to 2.0 m and varied from 15 m to 18 m in diameter.
Position and endangerment assessment for each mound led to the decision to excavate the middle one,
nearly 15 m in diameter and preserved to a height of 1.5 m (Þg. 4). The excavation has shown that the mound
was built by laying a ring of large stones delineating the diameter of its base. The thus delineated surface was
covered with a layer of clayey earth to form the platform for a grave at its centre. The capped central structure
was built of large stones. Finally, the stone structure was covered with earth and topped with a thin stone layer
to protect the mound from erosion (Þgs. 5–8; pl. I/1–2).
The mound yielded seven inhumation burials and the remains of one cremation in the central structure
(Þg. 9). On the subsoil at the centre of the mound the skeleton of a woman aged about 30 was found lying on
a rectangular stone ßoor oriented along a northwest–southeast axis (Grave 5) (Þg. 13; pl. II/5). Another grave
was in the northeast segment of the base (Grave 6), sunken under the central structure after the mound was
built. The rectangular burial pit had a stone ßoor and its edge was protected with pieces of limestone (Þg. 14; pl.
II/6). The deceased (a male of about 25) was laid on his right side in a contracted position, with his legs ßexed
at hips and knees, and the arms so ßexed that the hand bones were found near the face. In the belly area was an
intact pottery goblet and at his shoulder a few highly fragmented and poorly preserved animal bones.
The burials (mostly children) along the circumference of the mound were similar to the central female
grave (Þgs. 9-12; pl. II/1-4, 7). All were laid on their left or right side with the legs slightly ßexed and hands
near the head. They were oriented differently, even in opposite directions, but with their bodies always follow-
ing the curve of the mound. None of these peripherally sunken graves had a clearly deÞned construction. In one
(Grave 4) two persons were buried (children aged 8 and 10), and that was the only double burial. The cremated
remains with jewellery in the conical part of the central structure were not buried in an urn. The charred bones
and jewellery were scattered among stones, which leads to the assumption that the body was cremated and
buried during the Þnal stages of mound building.
The arrangement and stratigraphy of the graves clearly shows the sequence of burial. The oldest
burial is at the centre of the mound, followed by the cremated burial in the conical structure. The other graves
were sunken into the mound after it had been built. Hence two burial phases may be distinguished: the earlier
one, represented by the central and associated peripheral graves (Graves 1–5, 10 and the cremated burial), and
the later phase, to which belongs the young man’s grave (Grave 6) found under the central structure (Þgs. 15,
16).
Grave goods included fragments of amphorae, bowls and goblets (pl. III). The only intact vessel
comes from Grave 6: a carelessly modelled pear-shaped goblet with two ribbon handles (pl. IV/1a–d). All
bronze Þnds, with the exception of the Noppenring from Grave 4, were found in the southeast segment of the
central structure. They include four circular pendants with a long conical tang in the middle (pl. IV/2–5), parts
of a necklace (pl. IV/6, 7), seven conical buttons (pl. IV/8–14), the hair ornament (Noppenring) from Grave 4
(pl. IV/15), a few amber beads (pl. IV/16) and several artefacts knapped of different kinds of stone (pl. V).

APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
127
***
The mound on the site of Savin Lakat dates from the end of the Early and beginning of the Developed
Bronze Age, or B1 and B2 according to Reinecke’s periodization of the central-European Bronze Age. During
that period different pastoral and nomadic groups were gradually absorbed into a common ethno-cultural circle
encompassing parts of eastern Bosnia, the Drina river valley, western Serbia, Sandžak and Šumadija. The same
period witnessed the establishment of strong trade and cultural contacts with central-European populations,
whose workshops supplied jewellery, weapons and other bronze artefacts. The newly-established relations be-
tween central-Balkan highlanders and south-Pannonian lowlanders at the beginning of the Developed Bronze
Age are clearly conÞrmed by pottery found across western Serbia and eastern Bosnia. From their style and
technology, they are ascribed to the Vatin culture or to its west-Serbian facies (west-Serbian variety of the Vatin
culture).
The pottery from the mound at Savin Lakat shows that at the turn of the Early and Developed Bronze
Age periods the Lim river valley belonged to that cultural circle, which considerably extends its southern
boundary, hitherto thought not to have extended beyond the northern slopes of Zlatibor. On the other hand, the
mound clearly conÞrms some earlier observations about burial practices in the Early and Developed Bronze
Age mound burial in western Serbia. Thus, the presence of both inhumation and cremation perfectly Þts the
widespread practice of biritual mound burial in that period. The arrangement of the bodies and the manner of
their burial at Savin Lakat, as well as clear and well-preserved projections of the prevailing social relations
show that they were based on strong family and clan ties at the core of which was unqualiÞed submission to the
most distinguished family members.
V¡K 903.5 (497.16 Cannn naxar)’’637’’
M. Hasnh XVMKA H3 FPOH3AHOI ¡OFA HA HOKAHHTETV CABHH HAKAT KO¡ CEHA JAFVKA...
128
M. Hasnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna I / Plate I
129
M. Hasnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna II / Plate II
130
M. Hasnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna III / Plate III
131
M. Hasnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna IV / Plate IV
132
M. Hasnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna V / Plate V
."$1/G ."/,J!3!F, /1/3-$#
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!;E@>9D798 )6Q9D6Q5<
unnoso]cxn ]axynrer, Feorpaµ
!=>?89@?: ) ;*(>2@5 B5 28*$A+,$ 23 2>2%,$ ;+&$4$ (sigillum) ;*2,$A+,$ ,$ 4>5 G$-+#2,(0+. K+S(,$
;*(:+*$-$ ;24(&+ (" ;+*(2#$ *(:B-+ #2:(,$/(0+, $ B$:2 ,+-2>(-2 (" B*+#C+@ %+-$. ) ,("5 24(B,54(7
;+&$4,(7 ;*+#B4$%$ #2:(,(*$05 ;2*4*+4( /$*+%$, -5>4,( B(<+( ( ;+*B2,(O(-$/(0+ (>( B(:82>( @*$-
#2%$ ( 28>$B4(. L+-( 2# C(7 B+ ,+;2B*+#,2 (>( ;2B*+#,2 ;2%+"505 B$ -2%,(/2: ,2%/$ ( famillia monetalis
5 D428(:$.
%ABCDE 8EC5: 2>2%2, ;+&$4(, G$-+#2,(0$, *(:B-( ;+*(2#, D428(, (-2,2@*$O(0$.

Cnaxn namepnnx ôanxancxnx apxeonomxnx crasa cycpemhe ce ca ôenesnma xoje je ocra-
n¬ao Cnerosap – Hann Cranxonnh. Berono nnrepeconane, mnpoxor no¬a, ônno je pasmeheno
na penecancan naunn. ¡ennmo ca nnm, xao mro cmo canyrnnxonann cryµenrcxe n apxeonomxe
µane, ony neµopeueny n necnoxojny npnuy, nparehn rpar onona y nopynn nomn¬xe ns ôesµannx
µa¬nna.
Mana sônpxa ononnnx neuara, ennµenrnpana n µoxymenronana oµ crpane Penyônnuxor
sanoµa sa samrnry cnomennxa xynrype Maxeµonnje, npeµcran¬a µeo ronapa ca cnnorparor nyra
xojnm ce xynrypna ôamrnna ca ôanxancxnx ncrounnxa nsnocn na nonyµy nonnm „noxnonnnnma“
cnerna crapnne, cnpemnnm µa nonnem namnpe cnojy xonenonmrnny, oôesôeµe nnnnnnsannjcxn
oµjex n yrnpµe µpymrnenn craryc. Hpnnor nnmemo ca noµe¬ennm ocehanem; c jeµne crpane,
yxohenem neuacnor nocna y xojn cy ynnerene, moxµa n neµyxne, cyµônne pasnnunrnx nycro-
nona, a c µpyre crpane, nomenn ncxoncxnm apxeonomxnm nopnnom µa ce rpaha nsnoxn n rnme
samrnrn oµ rpajnor saôopana.
Hsaôpann cmo pacyry rpyny oµ µnaµecerax ononnnx neuara, maxom ns anrnuxor nepnoµa,
nanaxennx neponarno y Maxeµonnjn nomohy „cnennµehnx“ µerexropa, unjnm nnacnnnnma onono
n ne ôeme nn¬. Fnno je n nsµamnnjer n naxmer nsôopa; mornn cmo ce orncnyrn rparom cxynnry-
pe nnn naxnra, raxohe sannenenor, ann cmo ocrann npnnpxenn npnom cyouanany ca xpnnrnunom
sônpxom y xojoj cy µomnnnpann npeµmern oµ onona. Temxohe y oôpaµn one rpahe cy nnmecrpyxe.
134
Hpeµmern cy y nehnnn cnyuajena xpnnrnunn, oµpaxanajy nnuno nnn ecna]cxo oôenexje n remxo
nx je cnpcranarn y oxnnpy nenocpeµnnx ananornja n xnacn]nxonarn y cryµnjama (Turcan 1987:
17). Horom, pe¬e]ne npeµcrane nsnnnene y onony cy nenocrojane, nejacnnx oôpnca n naxo ce
omrehyjy n µe]opmnmy npn cxnµany ononnnx nnomôn ca nomn¬axa nnn npnnnxom, najuemhe
necrpyunor n nnnasnnnor unmhena. Hajsaµ, sa onnx 20-ax npnmepaxa neµocrajy mecro n ycno-
nn nanasa, xao n mnpn apxeonomxn xonrexcr, mro orexana yrnphnnane nnxone xpononornje.
Ocnonna ]ynxnnja ononnnx neuara y anrnuxom nepnoµy ônna je µa sub signo oôenexe nnacnnxa
poôe, nomn¬xe nnn nncma. Koµ o]nnnjennnx neuara najuemhe cy xopnmhenn napcxn noprpern
nnn nncnrnnje nnacrn, nnaµapcxor µoma, nmnepnjannnx nncrnrynnja, aµmnnncrparnnnnx cnyx-
ôn; xoµ onnx xojn cy nonesann ca rpronnncxnm npomerom yrncxnnann cy nme rpaµa, nepconn]n-
xannja nnn caxpanna anysnja na ocnnnaua nnn xepojcxy ]annny (favilla) mecra, a xoµ npnnarnnx
neuara neoma je npocrpan nsôop pasnnunrnx rema ynopennx na nmeny, soµnjauxom snaxy, xynr-
nom a]nnnrery, µomnnnnnjymy nnn xaxnom µpyrom cnmôony y ôecxonaunom nnsy nnrnmnnx,
nepconannnx aconnjannja. 3a pasnnxy oµ npnmepaxa ns anrnuxor nepnoµa xojn, maµa ôpojnn, jom
nncy oôpahenn y nexom reme¬nom, oôyxnarnom xopnycy n nperneµnoj cnnresn, ononnn neuarn ns
nnsanrnjcxor nepnoµa nornynnje cy npeµnonann y xaranosnma one rpahe xojn ce oµnoce na sônp-
xe nnn pernone. Onn noronn nmajy narnameny o]nnnjennocr n aµmnnncrparnnnn ncxas, unme
je nornphnnana nepoµocrojnocr µoxymenara xoja cy nparnnn. Ipahy nsnaxemo npema creneny
o]nnnjennocrn, xojn oµpaxana n xpononomxn peµocneµ.
1. Ononnn neuar µnmensnja 24 x 27 mm; orncnyra npeµcrana y ronµy npeunnxa 13 mm. V orncny-
rom no¬y npeµcran¬ene cy µne cyue¬ene rnane ns nmnepnjannor µoma (T. T/1). ¡era¬n npnxasa
cy nejacnn n nsmnuy moryhnocrn sa nenocpeµny nxonorpa]cxy nµenrn]nxannjy. Cnnyere na-
ronemranajy µa ce paµn o mnaµonnxnm noprpernma ôes ôpaµe, ca µyrnm nparonnma xojn ncrnuy
noônnnrer n µocrojancrno. Hsnaµ ôncre ca nene crpane you¬nnn cy cnonnn snann, oµ xojnx ce
pasasnaje cnono T, xojn ôn mornn µa yxasyjy na ro µa je npeµnoxax sa ony npeµcrany ôno anepc
nonna ca nerenµom. Koµ onaxnnx neuara, unjn ce snannunn xapaxrep ncxasyje npeµcranama nnu-
nocrn nmnepnjannor µoma, mory ce cycpecrn ôpojne xomônnannje: µna napa, nap n nesap, µna
nesapa, nap n napnna, nap n ôoxancrno samrnrnnx µnnacrnje nnn napcxor nymena nrµ. Ha na-
mem npnmepxy cneµnnn ôn rpar xojn nam ce unnn nsnecnnjn oµ µpyrnx. Vxasyjemo na npeµcrane
Becnasnjanonnx cnnona, nesapa Tnra n ¡omnnnjana, na anepcnma cepnje nonana ns xonnnne y
Croônma. V oxnnpy raxne moryhnocrn, cnono T nsnaµ rnane jeµnor oµ nesapa (Tnra?) morno ôn
ônrn nouernn µeo anepcne nerenµe T CAESAR IMP DOMITIANVS CAESAR. Ha ony xpono-
nornjy ynyhyje n npeµcrana nnxona ca nsµyxennm nparom, xapaxrepncrnuna sa xnacnnncrnuxe
noprpere jynnjencxo-xnayµnjencxe µnnacrnje, a xoja ce nacran¬a n y nepnoµy ]nannjencxe µn-
nacrnje, ornopene xa crapnjnm yrnnajnma n rpaµnnnjn. Homnm¬ano je, cnaxaxo ca oôanesyjyhom
oôaspnnomhy n pesepnom, µa je onaj o]nnnjennn neuar morao ônrn nonesan ca xonnnnom nonna
y Croônma (Jocn]oncxn 2001: 50, xar. ôp. 14–31).
2. Ononnn neuar µnmensnja 23 x 25 mm; na ropnem µeny ornop sa ymerane rpaxe (T. I/2). V
orncnyrom µeny, npeunnxa 17 mm, npnxasana cy µna nonpcja y nacnpamnom nonoxajy. 3ôor
omrehena n nsnnsanocrn npeµcrana je cnaôo you¬nna, maµa ce no nsnecnnm µera¬nma moxe
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npenosnarn ôpnx¬nnocr nspaµe n majecrernuna excnpecnnnocr. Hanme, na nonpcjy ca nene
crpane nnµn ce neno moµenonana µyxa xoca y xpynnnm xonpuama, xoje naµajy n no cnaxnom
npary. V xocn je ôorar nonopon nenan, peunrn nspas napcxor µocrojancrna. Haxanocr, ne nnµe ce
µera¬n µoner µena nnna, oµnocno nejacno je µa nn nap nma ôpaµy. Hpema naunny moµenonana
xoce n cnaxnom npary, ono nonpcje morno ôn µa npeµcran¬a Hepona, ¡omnnnjana nnn Xaµpnja-
na. Cyue¬no je npnxasano nonpcje napnne (?); you¬nnn cy camo ]ponrannn µeo nnna, µnjaµema
na rnann, xao n xoca npnxnahena na norn¬xy n y nnµy pena nymrena nns µyr rpannosan npar. V
cxnaµy ca nperxoµno naneµenom npernocranxom, ro ôn morna ônrn Heponona majxa Arpnnnna,
xoja ce jan¬a na nonny y onaxnom xepanµnuxom nonoxajy ca cnojnm cnnom, sarnm ¡omnnnja, cy-
npyra ¡omnnnjana, nnn Caônna, Xaµpnjanona xena. Ha ony norony moryhnocr, xoja nam ce unnn
najnpnxnar¬nnnjom, yxasyje cnnuna npeµcrana, ann ca nnme cauynannx nxonorpa]cxnx µera¬a,
na jeµnom ononnom neuary nponahenom y Bnmnnannjymy (Hnannmennh 1992: 50, T. I/11).
3. Ononnn neuar ennnconµne ]opme, µnmensnja 26 x 22 mm (T. I/3). V xpyxnom orncxy, npeunnxa
18 mm, npeµcran¬eno je xencxo nonpcje oxpenyro naµecno. Hpnxasana je marpona ca ôyjnom
xocom npnxnahenom y nynhy na sarn¬xy n µnjaµemom na npoue¬y. Ha nnny µomnnnpajy xpyn-
ne ôaµemacre oun. Hcrypena ôpaµa n noµnrnyr norneµ µajy npnxasy µocrojancrno n ôoxancxn
nnjerer. Bpar je cnaxan n y cynpornocrn ca µennxarnnm nprama nnna n rpannosnom ]pnsy-
pom. Komnnnxonano moµenonane xoce najnnme nnun na cnenn]nune ]pnsype ns enoxe Tpajana
n cycpehe ce na noprpernma nerone xene Hnornne, cecrpe Mapnnjane n nehaxe Marnµnje. Oxo
nonpcja you¬nna cy cnona: nsa ôncre P[-]O, a ncnpeµ TI[-----]. Moxµa ce narnnc moxe ynopeµnrn
ca anepcnnm nerenµama na nonny napnne Hnornne n pexoncrpyncarn y cmncny P[L]O - TI[NA
AVG(usta)].
4. Ononnn neuar µnmensnja 22 x 17 mm, ca ornopnma sa npnny – jemcrnennx (T. I/4). V xonxan-
nom cpeµnmnem µeny, npeunnxa 15 mm, npeµcran¬ena cy µna napcxa nonpcja y cyue¬enom xap-
monnunom nonoxajy carnacja n cnore. Koµ nonpcja ca nene crpane you¬nnn cy nsµyxeno nnne
ca ôpaµom, nonymnnosna xoca, cnaxan nonnjen noc n xpynne oun ca nspasom cnonnhena. Koµ
µpyror, mnaher nnxa narnamennja je nojnnuxa eneprnunocr n nnxropnosnocr. H nopeµ nsnecnor
nojeµnocran¬ena y nxonorpa]cxom nspasy, npenosnajy ce nnxonn napena Mapxa Aypennja, c
nene crpane, n Hynnja Bepa, c µecne crpane, y nonoxajy xojn rpeôa µa ncraxne nµejy aequitas,
xoja ce jan¬a n na nonnnma nomenyrnx nnaµapa.
5. Ononnn neuar µnmensnja 26 x 21 mm. Kpyxno yµyô¬ene, npeunnxa 15 mm, nemro je excnen-
rpnuno nocran¬eno npema µecnoj crpann, raxo µa npnxas nnje jacno orncnyr (T. I/5). Crora nnme
nacnyhyjemo nero mro npenosnajemo nnrerpanny npeµcrany. Hpernocran¬amo µa cy npnxasana
µna pora nsoôn¬a ns xojnx ce neµpe µna nonpcja. Poronn nsoôn¬a cy xepanµnuxn nocran¬enn y
oµnocy na xpyxnn mrnr npnnne (clipeus virtutis). Honpcja xoja nsnnpy ns porona nsoôn¬a oônu-
no, jom y ernnarcxoj xenenncrnuxoj rpaµnnnjn, npeµcran¬ajy mnaµe npnnnence nnn nesape, na-
cneµnnxe rpona. Maµa µera¬n npeµcrane nsmnuy, onµe ce neponarno paµn o Tnry n ¡omnnnjany,
cnnonnma napa Becnasnjana, nnn Kapaxann n Iern, nacneµnnnnma napa Cenrnmnja Cenepa. unnn
ce µa je n y onom npnmepy ncxopnmhen ysop ca nymorpa]cxe rpahe ns xonnnne Croôn. Peu je o
M. Hnanoncxn n A. Jonanonnh HPHHOI HPOVuABABV OHOBHHX HEuATA H3 MAKE¡OHHJE
136
npnxasy nepconn]nxannja pexa Axcnj n Epnron, xoje cy npeµcran¬ene y onom nonoxajy, ]nan-
xnpajyhn nenrpannn mornn n xepanµnuxy oxocnnny, nnn, npe, o penepcnma „nceyµo ayronomnnx”
monera, ca µna pora nsoôn¬a n snesµom y cpeµnnn (Fopnh-Fpemxonnh 1992: 30; Jocn]oncxn
2001: 70, xar. ôp. 541). Onµe je ro mrnr, xojn je neponarno peµyxonana cnnxa Bnxropnje ca mrn-
rom, uecrnm mornnom na nonnnma naneµenor rpaµa.
6. Ononnn neuar xonyconµnor oônnxa, µnmensnja 21 x 30 mm. V xpyxnom no¬y, npeunnxa 19
mm, pe¬e]no cy npnxasana rpn nonpcja (T. I/6). Cpeµnmna ]nrypa je nemro neha n µara en face;
na rnann nma ôorary xopony nnn xanaroc, a oµenena je y xnron. C µecne crpane je rnana mnaµnha y
npo]nny, ca ôyjnom xocom y xojoj je nenan. C nene crpane je nonpcje mnaµnha, raxohe y npo]nny,
ôes ôpaµe n nenna y xocn. Bennunna nonpcja oµpaxana n xnjepapxnjcxy crpyxrypy npeµcrane:
cpeµnmna ]nrypa je najnnma n najsnauajnnja, cneµn, no nennunnn n snauajy ncraxnyrom nennem
y xocn, ]nrypa c µecne crpane n, najsaµ, ]nrypa c nene crpane one nxonorpa]cxe xoncrnrynnje.
Cmarpamo µa cy npeµcran¬enn napnna Jynnja ¡omna y cpeµnnn, c µecne crpane nen crapnjn cnn
Kapaxana, xojn je nocrao anrycr 198. roµnne n crexao npano µa ce onenua nonopom, n mnahn cnn
Iera, y ro npeme ca rnrynom nesapa, y nenom µeny npnxasa. Hpeµcrana µna mnaµa npnnnenca na
onaxnnm npeµmernma, xao n na nonny, oôenexana naueno aeternitas µnnacrnje Cenepa n Hmne-
pnje nnn felicitas saeculi nonor noxo¬ena, a cama napnna Jynnja ¡omna neponarno mann]ecryje
nµejy mater castrorum (RIC IV, 1, 114, 175). Moxµa ce onaj neuar oµnocn na Bnmnnannjym, y
unjem xacrpymy je Kapaxana µoôno rnryny Anrycra.
7. Ononnn neuar xpyxne ]opme, npeunnxa 21 mm; nma µna ornopa sa nponnauene npnne (T. I/7).
Hpeµcran¬ene cy ôncre uernpn napa, nocran¬ene cyue¬nne y µna peµa. Fncre y µecnom peµy
nemro cy nehe y oµnocy na one nocran¬ene no nenoj neprnxann. Hnxonn cy cnnunn n µocneµno
oµpaxanajy naueno similtudo, jeµno oµ nµeonomxnx reme¬a rerpapxnje. Onaxnn neuarn nosnarn
cy n ca npocropa Iopne Mesnje n osnauanajy ycnocran¬ane Hpne nnn ¡pyre rerpapxnje (Hnann-
mennh 1992: 50, T/12–14). Fnncxocr ca npnxasnma na nnnacrpy ns Iamsnrpaµa (Romuliana), rµe
cy anrycrn Koncrannnje Xnop n Ianepnje, c µecne crpane, npeµcran¬enn nemro nehnm ôncrama,
ca narnamenom cyôopµnnannjom y oµnocy na nesape unannja Cenepa n Maxcnmnna ¡ajy, morna
ôn yxasnnarn na ycnocran¬ane ¡pyre rerpapxnje 1. maja 305. roµnne (Srejovic 1991). Moxe ce
nomnm¬arn µa cy onn neuarn nparnnn axr oôsnane onor unna y Hnxomeµnjn.
8. Ononnn neuar ennnconµnor oônnxa, µnmensnja 26 x 21 mm (T. I/8). V yrncnyrom xpyxnom
no¬y, npeunnxa 16 mm, npnxasana je xpnnara Bnxropnja xoja nenom pyxom onenuana napa. Onaxna
npeµcrana uecra je na nonny, noceôno ys penepcny nerenµy RESTITVTOR ORBIS n CONCORDIA
MILITVM. unnn ce µa ce y µecnoj pynn Bnxropnje youana por nsoôn¬a, mro ôn yxasnnano na
cnnxpernsam Bnxropnje n uopryne/Tnxe. Taxnn cnnxperncrnuxn nnµonn Bnxropnje noceôno cy
xapaxrepncrnunn sa III nex n cycpehy ce na nonnnma rpaµona y Tpaxnjn n Maxeµonnjn (Rpyxona
1974: 31). Moxe ce npernocrannrn n cnnuna xpononornja sa onaj neuar.
9. Ononnn neuar unja je npannnna xpyxna ]opma napymena npomnpenem ca ornopom sa nponna-
uene npnne; npeunnx 21 mm (T. I/9). Hpeµcran¬eno je nonpcje mnaµor nenonnxor ôoxancrna, ca
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npannnnnm nprama nnna, ôyjnom µyrom xocom npnxnahenom y unop (nodus) na remeny n ôorarom
nynhom na sarn¬xy. ¡ecno oµ ôoxancrna npnxasana je nexa nrnna (ronyô ?), cnerena na cnono
E. Hen n npoµyxon¬en nnx ôoxancrna morao ôn yxasnnarn na Anonona nnn Benepy, xojn nmajy
cnnuno moµenonany ]pnsypy n osapen nsrneµ. Vxonnxo ce paµn o Anonony, nrnna ôn ce morna
nµenrn]nxonarn ca ranpanom, a cnono E ca xpnnrnunnm snaxom ns Anonononor cnernnnmra y
¡en]nma. Vs Benepy ôn ôno ronyô, a cnono E ôn morno osnauanarn nexn oµ rpaµona y anrnuxoj
Maxeµonnjn xojn sanounne onnm cnonom, y xome je xynr A]poµnre/Benepe ocoônro nomronan.
10. Ononnn neuar ca µna ornopa sa nponas npnne; µnmensnje 20 x 19 mm (T. I/10). V xpyxnom
yrncnyrom no¬y je xencxa ôncra ca moµnjycom (?), oxpenyra naneno. Oµ nnxa ce youanajy xonrype
nenor npo]nna, xpynno oxo n nncox nnnnnµpnunn moµnjyc nnn xanaroc na rnann. Onaxan noxpon
sa rnany, xojn npeµcran¬a crnnnsonany mepnny sa xnro, cycpehe ce xoµ ôoxancrana nnoµnocrn
n xroncxnx crpana (Knôena, Apremnµa E]emxa, ¡emerpa, Hsnµa nrµ.). Hpernocran¬amo µa ce y
onom npnmepy paµn o cnnxperncrnuxom npnxasy ¡emerpe/Hepepe-Hsnµe. Ha ry moryhnocr nano-
µe nac xnôpnµnn npnxasn ¡emerpe/Hepepe-Hsnµe na nonnnma rpaµona y Tpaxnjn n Maxeµonnjn,
ns npne nononnne III nexa (ibid.: 34–40), n npnxas na jeµnom ononnom neuary ns Hnonµnna, rµe je
na cnnuan naunn, ca xpynnnm narnamennm oxom n nnnnnµpnunom xoponom, npnxasano ernnar-
cxo ôoxancrno, neponarno Hsnµa (Iepacnmona 1997). Hsa rnane ôoxancrna youana ce osnaxa III,
xoja neponarno npeµcran¬a ôpoj noµena xnra (annonae), a ncnpeµ – nexn oôjexrn, moxµa spna
xnrapnna, n mana ôpaµna (ascia).
11. Ononnn neuar nsµyxenor ennnconµnor oônnxa, µnmensnja 31 x 15 mm (T. I/11). V ynernyrom
xpyxnom no¬y, npeunnxa 13 mm, npnxasana je rnana Xepaxna (?), oxpenyra naµecno. Hoprper
onnuana cnaxnor ôpaµaror xepoja crporor nspasa, y nperanamrny noµnnra. Xepaxne npeµcran¬a
caxpanno nnmesnauje. Ha neuarnma moxe osnauanarn poµonauennnxa n noxponnre¬a µnnacrnja
Anronnna n Cenepa, napena aµonrnpannx y poµ Xepxynnja roxom Hpne rerpapxnje, samrnrnnxa
nanecrpe, nsnopa, nyrena, xamenonoma nrµ. Moxe ce nomnm¬arn µa Xepaxne na neuarnma oôe-
nexana n rpaµone xojn noce nerono nme, y onom xonxpernom npnmepy moxµa Xepaxnejy Hnnxec-
rnc. ¡ecno oµ rnane Xepaxna nasnpy ce cnona AO y neprnxannom nnsy. ¡a nn cy ro nouerna cnona
rpaµa Arnne, ernµe n xepojcxor cycrennmra Xepaxna n Teseja,
1
ca xojnm je npocrop Maxeµonnje
oµpxanao rpronnncxe nese?
2
12. Ononnn neuar npanoyraonor oônnxa, ca ornopom sa npnny; µnmensnje 19 x 20 mm (T. I/12). V
pomônunom orncxy npeµcran¬en je nojnnx nnn xeponsnpann nonan y rpnjym]annom crany noôe-
µe naµ nenpnjare¬em nnn nemann. unrypa je ocnonena na µecny nory, y nsmaxnyroj µecnoj pynn
µpxn xon¬e xojnm npoôaµa nenpnjare¬a; rnana, narnyra y crpany, norneµom nparn aronnjy nanor
npornnnnxa naµ xojnm je nonoxno neny nory. Hpeµcrana je pahena npema xnacnunom ysopy: Kpe-
cnnaconnm craryama Hporecnnaja n e]emxe Amasonxe. Tpeôa, mehyrnm, narnacnrn n cnnunocr
ca npeµcranama napena c xpaja IV n ns V nexa, xojn rpnjym]yjy xpcrom, µpxehn nory naµ na-
1
Vnopeµnrn npnxase na meronama Arennnor resaypyca y ¡en]nma; sa caxpanne acnexre nonesanocrn Xepaxna ca
Arenom n. Boardman 1975: 3–12.
2
Onn xonraxrn noceôno ce ounryjy y xepamnnn n na namnama: Anderson-Stojanovic 1992: 184–194; Mnxynunh 1975.
M. Hnanoncxn n A. Jonanonnh HPHHOI HPOVuABABV OHOBHHX HEuATA H3 MAKE¡OHHJE
138
nnm nenpnjare¬em nnn naµ smnjom, onnuenem sna, xoja nma rnany uonexa (Arnna, nporonnre¬n
xpnmhana, nrµ.).
3
unnn ce µa onaj npeµmer rpeôa µaronarn y xacnoanrnuxn nepnoµ.
13. Ononnn neuar xpyxnor oônnxa, npeunnxa 24 mm (T. II/1). Orncnyro no¬e orxnoneno je
yµecno oµ oce. V no¬y je, ca nsnecnom memarnsannjom n rexnnuxom neµocneµnomhy, npnxasana
xencxa npnnnxa y crojehem crany, ca ônarnm noxperom n nemnpom, a nsa ne nonpcje mnaµnha
cxpnnenor nsa crene. Hopeµ xencxe ]nrype je nponera xnnornna (nac?) nnn Xepaxnona ôarnna.
Hpernocran¬amo µa je npnxasana Apremnµa/¡njana y noxpery, ca nyxom y cnymrenoj µecnoj
pynn, a nena je noµnrnyra n npnnera roôonny. Hsa ne je nonpcje Axreona, xojn nocmarpa ôo-
rnny cxpnnajyhn ce nsa crene. Hac ce ycrpemno x nemy, naronemranajyhn xoônn Axreonon xpaj.
Cnnuny nxonorpa]cxy nocranxy npnmehyjemo n xoµ npnxasa Arene n Mapcnje na cnomennnnma
ns Maxeµonnje (Hnxononcxn 1998: 27–29, cn. 4), ann nam ce nµenrn]nxannja ca ¡njanom n Ax-
reonom unnn neponarnnjom. Vxonnxo ce npeµmer nopeµ ôoxancrna moxe nµenrn]nxonarn xao
Xepaxnona ôarnna, rpeôa nomnm¬arn na cnrnym Kaônne, rpaµa y Tpaxnjn, na unjem ce nonny na-
nasn npnxas Apremnµe nopeµ xoje je nomenyrn Xepaxnon arpnôyr (Iepacnmon 1972). Hsnaµ rnane
Axreona youanajy ce cnona S[-]CT/A. Moxµa je osnauen ¡njannn ennrer S(an)cta, cxpahennna
nexor rononnma, nonyr Sc(ap)t(opar)a, nnn cnnuno.
14. Ononnn neuar xpyxnor oônnxa, ca ornopom sa ymerane npnne na µonoj crpann; npeunnx 19
mm (T. II/2). Hpeµcran¬ena je µnocrpyxa cexnpa. Hsnaµ ne you¬nn je narnnc MAV. Mornn cexn-
pe ca µne omrpnne ennµenrnpan je na nonny rpauxnx xpa¬ena n rpaµona.
4
Osnauanao je pyµno ôo-
rarcrno, meranyprnjy, uncrohy merana, npany mepy, xapmonnjy. Hpeµcrana cnnraxa y nnµy naôpn-
ca, noceôno oµ nnemennrnx merana, y anrnuxom nepnoµy oôenexanana je saoxpyxene pyµapcxe
n meranypmxe µenarnocrn. To je ôno cnmôon unja caxpanna nenopennnocr nounna na cnesnanom
cnerom snaxy, oµ xpnrcxor ncxona nonesanom ca ôpojnnm ôoxancrnnma cxnaµnor ycrpojcrna npn-
poµe (Apremnµa E]emxa, 3enc Kapnjcxn, Jynnrep ¡onnxen, Anonon, Caôasnje, Knôena, Cepannc
nrµ.). V rom xonrexcry cxpahennny MAV, you¬nny nsnaµ µnojne ôpaµne, moxµa rpeôa paspemn-
rn y cmncny m(etalla) au(gusti). Behnna pyµnnxa na ôanxancxom npocropy y pnmcxom nepnoµy
ônna je µeo napcxor µomena, na n pyµnnuxa oônacr oxo Kparona n 3nerona, sa xojy, unnn ce, rpeôa
nonesarn n onaj ononnn neuar (¡ymannh 1980: 30).
15. Ononnn neuar xpyxnor oônnxa, npeunnxa 23 mm (T. II/3). Hpeµcran¬en je xpyxnn mrnr
na unjem ropnem oôoµy cy npnxasann xon n onan y xepanµnuxom nonoxajy. Ona nxonorpa]cxa
xoncrnrynnja noµceha na nojnnuxe cnrnyme, rµe ce oxo mrnra npnnne (clipeus virtutis), xao xe-
panµnuxe oxocnnne, nanase xnnornna, cnmôon nernje, n soµnjauxn snax japna, nspas nµeje pax
augusti. unnn ce, mehyrnm, µa y namem npnmepy onaj nojnnuxn npnnnnn nnje y npnom nnany.
Cmarpamo µa rpeôa nohn oµ snauena enemenara one nxonorpa]cxe crpyxrype y rpauxom penn-
rnjcxom nonmany. Mann xpyxnn mrnr sanpano je rpauxn mrnr; xonnenrpnunn xpyronn na mrnry
noµpaxanajy nsrneµ cxnynuane smnje, xoja ce jan¬a y cxynnrypannoj ]opmn y onony ns rpauxor
Ceyrononnca. Hporome xona cpehy ce na nonnnma xpa¬ena rpauxnx Oµpnsa, a cyue¬ene ]nrype
3
Vnopeµnrn, na npnmep, nonne Joxana nnn Banenrnnnjana III; Cohen VIII, 208 (4); 212 (19).
4
Honnn Tapeca, Meroxa, Ameroxa (Rpyxona 1992).
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xona n onna na xesny oµpncxnx nnaµapa (Tonanon 1998: 85–87, cn. 36). Hpernocran¬amo µa
onaj neuar caµpxn pennxnnje crapnje rpauxe nnaµapcxe nxonorpa]nje n µa ce moxe nonesarn ca
nexnm oµ rpaµona ca oµpncxor npocropa y µonnnn Mapnne, ns pnmcxor nepnoµa; moxµa npeµcra-
n¬a cnrnym nenocpeµno nonesan ca Ceyrononncom (Seuthopolis), crapom pesnµennnjom oµpncxe
xpa¬ennne.
16. Ononnn neuar xpyxnor oônnxa, ca ornopnma sa npnny, npeunnxa 23 mm (T. II/4). V yµyô¬e-
nom no¬y je µennmnuno omrehena npeµcrana crarye y nnpamnµannoj eµnxynn. Fes oôsnpa na
omrehene, npenosnaje ce ocnonna cnnxa: enonnmnn xnnnxnjcxn xepoj Canµon y cnernnnmry
cnenn]nunor nnpamnµannor oônnxa. Ona rema najuemhe ce npnxasyje na anrnuxom nonny Tapca,
merponone Knnnxnje, sa xojn, npernocran¬amo, rpeôa nonesarn n onaj ononnn neuar (SNG Cop.
33, Lycaonia –Cilicia, Pl. 12/333–349). Morao je µa npnnaµa oasn µoce¬ennxa ns manoasnjcxe
Knnnxnje nnn xonernjymy meranypra nonesanom ca nponsnoµnom ôaxpa, unjn nouenn excnnoara-
nnje ce nesyjy sa Canµona n neronor cnna, xnnapcxor xpa¬a Knnnpy.
17. Ononnn neuar nenpannnnor xpyxnor oônnxa, npeunnxa 24 mm (T. II/5). V orncnyrom xpyx-
nom no¬y, npeunnxa 18 mm, npnxasann cy nponern nan n opao y xepanµnuxom, anrnrernunom
nonoxajy. Jeµnncrno najcnaxnnje xnnornne (nana) n najmohnnje nrnne (opna) cnmôonnsyje
najnehy annmanny cnary. Onn ce jan¬ajy na nonnnma nnme anrnuxnx rpaµona, noceôno y Manoj
Asnjn. Hanoµnmo npnmepe Cmnpne (Smyrn$), rµe ce onn arpnôyrn nonesyjy ca 3encom Axpajocom
(Akraios), nnn Esannca (Aezanis) y upnrnjn, rµe ynornynyjy xynrny xoncrnrynnjy Cepannca.
5

Moxµa ce onaj neuar moxe nonesarn ca nexnm oµ rnx rpaµona, npe ca Esanncom, unje cy nornpµe
ocneµouene y Vnnnjann (¡ymannh 1971: 258–259), nnn moxµa ca Hnnom, unjn je nerenµapnn
xpa¬ Hepnxnnmen, Hocejµonon ynyx, morao µa ce npeoôparn y opna n nana. Onaj npeµmer ne-
ponarno ce moxe µaronarn y npeme µnnacrnje Cenepa, xaµa ce oôjeµnnyjy enemenrn Jynnrepa n
Cona y xynry najnnmer ôoxancrna.
18. Ononnn neuar xpyxnor oônnxa, neµocraje mann oµceuax ca ornopom sa npnxnarane npeµ-
nocne npnne, npeunnxa 25 mm (T. II/6). V yrncnyrom xpyxnom no¬y, npeunnxa 15 mm, ypesan
je pe¬e]nn µnojnn narnnc BIL[L]Y/SSVS. Hsnaµ narnnca cy rpn xonyca (?). Hpeµmer moxµa
osnauana neuar rpaµa Fnnnca (Byllis, Bullis) y Hnnpnxy nnn oônacrn y nopeujy pexe Fnnnc (Billis)
y Fnrnnnjn n yxasyje na exonomcxe nese nsmehy Maxeµonnje n Ennpa nnn Mane Asnje y anrnu-
xom nepnoµy. Ha ôanxancxom npocropy perncrponano je nexonnxo ononnnx neuara na xojnma cy
nmena manoasnjcxnx rpaµona Heprama (Barnea 1985: 240–241, Pl. I/4), E]eca (Iepacnmon 1974:
318–319), Anameje nrµ. Heoônuan µera¬ nsnaµ narnnca remxo je nporymaunrn. Tpn xonyca mory
osnauanarn rponpxon¬e Cneror ôpµa y Manoj Asnjn, caxpannor cycrennmra manoasnjcxor npoc-
ropa, nsnecny exonomcxy nonesanocr ca Tpnmonnnjymom (Trimontium), mro je pnmcxn nasnn sa
unnnnononnc (Philipopolis) y Tpaxnjn, peµyxonany cnnxy rpn nnm]e, xoja ce nojan¬yje na non-
nnma rpaµona y Hnnpnxy, noceôno Anononnje, ann n ranace nnaxonnre ônrnnnjcxe pexe.
5
Smyrna: SNG Cop., Ionia III, Pl. 28/1285–1290; Aezanis: SNG Cop. Phrygia II, Pl. 2/60–62.
M. Hnanoncxn n A. Jonanonnh HPHHOI HPOVuABABV OHOBHHX HEuATA H3 MAKE¡OHHJE
140
19. Ononnn neuar y oônnxy xpyxne nnounne, ca µna ornopa sa nponnauene npnne, npeunnxa 22
mm. Hpeµcrane ce nanase na oôe crpane nnounne. Ha, ycnonno peueno, anepcy je npeµcrana opna
n nporome ônxa (T. II/7a), a na penepcy je ynaoxono narnnc PRIMOSI n Xpncron monorpam y cpe-
µnmry no¬a (T. II/7b). Hpnxas na anepcy, c oôsnpom na xpnmhancxn mornn na penepcnoj crpann,
morao ôn µa ce nonexe ca jenanhenncrnma. unnn ce, mehyrnm, µa nocrojn nsnecna cyôopµnnannja
y onoj npeµcrann, oµnocno µa opao µpxn rnany ônxa. Onnm ce ornapa moryhnocr sa nonesnnane
ca npeµcranama Hajnnmer Fora (Theos Hypsistos), xojn ce npnxasyje y soomop]nom oônnxy – xao
opao xojn y xanuama µpxn rnany ônxa (Jonanonnh 1996). Onaj mornn ocoônro je uecr na nonny
Anexcanµpnje y Tpoaµn.
6
Moxe ce nomnm¬arn µa je napeuenn Hpnmoc nopexnom nnn µyxnomhy
ôno nonesan ca Anexcanµpnjom y Tpoaµn, nnn ca nexnm oµ rpaµona y Ipuxoj rµe je ôno nocne-
µouen xynr Theos Hypsistos (Thessalonica, Palaiohronien), nnn ca oônamhy y Maxeµonnjn rµe je
nomronan Theos Megas (Düll 1977: 87–89). V xacnoanrnuxoj npoconorpa]njn ono, penarnnno
perxo nme nocneµoueno je y ]opmn Primosus, ys rynepnepa (praeses) nponnnnnje Cnpnje ns Kon-
cranrnnone enoxe (Jones, Martindale and Morris 1971: 725; Barnes 1982: 153). Heuar ce moxe
µaronarn y IV nex.
20. Ononnn neuar y oônnxy xpyxne nnounne, npeunnxa 21 mm. Ha jeµnoj crpann npnxasano je
nonpcje y en face nonoxajy, xoµ xora ce cnaôo pasasnajy µera¬n. unrypa je oµenena y orprau (na-
nyµamenrym?), npnxnahen macnnnom ]nôynom na µecnom pameny (T. II/8a). C jeµne crpane rnane
nnµ¬nn je µeo nanmone rpane, a c µpyre xpcr nnn Xpncron monorpam (?). Hsnaµ rnane youanajy ce
cnono V n xpcr. He moxe ce ca noysµanem nµenrn]nxonarn nnx na onom neuary. Moxµa npeµcra-
n¬a Koncranrnna Bennxor, yreme¬nnaua xpnmhancrna, noôeµnnxa y snaxy Kpcra. Ha ony noôeµy
mory yxasnnarn nanmona rpana, cnmôon rpnjym]a, n Xpncron monorpam, xojn je Koncranrnny,
xpos cnonnhene n ornamanane neôa, µoneo noôeµy xoµ Mnnnnjenor mocra. V rom xonrexcry,
cnono V n xpcr nsnaµ rnane mornn ôn µa npeµcran¬ajy nµejy victor in crucem, oµnocno peµyxo-
nan oônnx maxcnme hoc signo victor eris, xoja cneµoun o roj noôeµn. Ha µpyroj crpann neuara je
nennxo cnono B n, nopeµ nera, ymaneno cnono O (?), moxµa cxpahennna oµ nnnoxannje µ(oq)0(ci)
(T. II/8b).
21. Ononnn neuar xpyxnor oônnxa, ca ornopom sa npnxnarane npnne, npeunnxa 22 mm. Ha jeµ-
noj crpann je nnuno nme y monorpamy ca xpnsmom. Ha xpaxonnma Xpncronor monorpama nanase
ce cnona: µecno H, oµnocno nnrarypa HT, µone E, neno C, nsnaµ O nnn nnrarypa OY (T. II/9a).
V xomônnannjn ca cnonom P ns xpnsme morno ôn ce nmunrarn nme y rennrnny HEPCEOY nnn,
npe, y nomnnarnny HETPOC. Ha µpyroj crpann npeµcran¬en je xpcr, ncnoµ xora je µnopeµnn
narnnc CXO/AA[P] (T. II/9b). Ona rnryna neponarno ce oµnocn na cxonapa (o¿oìupoç), npnna-
µnnxa napcxe rapµe, nnn cxonapxa (o¿oìup¿qç), nauennnxa mxone nnn nmnepnjanne rapµe, xojy
je nnacnnx neuara, Hepcej nnn Herpoc, nocno. V nnsanrnjcxoj c]parncrnuxoj rpahn nosnar je
Herpoc, xomanµanr cxone (ooµcoti•oç t€• o¿oì‚•) y sanaµnom µeny Hmnepnje, c xpaja X nexa,
unjn je neuar nponahen y Hpecnany (Jordanov 2003: 75–76). Ona noµena cxone na ncrounn n sa-
6
SNG Cop. 20, Troas 114–116 (anonnmnn), 152–156 (Ennoraôan), 179–180 (Tpeôonnjan Ian), 189–196 (Banepnjan),
207–209 (Iannjen).
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
141
naµnn µeo nsnpmena je y npeme napa Pomana II (959–963) (Bréhier 1949; Guilland 1950: 5–63).
Kacnnje, cnaxaxo npe 1082, ryôn ce repmnn cxona n ocraje camo µomecrnx sanaµnor nnn ncrounor
µena Hapcrna (Nesbitt and Oikonomides 1991: No. 1, 2). unnn ce, mehyrnm, µa neuar ns ]onµa
xojn oôpahyjemo rpeôa µaronarn pannje, y panonnsanrnjcxn nepnoµ, xaµa cy ona ]ynxnnja n rn-
ryna uemhe nocneµouene (Cod. Th. XI 18, 1; VII 4, 34; Cod. Iust. XII 38, 14; Jones 1966: 218, 227;
Guilland 1967).
22. Ononnn neuar xpyxnor oônnxa, na ropnoj crpann omrehen nocran¬anem ornopa sa yrnphn-
nane npnne, npeunnxa 23 mm. Ha jeµnoj crpann npnxasano je nonpcje cneror Hnxone ca nnmôom,
y enncxoncxoj oµexµn, a ca crpane cy µna xpcra (T. II/10a). Ha µpyroj crpann je nnmepeµnn
narnnc ƒ/„C…†‚/‡ˆ…C‰/ˆ„Š; ncnoµ narnnca je xpcr (T. II/10b). Heuar enncxona 3ocnma, ca
narponom nerone enncxonnje, cnernm Hnxonom, moxe ce µaronarn y XIII–XIV nex.
23. Ononnn neuar xpyxnor oônnxa, omrehen, npeunnxa 25 mm. Ha jeµnoj crpann je monorpam y
xpcry. Ha nenom xpaxy je cnono E, a na µonem xpaxy, rµe je snarno omrehene, neponarno nnrarypa
OY; na µecnom xpaxy je nnrarypa TI, a na ropnem X (T. II/1a). Hme nnacnnxa neuara y rennrnny
morno ôn ce paspemnrn xao ‡ŠT…‹…„Š. Ha µpyroj crpann je cnnuna nocranxa: na nenom xpaxy
je cnono E, na µonem nnrarypa OY, rµe je µonn µeo sanpano cnono O, a ropnn npx je cnono Y; na
µecnom xpaxy xpcra jeµna ce youana xacra cnona H nnn I, µox na ropnem xpaxy ne pasasnajemo
cnono (T. II/11b). Paspemene y cmncny ‡ˆ…L‰„ˆ„Š, xoje ce moxe nacnyrnrn, je noµ cymnom.
Hpema ]opmn monorpama, xojn ce y cnnunom oônnxy nojan¬yje na npcreny, onaj npeµmer moxe
ce µaronarn y XI–XII nex.
L$L1$/G"!H$)!
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1992 Stobi. The Hellenistic and Roman Pottery. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Barnea, I.
1985 Sigilii bizantine inedite din Dobrogea (II). Pontica XVIII: 240–241.
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1982 The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
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1975 Herakles, Peisistratos and Eleusis. Journal of Hellenic Studies 96: 3–12.
L685<-L8EP@6Q5< L.
1992 Penepcne npeµcrane na nonny mynnnnnnjyma Croôn. L5:(":$4(&$* 15: 25–46.
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Bréhier, L.
1949 Le monde byzantin. Les institutions de l’empire Byzantin. Paris: A. Michel.
GE89>5X6Q, *.
1972 KŒm nymnsmarnxa na rpaµ Kaônne. !"%+B4(W ,$ =*7+2>2@(&+B-(W (,B4(454 33: 113–120.
1974 Mnrnnuecxa nnomôa c nmero na rpaµ E]ec n Mana Asnja. !"%+B4(W ,$ =*7+2>2@(&+B-(W (,B4(454
34: 318–319.
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@>$B,(- 1980/1-2: 7–55.
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1992 Pnmcxn n nnsanrnjcxn neuarn n meµa¬onn ns sônpxe Hapoµnor myseja y Hoxapenny. L5:(":$4(&$*
15: 47–52.
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1974 Pennrnosnn•r cnnxpernsŒm n Tpaxn•, Mnsn• n Maxeµonn• cnopeµ monernre oµ pnmcxara
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1992 G2,+4(4+ ,$ 4*$-(_B-(4+ ;>+:+,$ ( %>$#$4+>(. Co]n•: FŽnrapcxn xyµoxnnx.
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1892
M. Hnanoncxn n A. Jonanonnh HPHHOI HPOVuABABV OHOBHHX HEuATA H3 MAKE¡OHHJE
144
Milan Ivanovski
Aleksandar Jovanovic
A contribution to the study of lead seals from Macedonia
Summary
The contribution presents 23 lead seals (sigillum) found in Macedonia. Most date from the Roman
period, and a few are of a medieval date.
1. Seal showing the confronting busts of Vespasian’s sons Titus and Domitian; the seal has been re-
lated to the mint at Stobi (pl. I/1).
2. Seal showing two imperial portraits, probably Hadrian and his wife Sabina (pl. I/2).
3. Seal showing the bust of the empress Plotina (pl. I/3).
4. Seal showing the confronting busts of the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, expressing
the principle of equity—aequitas (pl. I/4).
5. Seal showing two cornucopias heraldically arranged with the shield of virtue—clipeus virtutis, a
motif related to the designs known from the coinage of the mint at Stobi (pl. I/5).
6. Seal showing three imperial busts: empress Julia Domna ßanked by her sons Caracalla and Geta
(pl. I/6).
7. Seal showing four imperial busts, probably the emperors of the Fourth Tetrarchy: Constantius I,
Galerius, Flavius Severus and Maximinus Daia; dated to the year 305 (pl. I/7).
8. Seal showing Victory crowning an emperor; Victory holds a cornucopia in her right hand, which
indicates syncretism between Victory and Fortuna; dated to the Þrst half of the 3rd century (pl. I/8).
9. Seal showing a young and beautiful deity with thick hair tied into a knot on the top of the head,
possibly Venus or Apollo (pl. I/9).
10. Seal showing the busts of the syncretic goddess Demeter/Ceres–Isis (pl. I/10).
11. Seal showing the bust of Hercules (pl. I/11).
12. Seal showing a soldier or a hero in the posture of triumph over an enemy or a monster; dated to
late antiquity (pl. I/12).
13. Seal showing Artemis/Diana standing; Aktaion’s bust behind (pl. II/1).
14. Seal showing a double-headed axe surmounted by the inscription MAV, possibly an abbreviation
for m(etalla) au(gusti) (pl. II/2).
15. Seal showing a shield surmounted by a horse and ram, a design associated with the Thracian reli-
gious tradition, and possibly with the city of Seuthopolis, ancient residence of the Thracian kings (pl. II/3).
16. Seal showing a pyramidal aedicule containing the statue of Sandon, a hero of the city of Tarsus in
Cilicia (pl. II/4).
17. Seal showing heraldically arranged lion rampant and eagle; probably from the Severan age, when
elements of Sol and Jupiter were assimilated (pl. II/5).
18. Seal showing the two-line inscription BIL(L)/SSVA, probably a reference to the city of Byllis in
Illyricum (pl. II/6).
19. Two-sided seal with an eagle above the bull’s head on one side, the other bearing the monogram
of Christ at the centre and the name PRIMOSI around it. Eagle above the bull’s head denotes Theos Hypsistos
(The Highest God); dated to the 4th century (pl. II/7 a, b).
20. Two-sided seal with the bust of an emperor, possibly Constantine the Great, on one side, and the
letters µ and 0, possibly an abbreviation for µ(oq)0(ci) on the other (pl. II/8 a, b).
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
145
21. Two-sided seal with the monogram of the name HETPOC on one side, and the two-line inscrip-
tion CXO/AA(P) on the other. This was the seal of a Peter who was member of the imperial guard (o¿oìupqç);
probably of an early Byzantine date (pl. II/9 a, b).
22. Two-sided seal with the bust of St Nicholas on one side, and on the other, the inscription Z/
OCIM‚/EˆICK/OˆOY in several lines with a cross below; dated to the 13th–14th century (pl. II/10 a, b).
23. Damaged two-sided seal, one side bearing the monogram of the name inscribed in a cross, and the
other showing the monogram of the title c•io•o•o‘ (?) (pl. II/11 a, b).
V¡K 736.3-034.2:7.04 (497.17)’’0/13’’
M. Hnanoncxn n A. Jonanonnh HPHHOI HPOVuABABV OHOBHHX HEuATA H3 MAKE¡OHHJE
146
M. Hnanoncxn n A. Jonanonnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna I / Plate I
147
M. Hnanoncxn n A. Jonanonnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna II / Plate II
."+'&*!3+ '$/-$&A $ F+G/3/G *$)!&/&!
-! "$2&%$2 G+2!2! $K &"L$)+
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uaxynrer npnmenennx ymernocrn, Feorpaµ
!=>?89@?: ) *$#5 B+ @2%2*( 2 *(:B-(: @+:$:$ 5 D*8(0(, (" II–III %+-$, B$ ;*+#B4$%2: J(2,(B$ ( C+@2%2@
4(0$B2B$. \B(: B$:2@ J(2,(B$ ( C+@2%(7 $4*(854$, ;*(-$"$,( B5 B$4(*( ( B(>+,(, -20( 5 *$">(&(4(:
B/+,$:$ ((@*$ B$ :+,$#$:$ (>( Y*2B2:, $#2*$/(0$ 82<$,B4%$ (4#.) #2;5C505 J(2,(B2%5 -5>4,5 B>(-5.
\#$8*$,+ @+:+ 2#>(-505 B+ -%$>(4+42: ("*$#+ ( 5B;+>2: -2:;2"(/(02:, $ ("*$A+,+ B5 2# -$*,+2>$, 0$B-
;(B$, 2;$>$.
%ABCDE 8EC5: @+:+, J(2,(B, -5>4, ;2>5#*$@( -$:+,, B$4(*, B(>+,, 1$,.
Ieme, mnnnjarypna n µparonena ocrnapena y nonyµparom xameny, noceôno one ca ôo-
rarnm n pasnonpcnnm ypesannm npeµcranama, nexonnma nsasnnajy µnn¬ene. Oµ npnoônrnnx
neuara yrnnnrapne namene y Meconoramnjn n Ernnry, nocrane cy snauajna µena npnmenene
ymernocrn, npe cnera sôor none, neoma naxne ecrercxe ]ynxnnje jep cy xopnmhene xao yxpacn
ymernyrn y npcrene, µnjaµeme n µpyrn naxnr, y namemraj, mysnuxe nncrpymenre nrµ. Ona rpa-
na ymernocrn noceôno ce pasnnjana y µoôa xenennsma. Kamen najpasnnunrnjnx ôoja, najuemhe
nposnpnn xapneon y mnpoxom cnexrpy oµ xyronapanuacre µo npnenompxe, sarnm jacnnc, axar
n µp., ypesanoj npeµcrann µanao je nyn e]exar n nenory. Vmernnuxn nnno majcropa ôno je nsy-
serno nncox, a oµaônp oµronapajyher xamena n npnnarohanane remarnxe oônnxy mnnnjarypnnx
µnmensnja camo cy µeo nnxonor ymeha. 3anarnnja je ôno n ymernnx, a ymernnx je ôno sanarnnja.
Kpearnnnocr ymernnxa saxrenana je npennsnocr n nemrnny sanarnnje, n oôpnyro. Moxµa cy
ynpano saro reme ônne nncnnparnnne sa onaj paµ y sôopnnxy nocnehenom xonern n npnjare¬y
Cnerosapy Cranxonnhy Hannjy. Kao npcnn nprau, Hann je ycnenao µa carneµa nennny, n ro na
ocnony najmaner µera¬a. Berona xpearnnnocr n ymernnuxn censnônnnrer nnennnn cy cne one
xojn cy apxeonomxy nayxy nocmarpann n µoxnn¬anann y xonrexcry najycnemnnjer cnoja ncro-
pnje n ymernocrn. Vmernnuxn ranenar n npe]nnenn manyennn ocehaj noceôno cy µonasnnn µo
nspaxaja y neronnm xonsepnaropcxnm paµonnma, xaµa je canpmeno oônnxonao ]parmenronann
npeµmer, napanno ôes nomohn µanamnnx rexnnuxnx cpeµcrana. „Pohenn repenan,“ uonex xojn
je morao µa ce npnnaroµn najrexnm n najcxpomnnjnm ycnonnma paµa na repeny, neµpnm µyxom,
nencnpnnom eneprnjom n ayrenrnunnm cmncnom sa xymop ôno je spiritus movens nene exnne.
150
Beron xnnornn onrnmnsam, ocehaj „neune“ mnaµocrn n necnaxnµamnn xosepnsam ocrann cy mn
y cehany n onpeµennnn me µa y onom paµy npeµcrannm nnx ¡nonnca xao ôoxancrna nererannje
n nononnor pahana, xoje mnpn paµocr y nsoôn¬y.
Ho mnry, ¡nonnc je orxpno nemrnny rajena nnnone nose; on je ôor nererannje xojn cran-
no oônan¬a npnpoµy, na ce n nerona xynrna mecra nanase y ceocxnm n nnannncxnm npeµennma
(Cpejonnh n Hepmanonnh 1979: 116–119). 3ôor ¡nonnconnx mnoroôpojnnx n xomnnexcnnx ]ynx-
nnja, neron xynr ôno je jeµan oµ najpacnpocrpanennjnx y µoôa anrnxe.
Pnmcxe reme ns Cpônje, ca npeµcranama ¡nonnca n neronor rnjacoca, uynajy ce y Hapoµ-
nom mysejy y Feorpaµy n Hapoµnom mysejy y Hoxapenny. Hornuy ns II n III nexa, xaµa je repn-
ropnja µanamne Cpônje, nehnm µenom xao nponnnnnja Iopna Mesnja, ônna y cacrany Pnmcxor
napcrna. Oµ mnoroôpojnnx npnmepaxa, y onom paµy npnxasane cy reme xoje ce nsµnajajy xnann-
rerom nspaµe nnn ycnenom xomnosnnnjom. Mecro nanasa uecro nnje nosnaro, ocnm xaµa je peu
o Bnmnnannjymy, Manoj Mnrponnnn nnn Pnronexy. Behnna rema nspahena je oµ najrpaxennjer
nonyµparor xamena y ro npeme, nposnpnor xapneona y xyrnm, npnennm n mpxnm nnjancama, a
camo nexonnxo je oµ jacnnca, onana, xanneµona nnn craxnene nacre.
¡nonnc (Faxyc)
1
npeµcran¬an je na remama nar nnn ca µpanepnjom xoja noxpnna µonn
µeo rena, y crojehem nonoxajy n xonrpanocry. Ha namnm npnmepnnma ¡nonnc ce ocnana na
rnpc ysµnrnyrom µecnom pyxom npexo xoje naµa µpanepnja, a y ncnpyxenoj nenoj pynn µpxn
xanrapoc; nopeµ nory je nanrep, jeµna oµ neronnx cnernx xnnornna. Vouanajy ce jacne nnnnje
rena n cxnaµna nponopnnja.
1. Henosnaro nanasnmre, xapneon mpxonpnene ôoje, µnmensnje 17,2 x 13 x 4,1 mm, Ha-
poµnn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 3344/III (T. I/1).
2

2. Henosnaro nanasnmre, jacnnc npnene ôoje, µnmensnje 11,6 x 8,2 x 3 mm, Hapoµnn
mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 1575/II (T. I/2).
3. Bnmnnannjym, xapneon napanuacre ôoje ca nnxnysnjom, µnmensnje 15,6 x 10,6 x 4,6
mm, Hapoµnn mysej Hoxapenan, nnn. ôp. 1204 (T. I/3). Ha onoj remn ¡nonnc crojn y onosnry y
oµnocy na nperxoµne µne, n ne jan¬a ce nanrep nopeµ nory. Hcrnue ce nsyserno ycnemna crnnn-
sannja ]nrype n xanrapoca y pynn.
Onaxne npeµcrane ôoxancrna najuemhe cy na cxynnrypn ns npemena Hapcrna n neponar-
no cy nncnnpncane opnrnnanom ns IV nexa npe n.e. Jan¬ajy ce y pasnnm napnjanrama na cxynn-
rypama n pe¬e]nma, cnern¬xama oµ repaxore, remama n µp. (Sena Chiesa 1966: 180). Ho cxe-
mn ca rema, ¡nonnc je npnxasan n na nncro]opnma – Xaµpnjanonom asnjcxom nonny oµ cpeôpa
(Mattingly 1936: III, 72/5), a xacnnje n na penepcy nonna Cenrnmnja Cenepa, sajeµno ca nnxom
Xepxyna n narnncom Liber Patri (idem 1950: V, 6/20, 7/4), na xome ce cnane µna ôoxancrna Henrnc
Marne – Xepxyn n Hnôep Harep.
3

1
V paµy ce xopncrn nme rpuxor ôora ¡nonnoca, naxo reme nornuy ns nepnoµa Pnmcxor napcrna. Hoµ onnm nmenom
ôoxancrno je nomronano n na namem noµneô¬y, a nerona nxonorpa]nja ônna je noµ yrnnajem rpuxe xnacnune n
xenenncrnuxe ymernocrn.
2
3ôor naxmer carneµanana penpoµyxnnje y xaranory npeµcran¬ajy orncxe rema, rj. npeµcrane y nosnrnny. Onncn cy
µarn npema opnrnnany; raµa je naneµena cnena y onosnry.
3
Cena Kjesa cmarpa µa je onaj rnn npeµcrane, uecr na nonny rex oµ II nexa, sôor nennxe nonynapnocrn y µexoparnnnnm
ymernocrnma ôno pamnpen najnpe na remama (Sena Chiesa 1966: 180).
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
151
4. Henosnaro nanasnmre, xanneµon cnerno n ramnonnane ôoje, y snarnom npcreny (Ho-
nonnh 1992: xar. 11), µnmensnje 28 x 20 mm, Hapoµnn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 4214/III (T. I/4).
¡nonnc je npnxasan no xomnosnnnonoj cxemn nacropannor xapaxrepa: y jeµnoj pynn µpxn nocy-
µy, µpyrom ce ocnana na rnpc, µox je nexa xnnornna nopeµ nory, a ynaµ¬nn uoxor nnnone nose
nsa neha n nsnaµ rnane. 3ôor xonnexcnor oônnxa reme n cmanenor npocropa, ona cnena ncnynana
neny neny nonpmnny.
5. Mana Mnrponnna, xapneon xyre n napanuacre ôoje, µnmensnje 13 x 9,2 x 3 mm, Ha-
poµnn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 1876/III (T. I/5). Kao ]nrypa xencrnenor nsrneµa, ca npeôauenom
µpanepnjom npexo jeµne pyxe n µnjaµemom na rnann, ¡nonnc crojn ncnpeµ rnpca ca rpaxama n
mnmapxom na npxy n ysµnrnyrnm pyxama µpxn ]njany ns xoje nnje.
4

6. Henosnaro nanasnmre, onan ramnosenene ôoje ca nnxnysnjama oµ xapneona, µnmensnje
10,8 x 8,6 x 2,8 mm, Hapoµnn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 1841/II (T. I/6). ¡nonnc crojn nopeµ rpane
µpnera xoja osnauana mymcxn amônjenr, ca peµyxonannm rnpcom n ôyxpannonom ncnpeµ. C oôsn-
pom µa cy cna ¡nonncona cnernnnmra nmana nporome ônxa, ona xomnosnnnja npeµcran¬a cneny
y xojoj ôoxancrno npnnocn cnernnnmry rnany ônxa na xprny.
Hpeµcrane carnpa n cnnena na remama ns Cpônje cy ôpojne n nxonorpa]cxn pasnonpcne.
Kao yuecnnnn y ¡nonnconom xynry, a sajeµno ca menaµama n nerona cranna nparna, npnxasann
cy y pasnnm cnenama – najuemhe camocranno, ann n y nrpn ca menaµama nnn nnm]ama.
7. Pnronex, xapneon napanuacrompxe ôoje, µnmensnje 14 x 12,8 x 1,6 mm, Hapoµnn mysej
Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 1719/II (T. I/7). Ha remn cxopo xpyxnor oônnxa npnxasan je crojehn carnp ca
xanrapocom y nenoj n neµymom n npeôauennm neôpncom y µecnoj pynn. Ha rnann ce jacno pasas-
najy µna mana pora.
8. Henosnaro nanasnmre, jacnnc npnene ôoje, µnmensnje 15,4 x 11,8 x 3 mm, Hapoµnn
mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 1574/II (T. I/8). Hpnxasan je narn carnp xojn y jeµnoj pynn µpxn neµym, a
y µpyroj xanrapoc n npeôauenn neôpnc. Cnena µenyje pasnrpano, noceôno sôor noµnrnyrnx pyxy
n nore cannjene y xoneny.
9. Henosnaro nanasnmre, jacnnc npnenompxe ôoje, µnmensnje 14,6 x 11,8 x 3 mm, Hapoµ-
nn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 1759/II (T. I/9). Taxohe je npeµcran¬en carnp y nrpn, ca neµymom y
jeµnoj n rposµom y µpyroj pynn. unrypa je nesnarno crnnnsonana.
10. Bnmnnannjym, xapneon xyrompxe ôoje, µnmensnje 20 x 15,2 x 4 mm, Hapoµnn my-
sej Hoxapenan, nnn. ôp. 408 (T. I/10). Peu je o sannm¬nnom npnmepxy na xome carnp, y en face
nonoxajy, µpxn noµnrnyre pyxe ca pamnpennm npcrnma y xapaxrepncrnunom sanocy nrpe. Vr-
neµajyhn ce na anexcanµpnjcxn ysop,
5
majcrop je µonn µeo rena ocranno crarnunnm. Hena xom-
nosnnnja µenyje neµonpmeno c oôsnpom na µncxapmonnjy nennunne reme n ]nrype carnpa.
4
Ona npeµcrana moxµa npnxasyje Mer (samrnrnnny onnx xojn nnjy), xoja ce nonesyje ca ¡nonnconnm xynrom c oô-
snpom na rpannosnocr n mexohy rena, xao n na xencxy ]pnsypy, ca xocom cxyn¬enom y noµyc. Taxno pasmnm¬ane,
ys pesepny jep je nsa ]nrype rnpc, µonynyjy n µne ananorne reme ns Axnnneje (Sena Chiesa 1966: no 450, 451, T.
XXIII).
5
Fponsann carnp – cnnpau ns Croônja, y oµmepenom noxpery nrpe yxasyje na xenenncrnuxn, anexcanµpnjcxn ysop
(Ipônh 1958: 43, T. 28, 29; Mano-Zisi 1954: 16).
H. Kysmanonnh-Hononnh HPE¡CTABE ¡HOHHCA H BEIOBOI THJACOCA HA PHMCKHM IEMAMA H3 CPFHJE
152
Hexonnxo rema ca npeµcranom carnpa y xoµy noxasyje pasnnunr npncryn ]nrypn. Peµy-
xonana ]nrypa youana ce na cneµehnm remama:
11. Henosnaro nanasnmre, xapneon napanuacre ôoje, µnmensnje 9,8 x 8 x 2,8 mm, Hapoµ-
nn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 3913/III (T. I/11). Carnp y jeµnoj pynn µpxn rposµ, a y µpyroj neµym.
12. Henosnaro nanasnmre, jacnnc mpxonpnene ôoje, µnmensnje 14,4 x 11,4 x 3,8 mm, Ha-
poµnn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 1871/II (T. I/12). V jeµnoj pynn carnp µpxn rposµ, y µpyroj neµym;
]nrypa je nsµyxennja y oµnocy na nperxoµny.
Hnxonno nspaxajnnja ]nrypa carnpa ypesana je na remama:
13. Henosnaro nanasnmre, jacnnc npnene ôoje (omrehena npn npxy), µnmensnje 15 x 11,7
x 2,2 mm, Hapoµnn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 1587/II (T. I/13). Carnp y jeµnoj pynn µpxn sena
(seujy xoxy) sa saµne nore, a y µpyroj, noµôouenoj pynn neµym.
14. Henosnaro nanasnmre, axar cnnonnane n oncnµnjan npne ôoje, µnmensnje 16 x 12,8
x 4,8 mm, Hapoµnn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 4097/III (T. I/14). Carnp, ca neôpncom xojn naµa nns
neha, y jeµnoj pynn µpxn xopny ca xynrnnm nncrpymenrnma, a y µpyroj neµym. Crojn ncnpeµ
uoxora nnnone nose, na ona cnena moxµa npeµcran¬a carnpa xojn ce cnpema µa ôepe rpoxhe, mro
je uecra rema y ¡nonnconom xynry.
Vmehe majcropa µa µnnamnuny xomnosnnnjy ca µne ]nrype npnnaroµn oônnxy reme n
nponopnnonanno je npeµcrann youana ce na npnmepnnma:
15. Henosnaro nanasnmre, xapneon napanuacroxyre ôoje, µnmensnje 12,8 x 10,6 x 2,8
mm, Hapoµnn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 3863/III (T. I/15). Hpnxasan je nonnjenn carnp y nrpn ca
mannm Epocom nnn mannm carnpom.
16. Henosnaro nanasnmre, craxnena nacra cnernoxyre ôoje, µnmensnje 13,8 x 13,2 x 2,8
mm, Hapoµnn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 1819/II (T. I/16). Carnp y rpxy noxymana µa yxnarn sa pyxy
nonyoxpenyry menaµy nsnnjenor rena.
V µexoparnnnom peneproapy ¡nonnconor xynra uecre cy npeµcrane ca carnpnma, nnm-
]ama nnn menaµama y ôyxonnxom amônjenry, oônuno nasnauenom jeµnnm µpnerom. Taxne cnene
pacnpocrpanene cy y xenenncrnuxom cnnxapcrny n cxynnrypn. Ha jeµnoj remn ypesana je raxna
cnena.
17. Henosnaro nanasnmre, xapneon napanuacronpnene ôoje, µnmensnje 12,2 x 10 x 3,2
mm, Hapoµnn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 3881/III (T. II/1). V onoj xomnosnnnjn carnp ce naµnno naµ
nonynexehom nnm]om ncnoµ µpnera.
6
Ta rnnnuno nosnoxenenncrnuxa cnena, y xojoj ce nnm]a
ôyµn n ornma carnpy, npeysera je ca namnn oµ repaxore.
Komnosnnnje ca eporcxom remarnxom, xojnma ôn morna µa npnnaµa n ona rema, npnxasyjy
uynno arpecnnny mymxy ]nrypy y crany nenerpannje, µox xencxa ]nrypa (menaµa nnn nnm]a)
ceµn nnn nexn na ôoxy. Te cnene npeysere cy ns npno]nrypannor nasnor cnnxapcrna n pahene cy
no xnacnunom ysopy. Hosnare cy n na namnama oµ repaxore ns µpyre nononnne II n c nouerxa III
6
Cnnuny xomnosnnnjy E. Hnnpnajn-¡nn nµenrn]nxyje xao nponanaxene Apnjaµne (Zwierlein-Diehl 1979: II, 96, No.
239, T. 42).
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
153
nexa. Ieme ca eporcxom remarnxom nehnx cy µnmensnja oµ yoônuajennx jep cy cnyxnne xao yxpac
na pasnnm nocyµama xoje cy neponarno xopnmhene y ranepnama nopeµ nojnnx noropa.
18. Henosnaro nanasnmre, axarnn onnxc cnnonnane n mneunoôene ôoje n oncnµnjan npne
ôoje, µnmensnje 20 x 15,6 x 3,8 mm, Hapoµnn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 3933/III (T. II/2). Hpnxasan
je xonryc, npn uemy xencxa ]nrypa ceµn na cronnnn ca noµnrnyrnm norama.
19. Henosnaro nanasnmre, oncnµnjan npne ôoje ca npnennm xapneonom, µnmensnje 24,6
x 18,6 x 4,2 mm, Hapoµnn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 3934/III (T. II/3), ca cnenom xonryca n jacno
nsµn]epennnpannm rennma carnpa/Hana n menaµe xoja nexn na ôoxy.
Hnrepecanrne cy npeµcrane carnpa y µne remarcxe xomnosnnnje.
20. Henosnaro nanasnmre, sonapnn axar xyre n cnnonnane ôoje, ca npnennm xapneonom,
µnmensnje 14,8 x 10 x 5 mm, Hapoµnn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 3886/III (T. II/4). Hpnxasan je xne-
uehn carnp y unny aµopannje npeµ ¡nonnconom xepmom xao xynrnnm mecrom.
7

21. Henosnaro nanasnmre, xapneon mpxonapanuacre n xanneµon mneunoôene ôoje, µn-
mensnje 11 x 8 x 3 mm, Hapoµnn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 1797/II (T. II/5). Carnp ceµn na crenn
ncnpeµ Hpnjanonor xynrnor cnomennxa. ¡pxn crnnnsonann xanrapoc n memnny sa nnno, µox
je npeµnmensnonnpana am]opa nsa cnomennxa, y µpyrom yrny reme.
8
V onoj cnenn Hpnjanon
cnomennx je na nncoxom nocramenry, y nnµy peµyxonane nrn]annune ]nrype. Kao noxor¬nn n
nacpr¬nn, ann µoôpohyµan ôor, cnn ¡nonnca n A]poµnre, Hpnjan je y xynrnoj nesn ca carnpnma
n cnnennma (Cpejonnh n Hepmanonnh 1979: 360).
Tpeôa nomenyrn µa je y anrnuxoj Ipuxoj rearap ôno recno nonesan ca xynrom ¡nonnca.
Ipuxa µpama je nsnnxna ns oprnjacrnuxnx xynrona, mncrepnja n oôpeµnnx nrapa nocnehennx ¡n-
onncy. Crora noprper carnpa/cnnena ca ¡nonnconnm xopnmôycom oxo rnane moxemo nocmarparn
n xao nosopnmny macxy, uecro npnxasnnany na namnama oµ repaxore.
22. Henosnaro nanasnmre, onan ramnompxe ôoje, µnmensnje 9 x 8 x 2 mm, Hapoµnn mysej
Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 3398/III (T. II/6). Ha remn cxopo xpyxnor oônnxa ypesana je rnana ca nspaxe-
nnm jaroµnnama n ounnm nynnma; xparax n mnpox noc, nonyornopena ycra n nemapna ôpaµa
oµajy rpyôo nnne n noxor¬nnocr y nspasy.
Kao n carnpn, cnnenn cy nrn]annuna ônha µnaxanor rena, nphacror noca, nennxnx ycra n
xpynnnx ounjy, unje ce npeµcrane y nnxonnnm ymernocrnma ne pasnnxyjy mnoro oµ carnpa. Ha re-
mama ce nsµnajajy nynauxnm renom n npohenanom rnanom. Cnnpajy y µnojnnne, nnpy n rnmnane.
23. Henosnaro nanasnmre, xapneon xyrocnernonapanuacre ôoje, R=11,4 mm, µeô¬nna
3 mm, Hapoµnn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 3910/III (T. II/7). Ha remn xpyxnor oônnxa npnxasan je
cnnen xaxo ceµn na crenn n cnnpa na nnpn, a ncnpeµ nera, na ysnnmeny, nanasn ce ¡nonncono
cnernnnmre y nnµy µna cryôa ca xopnsonrannom rpeµom.
7
Cnnuna xomnosnnnja nanasn ce y sônpnn Xopnar. Ha onoj remn carnp (Han) ceµn na crenn ncnpeµ xepme, nopeµ xoje
je rnpc ca nncehnm rpaxama (Košcevic 2000: no 59).
8
Cnnuno nxonorpa]cxo pemene na uernopoyraonoj remn nma npnmepax ns I nexa npe n.e., y Mahapcxom napoµnom
mysejy y Fyµnmnemrn (Gesztelyi 2000: no. 34).
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154
24. Bnmnnannjym, xapneon, y snarnom npcreny (Hononnh 1992: xar. 17), µyxnna rnane
npcrena 18 mm, Hapoµnn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 719/II (T. II/8). Hpeµcran¬en je cnnen ca cnnm
ynaµ¬nnnm ]nsnuxnm ocoônnama. Taxohe ceµn na nncoxoj crenn, ca pyxom cannjenom y naxry, n
nnxonno je nspaxajnnjn oµ cnnena ca nperxoµne reme.
V µpymrny carnpa n cnnena uecro je n xocmarn Han, ôor craµa n nacrnpa xojn oôesôehyje
ycneman non n ymnoxana craµa (Cpejonnh n Hepmanonnh 1979: 317). Vnex je npnxasan ca µna
mana pora na rnann n xosjnm norama.
25. Henosnaro nanasnmre, xapneon napanuacronpnene ôoje, µnmensnje 13,4 x 10 x 3,6
mm, Hapoµnn mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 1913/II (T. II/9). Vpesana je ]nrypa Hana xojn µpxn mn-
mapxy y nenoj n neponarno crnnnsonann xanrapoc y µecnoj pynn. Jacno cy nspaxene nerone
]nsnuxe xapaxrepncrnxe.
26. Henosnaro nanasnmre, xapneon xyre ôoje, R=16 mm, µeô¬nna 2,8 mm, Hapoµnn
mysej Feorpaµ, nnn. ôp. 1688/II (T. II/10). Ha remn xpyxnor oônnxa npeµcran¬en je narn Han
y xoµy, ca neµymom y jeµnoj pynn n µne nonyxanoracre nocyµe sa nnno (µnnocn) npexo pamena,
xoje µecnom pyxom npnµpxana xao oôpamnny. Hns neha my naµa neôpnc. Cxnaµne nponopnnje n
marepnjannsam y oôpaµn µera¬a oµajy npennsnor majcropa n npcnor ymernnxa.
Hpeµcrane ¡nonnca/Faxa n carnpa noceôno cy nonenn nojnnnn jep nx je ôoxancrno nnna
mrnrnno oµ nnjancrna, a carnpn, nonesann ca sema¬cxnm yxnnannma, µonocnnn cy paµocr. Axo
nocmarpamo Bnmnnannjym xao jeµan oµ nehnx nojnnx noropa, rµe cy nponahene mnoroôpojne
reme ca onnm mornnnma, jacno je µa cy nx pnmcxn nernonapn nocnnn ymernyre y npcrene. Be-
nnxn ôpoj orxpnnennx npnmepaxa ca npeµcranom ¡nonnca n neronor rnjacoca noxasyje µa je
cranonnnmrno onor µena Pnmcxor napcrna nomronano ôoxancrno nererannje n neronano neron
xynr. V uonexonoj npnpoµn je xe¬a sa ôecmprnomhy, a oônan¬ane npnpoµe n nononno pahane,
xoje je ocrnapno ¡nonnc, oôesôehyjy µyrorpajnocr, xonrnnynrer n neunocr. Crora ce cmarpano µa
npcrene ca remom na xojoj je ypesan ¡nonncon nnx µonocn neunocr n µaje xnnorny cnary onnma
xojn ra noce.
L$L1$/G"!H$)!
Gesztelyi, T.
2000 Antike Gemmen im Ungarischen Nationalmuseum. Catalogi Musei Nationalis Hungarici. Series
Arhaeologica III. Budapest: Ungarischen Nationalmuseum.
G8]5<, 2.
1958 \#$8*$,$ @*&-$ ( *(:B-$ ;>$B4(-$ 5 L$*2#,2: :5"+05 5 M+2@*$#5. Feorpaµ: Hayuno µeno.
Dimitrova MilSeva, A.
1980 Antike Gemmen und Kameen aus dem Archäologischen Nationalmuseum in SoÞa. SoÞa: Septemvri
Verlag.
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
155
KošSeviM, R.
2000 Arheološka zbirka Benko Horvat. Zagreb: Muzej suvremene umetnosti i Institut za arheologiju.
%B[X9D6Q5<--6Q6Q5<, $.
2005 =,4(&-$ @>(;4(-$ B$ 4+*(42*(0+ D*8(0+. ¡oxropcxa µnceprannja, unnoso]cxn ]axynrer,
Vnnnepsnrer y Feorpaµy.
Mandrioli Bizzarri, A. R.
1987 La Collezione di Gemme del Museo Civico Archeologico di Bologna. Bologna: Museo Civico Archeologico
di Bologna.
Mano-Zisi, O.
1954 Antika u Narodnom muzeju u Beogradu. Beograd: Jugoslavija.
Mattingly, H.
1936 Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum III. London: British Museum Publications.
1950 Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum V. London: British Museum Publications.
Middleton Hoey, Sh. E.
2001 Classical Engraved Gems from Turkey and Elsewhere: the Wright Collection. BAR International Series
957. Oxford: The Basingstoke Press.
.6=6Q5<, $.
1992 .(:B-( ,$-(4 5 L$*2#,2: :5"+05. I 1*B4+C+. Feorpaµ: Hapoµnn mysej.
Sena Chiesa, G.
1966 Gemme del Museo Nazionale di Aquileia I, II. Aquileia: Museo Nazionale di Aquileia.
&8ET6Q5<, '., 5 4E8X9D6Q5<-%B[X9D6Q5<, !.
1979 .+&,(- @*&-+ ( *(:B-+ :(42>2@(0+. Feorpaµ: Cpncxa xnnxenna saµpyra.
Furtwängler, A.
1900 Die Antiken Gemmen, Geschichte der Steinschneidekunst im Klassischen Altertum I–III. Leipzig and
Berlin: Gesecke & Devrient.
Zwierlein-Diehl, E.
1979 Die Antiken Gemmen des Kunsthistorischen Museum in Wien II: die Glasgemmen. Nachtrage zu Band I.
Die Gemmen der späteren römischen Kaiserzeit I: Götter. München: Prestel.
H. Kysmanonnh-Hononnh HPE¡CTABE ¡HOHHCA H BEIOBOI THJACOCA HA PHMCKHM IEMAMA H3 CPFHJE
156
Ivana Kuzmanovic-Novovic
Depictions of Dionysus and his thiasus on Roman intaglios from Serbia
Summary
Roman second- and third-century intaglios from Serbia showing Dionysus and his thiasus are now
kept in the national museums in Belgrade and Požarevac. The paper offers an overview of those that stand out
by the quality of craftsmanship or composition. Their Þndspots are often unknown, except for the Þnds from
Viminacium, Mala Mitrovica and Ritopek. Most intaglios are carved in the most sought-for semiprecious
mineral of the time, translucent carnelian in different shades of yellow, red or brown, while some are of jasper,
agate or chalcedony.
Dionysus (Bacchus) is shown naked or with a cloth covering the lower part of his body, statically
frontal or in a contrapposto position. His raised right arm with a drapery over it rests on the thyrsus, and he
holds a kantharos in his outstretched left hand; there is a panther at his feet (pl. I/1-3) and, occasionally, a vine
tendril behind him (pl. I/4). Such representations were probably inspired by a fourth-century-BC original. An
effeminate Dionysus stands in front of the thyrsus and drinks from a vessel (pl. I/ 5), while a dark green intaglio
(pl. I/6) shows him standing by a tree branch with a reduced thyrsus and a bucranium in front, symbolizing the
ox killed as a sacriÞce.
Satyrs and sileni are a frequent motif on the intaglios from Serbia and occur in a variety of icono-
graphic patterns. They are depicted in diverse scenes, usually independently (pl. I/ 7), or dancing with maenads
or nymphs. On the intaglios with a dancing satyr, the satyr is shown in proÞle (pl. I/8, 9) or facing (pl. I/10).
A few intaglios showing a walking satyr display different approaches to the Þgure; some have reduced forms
(pl. I/11, 12), others are more expressive (pl. II/13, 14). The scenes showing a satyr playing with the Eros child
(pl. I/15), or with a maenad whose hand he is trying to grab (pl. I/16), testify to the jeweller’s skill to adjust the
dynamic composition and proportions to the shape of the gemstone.
The imagery associated with the Dionysiac cult frequently includes scenes with satyrs, nymphs and
maenads in a bucolic landscape, widespread in Hellenistic art. A carnelian intaglio shows a satyr bent over a
recumbent nymph under the tree (pl. II/1). Erotic themes include a satyr/Pan and maenad (pl. II/2, 3) in the act
of sexual intercourse. They were borrowed from Athenian black Þgure vases and follow the classical model.
A satyr with a rough face and corymbus on the head betrays a lustful expression (pl. II/6). One com-
position shows a kneeling satyr in the act of adoration of Dionysus’ herm (pl. II/4) and another depicts a satyr
seated on a rock in front of Priapus’ cultic object (pl. II/5).
Sileni are distinguishable by plump bodies and baldish heads; one is shown seated on a rock playing
the lyre (pl. II/7), the other is visually more expressive (pl. II/8).
Pan, the god of ßocks and shepherds, invariably has two small horns and legs of a goat. His features
are clearly shown on the intaglio with Pan holding a pine cone and a kantharos (pl. II/9), while on a circular
intaglio they become fully materialized (pl. II/10), and Pan carries two wine vessels (dinos) over his shoulder.
Depictions of Dionysus/Bacchus were much liked by the soldiers because the god of wine was sup-
posed to protect them from intoxication, and satyrs, associated with worldly pleasures, to bring joy. At Vimi-
nacium, one of the larger military camps, several intaglios have been found, which suggests that Roman le-
gionaries used to wear rings with such motifs. The large number of discovered intaglios showing Dionysus
and his thiasus indicates that this deity was worshipped and his cult observed by the local population as well.
Dionysus’ renewal of nature and rebirth ensured longevity, continuity and eternal existence.
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
157
The memory of the colleague and friend Svetozar Nani Stankovic, whose artistic gift and reÞned
manual dexterity found its full expression in conservation works, and whose cheerful spirit, inexhaustible en-
ergy and authentic sense of humour infused additional optimism into every archaeological team, has inspired
me to present in this paper the intaglios depicting Dionysus as the deity of vegetation and rebirth, as the one
spreading joy around generously.
V¡K 736.2 (497.11) ’’1/2’’:7.046 (37)
H. Kysmanonnh-Hononnh HPE¡CTABE ¡HOHHCA H BEIOBOI THJACOCA HA PHMCKHM IEMAMA H3 CPFHJE
158
H. Kysmanonnh-Hononnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna I / Plate I
159
H. Kysmanonnh-Hononnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna II / Plate II
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%ABCDE 8EC5: J$>:$/(0$, M2-$ F242*B-$, ^$C(/+, %(>$, 8$"(>(-$, $*7+2>2@(0$.
Mnrpannje roxom npancropnjcxnx nepnoµa, napounro y ôponsano µoôa, µonene cy na
npocrop Fanxana napoµe xojn cy oµnrpann snauajny ynory y noronnm enoxama. 3a pasnoj xynrypa
xoje cy y IV nexy npe n.e. nnerane na npocropy Foxe Koropcxe, rpuxa xononnsannja je necymnn-
no, ônna npecyµna (Iapamannn 1967a). Taµa ocnonane xononnje, npe cnera oµ crpane Cnpaxyse,
oµpxanane cy rpronauxe xonraxre ca cyceµnnm nnnpcxnm cranonnnmrnom. Cnaxene nnnpcxe
µpxane y µpyroj nononnnn III nexa npe n.e. n rsn. nnnpcxn paronn, xoje nam onncyjy Honnônje,
Annjan, ¡non Kacnje, a nemro xacnnje n Hnnnje, nanenn cy rpuxe rpaµone na Jaµpany µa ce sa
nomoh oôpare Axajnnma n Eronnnma, ann n Pnm¬annma. Vmemanmn ce y re cyxoôe, Pnm¬ann
cy 229. roµnne npe n.e. sanouenn par npornn Teyre (rsn. Hpnn nnnpcxn par). Mnp xojn je Teyra
sarpaxnna neh 228. roµnne npe n.e. nnje, mehyrnm, µoneo npecranax parnnx onepannja. Pas-
nnunrn nonnrnuxn nnrepecn n xomnnnxonann oµnocn ¡nmnrpnja Xnapcxor, xome cy Pnm¬ann
nonepnnn ynpany naµ nehnm ôpojem nnnpcxnx nnemena, Maxeµonana n camor Pnma, nocne ¡py-
ror n Tpeher nnnpcxor para µonenn cy µo xonaunor cnoma nnnpcxe µpxane, 168. roµnne npe n.e.
Haxo y pnmcxoj nnrepecnoj c]epn, ¡anmannja, y unjem cacrany je ônna n Foxa, nocraje napcxa
1
Texcr je nacrao y oxnnpy nayuno-ncrpaxnnauxor npojexra =*7+2>2?-$ @*$A$ – 2B,2%$ "$ ;*25&$%$C+ -5>45*,2@ -2,-
4(,5(4+4$ 5 ;*$(B42*(0( ( $,4(/( ,$ 4+*(42*(0( D*8(0+ (en. ôp. 174071), xojn peannsyje unnoso]cxn ]axynrer
y Feorpaµy, a ]nnancnpa ra Mnnncrapcrno sa nayxy Penyônnxe Cpônje.
162
nponnnnnja xojom ynpan¬a legatus Augusti pro praetore rex sa npeme Anrycra. 3a pasnnxy oµ sa-
neha, rµe ce pomannsannja oµnnjana cnopo n ys narnameny ynory µomopoµauxor cranonnnmrna,
npnmopcxe oônacrn, npe cnera rpaµonn (nnp. Pncan – Rhizonium), npno ôpso cy npnxnarnnn pnm-
cxn naunn xnnora, o uemy cneµoue ôpojnn apxeonomxn cnomennnn µyx nene oôane Foxe (xapra
1). ¡noxnennjanona pe]opma ns 284. roµnne µonena je µo nsµnajana repnropnje µanamne Hpne
Iope y saceôny aµmnnncrparnnny jeµnnnny – nponnnnnjy Hpenannc, xoja ce nanasnna y oxnnpy
µnjenese Mesnja. C mannm npomenama, ona noµena oµpxana ce cne µo naµa Pnmcxor napcrna.
Hoxoµ Hcrounnx Iora (noµ nohcrnom Teoµopnxa) na Hrannjy, 488–489. roµnne, sanpmno ce npn-
npemennm cnomom Oµoaxapone µpxane n saysnmanem ¡anmannje, yx¬yuyjyhn n Foxy Koropcxy.
To ocnajane ônno je nojnor xapaxrepa, ôes rpajnor nace¬anana xoje ôn nam ocrannno snauajnnja
apxeonomxa cneµouancrna o nnxonom ôopanxy na onom npocropy (Iapamannn 1967ô). Kpaj an-
rnuxe nnnnnnsannje n xopennre npomene µo xojnx je µomno nouerxom VII nexa, ynoµe Foxy y
nonn nepnoµ – cpeµnn nex, y xome snauajny ynory nmajy Cnonenn.
Hoxannrer Xannne nanasn ce na nonyocrpny Hymrnna, ncrouno oµ ocrpna Mamyna, y
µny ncronmenor sannna. Oxpyxen xnnonncnnm xpajonnxom, n µanac npeµcran¬a nµeanno mecro
sa penaxcannjy, na je crora mera mnoroôpojnnx rypncra xe¬nnx oµmopa oµ rpaµcxe npene n no-
rneµa na ôecxpajno nnanernnno mopa. Ban npomernnx caoôpahajnnna, µo nera ce crnxe yrnan-
nom npexo mopa, ôapxama – xaxo cy neponarno unnnnn n anrnuxn xnre¬n onor noµpyuja.
Hµnnnuna n nnrnmna oôana sannna na Hymrnnn ônna je npeµmer nayunnx nnrepeconana
jom y µpyroj nononnnn XIX nexa. Mehy npnnma, nomenyhemo Mnaµena Hpnoropuennha, pohenor
y Faomnhnma y Foxn, yunre¬a no oôpasonany n npo]ecnjn. Onaj npeµann ncrpaxnnau crapnna
Kapra 1. Pnmcxa nanasnmra y Foxn Koropcxoj
Map 1 Roman sites in the Gulf of Kotor
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
163
nesaoônnasno je nme xaµa ce ronopn o npoyuanany apxeonomxnx cnomennxa Foxe. V jeµnom oµ
cnojnx nncama, ynyhenom ncropnuapy Tophy Crparnmnponnhy 10. jyna 1895. roµnne, nomnne
cnoj unanax o Xannnama xojn je nocnao nernncxoj 1*2B%0+4( (Hpnoropuennh 2001: 52–53). Ha
nocrojane apxeonomxor nanasnmra na onom mecry yxasnnann cy n nojeµnnaunn cnyuajnn nanasn
npnxyn¬enn µo cpeµnne npomnor nexa: ocrann npxnene rpahennne, µenonn mosanxa n xamenn
Cn. 1. Ocnona npxne Mane Iocne, ca ncrpaxennm xnaµparnma
Fig. 1 Plan of the Church of Mala Gospa with excavated squares
HPHHOI HPOVuABABV AHTHuKE APXEOHOIHJE FOKE KOTOPCKE M. Pyxnh n H. Hymnh
164
cryô ca yxnecannm xpcrom (Iapamannn 1967ô: 256, 272, 274; Hymnh 1970: 15). Haneµenn noµa-
nn nnnnnpann cy nouerax apxeonomxnx ncrpaxnnana, c nn¬em µa ce ncnnra npernocran¬ena
panoxpnmhancxa ôasnnnxa onpeµe¬ena y VI nex, sa xojy ce neponano µa ce nanasn oxo n ncnoµ
npxne Mane Iocne (npxne Cn. Jonana), carpahene 1881. roµnne. Apxeonomxn paµonn, xojnma je
pyxonoµno jeµan oµ ayropa onor npnnora, sanouern cy 1974. roµnne.
2
Tom npnnnxom, ys ancnµy
npxne (ncrouno oµ ne) xoncraronana je µoôpo ouynana rpahennna, unjn cy snµonn ônnn cauynann
µo nncnne oµ 1 merpa, a noµ npexpnnen xnµpaynnunnm manrepom. Haxanocr, µa¬a ncrpaxnnana
mopana cy ônrn oôycran¬ena sôor nepemennx nmonnncxo-npannnx oµnoca. ¡oônjenn pesynrarn,
c oôsnpom na oµcycrno noxpernor apxeonomxor marepnjana, nncy mornn ônnxe µa onpeµene oôje-
xar, re je npernocranxa o nocrojany panoxpnmhancxe ôasnnnxe ocrana najneponarnnja.
Tex nocne 10 roµnna (1984) pyxonoµnnan nperxoµnnx ncrpaxnnana ycneo je µa nonpa-
rn nnrepeconane jannocrn sa onaj noxannrer. Capaµnom 3annuajnor myseja y Xepner Honom n
Henrpa sa apxeonomxa ncrpaxnnana unnoso]cxor ]axynrera y Feorpaµy noxpenyr je npojexar
!B4*$<(%$C$ -$B,2$,4(&-2@ >2-$>(4+4$ ^$C(/+, xojnm cy, ys mp Hnnjy Hymnha, pyxonoµn-
nn axaµemnx ¡parocnan Cpejonnh n npo]. µp Anexcanµpnna Hepmanonnh-Kysmanonnh. Pyxono-
µnnan repencxnx ncrpaxnnana ôno je µp Cnerosap Cranxonnh Hann, apxeonor mnpoxnx crpyu-
nnx nnrepeconana n nenonon¬nnor µyxa, xome nocnehyjemo onaj paµ. Hocne camo µne xamnane
(1984. n 1985. roµnne), ncxonanana cy npexnnyra ycneµ neµocrarxa ]nnancnjcxnx cpeµcrana.
3
C oôsnpom na ro µa ce xomnnexc xacnoanrnuxnx rpahennna najnehnm µenom nanasn nc-
noµ npxne Mane Iocne (npxne Cn. Jonana), xoja je opnjenrncana y npanny ncrox – sanaµ, ca oµ-
crynanem oµ 12
o
xa jyry, xnaµparna mpexa (ca xnaµparnma µnmensnja 5 x 5 merapa) nocran¬ena
je y oµnocy na npxny, rj. cno¬no nnne nenor jyxnor snµa (cn. 1).
4
Toxom µnoroµnmnnx paµona ncxonana je y nornynocrn (nperxoµnnm ncxonanannma
µennmnuno neh ncrpaxena) rpahennna ncrouno oµ ancnµe npxne (cn. 1, oôjexar I, nncrepna).
Ipahennna µnmensnja 6,25 x 3,50 m, opnjenrncana y npanny cenep – jyr, nmana je ôaunacrn cnoµ
(cn. 2). Texnnxa snµana xamenom y nenpannnnnm peµonnma (ca snµonnma µeô¬nne 0,75 m), ys
ynorpeôy manrepnor nesnna, neoma je uecra y onnm xpajennma roxom xacnoanrnuxor nepnoµa (cn.
3). Vnyrpamna nnna snµona n noµ npexpnnenn cy cnojem xnµpaynnunor manrepa, c rnm mro je
npenas noµa y snµone nax¬nno saoô¬en.
Hpocrop sanaµno oµ npxne ncrpaxen je ponom mnpnne 0,60 m, c nn¬em µa ce yrnpµn
nocrojane nonnx snµona xomnnexca, oµnocno nerono npocrnpane xa sanaµy. Hcxonanana na rom
npocropy nncy µana nosnrnnne pesynrare, mro je neponarno nocneµnna rpahennncxnx axrnn-
nocrn cnponeµennx npnnnxom nsrpaµne n cannpana npxne.
5
2
Apxeonomxnm ncxonanannma pyxonoµno je mp Hnnja Hymnh, nnmn crpyunn capaµnnx 3annuajnor myseja y Xepner
Honom.
3
Tepencxnm paµonnm roxom oôe xamnane pyxonoµno je µp C. Cranxonnh, nayunn capaµnnx Apxeonomxe sônpxe
unnoso]cxor ]axynrera y Feorpaµy. unanonn crpyune exnne y xamnann 1984. roµnne ônnn cy: M. Hasnh, ncrpaxnnau-
capaµnnx Apxeonomxe sônpxe unnoso]cxor ]axynrera y Feorpaµy, H. Hyronan, apxeonor ns Hnanrpaµa, H. Heponnh,
I. Paµonanonnh, T. Tannn n H. Hennh, cryµenrn apxeonornje. V crpyunoj exnnn xoja je oôannna ncxonanana 1985.
roµnne ônnn cy: H. Kysmanonnh, ncropnuap ymernocrn ns Feorpaµa, ¡. Janxonnh n I. Jannh, cryµenrn apxeonornje.
4
Kopnmhena µoxymenrannja n µeo noxpernnx apxeonomxnx nanasa uynajy ce y Henrpy sa apxeonomxa ncrpaxnnana
unnoso]cxor ]axynrera y Feorpaµy.
5
Hapanenno ca sanaµnnm snµom npxne, na oxo 0,50 m oµ ynasa, xoncraronana je canpemena nnacrnuna noµonoµna nen.
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
165
Hajnnrepecanrnnje pesynrare µana cy ncxonanana npocropa jyxno oµ npxne. Apxn-
rexroncxn enemenrn µocra cy ocxyµnn sôor xopnmhena anrnuxor rpahennncxor marepnjana
npnnnxom nsrpaµne npxne Mane Iocne (npxne Cn. Jonana). Onn ynyhyjy na nocrojane rpahe-
nnncxor xomnnexca cmemrenor y nenocpeµnoj ônnsnnn mopcxe oôane, o unjoj namenn he ônrn
peun xacnnje. Hpnpoµnn repacacrn naµ repena ycnonno je apxnrexroncxo pemene xomnnexca.
Berone najnnxe npocropnje cy na sanaµy, a najnnme y ceneponcrounom µeny, rµe ce nanasn n neh
nomenyrn oôjexar I, ca noµom oµ xnµpaynnunor manrepa, xojn je neponarno npeµcran¬ao nncrep-
ny – pesepnoap sa cxyn¬ane noµe. Ha crenenacro apxnrexroncxo pemene xomnnexca yxasyje n
ouynanocr snµona, xojn cy najnnmn ynpano xoµ nncrepne, µox cy y jyrosanaµnom µeny cauynann
camo y reme¬nnm yxonnma.
Hcrpaxenom jyrosanaµnom µeny xomnnexca npnnaµa macnnnn snµ 1, mnpnne 1,20 m (cn.
1, snµ 1), xojn ce npyxa y npanny ncrox – sanaµ, napanenno ca jyxnnm snµom npxne, na pacrojany
oµ 0,60 m, xao n snµonn 2 n 3, xojn ca jyra, oµnocno ncroxa, sarnapajy npocropnjy mnpnne 3,80
m. Beny rauny µyxnny, naxanocr, nnje ônno moryhe yrnpµnrn. Fnna je yxpamena mosanuxnm
noµom, o unjem nocrojany cneµoue cnopaµnunn nanasn xamennx xonxnna cnno¬yônuacre, ram-
nocnne, senene n ôene ôoje, xao n µennmnuno ouynana manrepna noµnora ca ocrannma cyncrpyx-
nnje noµa (nsµpoô¬enn xamen n onexa y manrepy). unran xomnnexc je, xaxo ce unnn, ôno orpahen
snµom rpahennm oµ nom¬enor xamena ôes nesnna, a xojn je, sa caµa, xoncraronan camo na jyxnoj
crpann (cn. 1, snµ 4).
Hoxpernn apxeonomxn nanasn (xepamnuxo nocyhe, npeµmern oµ craxna, ôponse n rnoxha,
µenonn apxnrexroncxe nnacrnxe), a npe cnera nanasn nonna, yxasyjy na ro µa je rpahennncxn xom-
nnexc nsrpahen y µpyroj nononnnn III nexa n µa je y xonrnnynrery ôno y ]ynxnnjn cne µo nouerxa
VI nexa.
Toxom apxeonomxnx ncrpaxnnana 1984–1985. roµnne nponaheno je 10 ôponsannx mo-
nera, oµ xojnx je µener morno ônnxe µa ce onpeµenn: no jeµan nmneparopa Knayµnja, Knayµnja
Iorcxor (cn. 4/1), Aypennjana (cn. 4/2), Kapnna n Banenrnnnjana II, a no µna Koncranrnna II
n Koncrannnja II (cn. 4/3). Penepcne npeµcrane, naxanocr, nncy morne µa ce npenosnajy, ocnm
Cn. 2. Oôjexar I (nncrepna) – nonpeunn npecex
Fig. 2 Structure I (cistern), cross-section
HPHHOI HPOVuABABV AHTHuKE APXEOHOIHJE FOKE KOTOPCKE M. Pyxnh n H. Hymnh
166
xoµ µna npnmepxa nonna Koncranrnna II. Oôa nmajy ncrn rnn penepcne npeµcrane (GLORIA
EXERCITVS). Konann cy y nepnoµy nsmehy 330. n 335. roµnne, n ro jeµan y Hnxomeµnjn (cn. 5/1;
LRBC I: 1118), a µpyrn y Cncnnjn (cn. 5/2; LRBC I: 776).
Hpeocrann noxperan apxeonomxn marepnjan µennmnuno ce yxnana y xpononomxy cnnxy
xojy nam npyxa nonan. Oµcycrno nanasa mnahnx oµ cpeµnne III nexa moxµa ôn ce morno oôja-
cnnrn neµono¬nnm crenenom ncrpaxenocrn xomnnexca, unjn ce nennxn µeo nanasn ncnoµ npxne
Cn. Jonana. C µpyre crpane, oôn¬e xepamnuxor marepnjana – am]opa (T. I/8-9; Bjelajac 1996:
41–44, 87–91), sµena, rannpa (T. I/10, 11; Brukner 1981: T. 3/3, 5/5a) n noxnonana (T. I/12; ibid.:
T. 130/12), xepamnuxnx namnn (T. I/5-7; Iványi 1935: T. XL/3; Rano hriš`anstvo: 108, kat. 131;
Salona Cristiana: 274–276, kat. 4–18), xao n µenona craxnennx nocyµa – nexapa (T. I/3; Ružic
1994: 43–44, tip VII/7) n namnn (T. I/4; ibid. 1994: 55), xojn ôn ce mornn onpeµennrn y nepnoµ oµ
cpeµnne III µo cpeµnne V nexa, cneµoun o xomnnexcy xojn je ôno ôoraro cnaôµenen nnnom, macnn-
nama, yco¬enom pnôom n µpyrnm meµnrepancxnm nocnacrnnama xoje cy n µanac xapaxrepncrnxa
onnx xpajena.
Hajnehn µeo onor marepnjana npnnaµa nepnoµy oµ xpaja IV µo nouerxa VI nexa. V oµpehn-
nany ]ynxnnje rpahennncxor xomnnexca na Xannnama nnµnxarnnnn cy nanasn craxnennx nocy-
µa – xanµnna, a napounro xepamnuxnx namnn. Mehy npeµmernma oµ craxna nµenrn]nxonann cmo
nennxn ôpoj µenona (µpmxe n µna) xanµnna ca nnnhnm nnnnnµpnunnm pennnnjenrom, na xome
cy, ncnoµ oôoµa, annnnnpane rpn mane rpaxacre µpmxe, µox je µno nenacro nsµyxeno (T. I/4).
Taj rnn nocyµa nosnar je ca mnornx xacnoanrnuxnx noxannrera n µaryje ce y IV–V nex (Vessberg
and Westholm 1956: 212; O’czak 1981: T. I–III; Ko“uena 1990: oôp. 5ô; Ružic 1994: 55). ¡enonn
xanµnna snononnxor pennnnjenra n saoô¬enor µna, na xome ce nanasn µyrmeracro ncnynuene
(T. I/1-2), snarno cy pehn. Onn npnnaµajy neoma pacnpocrpanenom rnny xanµnna xoja cy ônna
yoônuajena roxom V, a napounro y VI nexy (Ružic 1994: kat. 1149–1189), n xoja cy ônna ymera-
na y xpyxne µpxaue merannnx (ôponsannx) nonnjeneja, a cnyxnna cy sa ocner¬anane nehnx
Cn. 3. Oôjexar I (nncrepna) – ynyrpamne nnne ncrounor snµa
Fig. 3 Structure I (cistern), inner face of the east wall
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
167
npocropa – nojnnx, nnnnnnnx, ann n ôasnnnxa (Mapjanonnh-Byjonnh 1973; Ko“uena 1990: oôp.
9µ, 10; Byzantium: 282–283, no. 296, 284–285, 298). Hoceôno cy nnrepecanrnn µenonn xepamnu-
xnx namnn. Peu je o namnama onannor pennnnjenra,
macnnnor nsµyxenor x¬yna ca mnpoxnm xananom
n nehnm ennnconµnnm ornopom sa ]nrn¬, xoje cy
nspahnnane y xanyny (T. I/5-7). Pame onnx, rsn. a]-
pnuxnx namnn yxpamanano je, no npannny, nerera-
ônnnnm nnn reomerpnjcxnm opnamenrnma, µox ce
na µncxy uecro nanase panoxpnmhancxn cnmôonn
– Xpncron monorpam, pnôe, nayn (Iványi 1935: type
XII; Menzel 1969: afrikanische Lampen, Abb. 77).
Onaj rnn namnn jan¬a ce roxom IV nexa, a nenrap
nponsnoµne ônna je Anexcanµpnja. Kpajem IV n roxom V nexa nmnrannje onor rnna nspahyjy ce
n y µpyrnm oônacrnma, npe cnera y Ipuxoj n Hrannjn, a cmarpa ce µa cy xopnmhene npnnnxom
nnryprnjcxnx oôpeµa (Kysmanon 1992, 41, rnn XXXIV).
Kanµnna n namne orxpnnene roxom apxeonomxnx ncxonanana 1984. n 1985. roµnne, ys
nperxoµno nosnare nanase xojn nornuy ca onor noxannrera (xamena nnacrnxa, µenonn mosanxa),
norxpen¬yjy npernocranxy o nocrojany panoxpnmhancxe ôasnnnxe na Xannnama, xojy moxemo
onpeµennrn y µpyry nononnny IV – nouerax VI nexa.
Hanasn nonna nmneparopa Knayµnja, Knayµnja Iorcxor (cn. 4/1), Aypennjana (cn. 4/2)
n Kapnna µosno¬anajy nam µa pasmorpnmo nµejy o nexom crapnjem xomnnexcy nsrpahenom na
onom mecry. To nornphyjy n µenonn xepamnuxnx nocyµa, napounro am]opa, a npe cnera µenonn
craxnennx nocyµa, xao mro je nexap na noxnnama (T. I/3). Onaj rnn craxnennx nexapa, nspahn-
nan oµ ôenor craxna, cmarpa ce nponsnoµom xenncxnx, oµnocno pajncxnx paµnonnna, xoje cy
npeysene npnmar y nponsnoµnn nojeµnnnx oônnxa roxom µpyre nononnne III n nouerxom IV nexa
(Vessberg and Westholm 1956: 141, Fig. 45/12; Paškvalin 1976: 118, T. VIII/4; Ružic 1994: 43–44).
Mnm¬ena cmo µa je na onom mnpnom n nµnnnunom mecry morna µa ôyµe nsrpahena nnna pycrn-
xa, xoja je cnaxaxo xnnena roxom III nexa. Haxanocr, caµamne crane ncrpaxenocrn noxannrera
Xannne ne omoryhana nam µa nemro nnme xaxemo o rnny came nnne (Vasic 1970). Fpojnocr
apxeonomxnx nanasnmra na npocropy xepnernoncxe onmrnne cneµoun o nnrensnnnom xnnory
onor xpaja roxom npnnx mecr nexona none epe (Pušic 1998; Varga 1998).
3axna¬yjyhn nanasy nonna Koncranrnna II, xojn je orxpnnen unmhenem cyncrpyxnnje
mosanuxor noµa, moxemo µa npernocrannmo µa cy nocneµne rpahennncxe axrnnnocrn (cannpane
nocrojeher crana nnn µorpaµna nonnx npocropnja) na onom µeny xomnnexca oôan¬ene cpeµn-
Cn. 5. Honan Koncranrnna II, xonan y Hnxomeµnjn (1) n Cncnnjn (2)
Fig. 5 Coins of Constantine II minted at Nicomedia (1) and Siscia (2)
Cn. 4. Honan Knayµnja Iorcxor (1), Aypennjana
(2) n Koncrannnja II (3)
Fig. 4 Coins of Claudius Gothicus (1), Aurelian
(2) and Constantius II (3)
HPHHOI HPOVuABABV AHTHuKE APXEOHOIHJE FOKE KOTOPCKE M. Pyxnh n H. Hymnh
168
nom nnn roxom µpyre nononnne IV nexa, xaµa je n nerona ]ynxnnja npomenena. Toxom µpyre
nononnne IV, na cne µo nouerxa VI nexa onµe ce nanasnna panoxpnmhancxa ôasnnnxa, moxµa
crpaµana y jaxom sem¬orpecy xojn je 518. roµnne noroµno ncroune µenone pnmcxe nponnnnnje
¡anmannje (µanamny Hpny Iopy). Ono nsyserno neno mecro nsnona cy orxpnnn rypncrn, a npe
cnnx sa¬yô¬ennnn y crapnne, xaxan je ôno n nam xonera Cnerosap Cranxonnh Hann.
L$L1$/G"!H$)!
Bjelajac, Lj.
1996 Amfore gornjomezijskog Podunavlja. Beograd: Arheološki institut.
Brukner, O.
1981 Rimska keramika u jugoslovenskom delu provincije Donje Panonije. Dissertationes et monographiae
XXV. Beograd: L’association des archaeologiques de Yugoslavie.
Byzantium
2002 Everyday Life in Byzantium, ed. D. Papanikola-Bakirtzi. Athens: Hellenic Ministry of Culture.
Varga, V.
1998 Podmorski arheološki lokalitet Njivice – rt i uvala Ribarice. Muzejske sveske 3: 24–31.
VasiM, M.
1970 Römische Villen vom Typus der Villa rustica auf jugoslawischen Boden. Archaeologia Iugoslavica XI:
45–81.
Vessberg, O., and Westholm, A.
1956 The Hellenistic and Roman Periods in Cyprus. The Sweedish Cyprus Expedition VI/3. Stockholm: The
Sweedish Cyprus Expedition.
G989P9D5D, 2.
1967a Hpna Iopa y ocnnr nncane ncropnje. Crp. 89–139 y !B42*(0$ Z*,+ R2*+ 1. Tnrorpaµ: Peµaxnnja sa
ncropnjy Hpne Iope.
1967ô Hpna Iopa y µoôa Pnmcxor napcrna. Crp. 143–277 y !B42*(0$ Z*,+ R2*+ I, Tnrorpaµ: Peµaxnnja sa
ncropnjy Hpne Iope.
Iványi, D.
1935 Die pannonischen Lampen: eine typologisch-chronologische Übersicht. Dissertationes Pannonicae
ex Instituto Numismatico et Archaeologico Universitatis de Petro Pázmány nominatae Budapestinensis
provenientes 2/2. Budapest: [A Kir. M. Pázmány Péter Tudományegyetem Érem-és Régiségtani Intézete].
%6bCEQ9, %.
1990 Pannonnsanrn“cxa crŒxnapcxa paôornnnnna. =*7+2>2@(W 4/1990: 36–45.
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169
%B[X9D6Q, G.
1992 =,4(&,( >$:;(. Co]n•: FŒnrapcxara axaµemn• na nayxnre.
LRBC = Late Roman Bronze Coinage
298T9D6Q5<-3BT6Q5<, G.
1973 ¡na pana xpnmhancxa nonneneja ns Hapoµnor myseja. '82*,(- *$#2%$ L$*2#,2@ :5"+0$ (Feorpaµ)
11: 13–22.
Menzel, H.
1969 Antike Lampen im Römisch-germanischen Zentralmuseum zu Mainz. Mainz: Römisch-germanisches
Zentralmuseum.
Occzak, J.
1981 Wyroby szk’ane. Pp. 166–197 in Novae – Sektor Zachodni 1976, 1978, ed. Stefan Parnicki-Pude’ko.
Poznan: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza.
Paškvalin, V.
1976 Anticko staklo s podrucja Bosne i Hercegovine. Str. 109–138 u AntiTno steklo v Jugoslaviji: Slovensko
arheološko društvo, Kolokvij ob 150-letnici Narodnega muzeja v Ljubljani, 14.X.1971. Materijali XI. Ljubljana:
Savez arheoloških društava Jugoslavije.
.BP5<, $.
1970 Apxeonomxn noxannrern n crane apxeonomxe nayxe y Foxn Koropcxoj. M2-$ 1: 7–21.
1998 Tragovi arheoloških lokaliteta na terenu hercegnovske opštine. Muzejske sveske 3: 1–23.
Rano hriš!anstvo
1994 Od nepobedivog Sunca do Sunca pravde: rano hriš`anstvo u kontinentalnoj Hrvatskoj, ur. Željko Demo.
Zagreb: Arheološki muzej.
RužiM, M.
1994 Rimsko staklo u Srbiji. Centar za arheološka istraživanja 13. Beograd: Filozofski fakultet,
Salona Cristiana
1994 Salona Cristiana, ur. Emilio Marin. Split: Arheološki muzej.
48D6:68CEQ5<, 2.
2001 1(B:$, yp. I. Komap. Xepner Honn: 3annuajnn mysej.
HPHHOI HPOVuABABV AHTHuKE APXEOHOIHJE FOKE KOTOPCKE M. Pyxnh n H. Hymnh
170
Mira Ružic
Ilija Pušic
A contribution to the archaeological study of the Gulf of Kotor in antiquity
Summary
The site of Žanjic is on the headland Luštica, across (and to the east of) the island of Mamula, at the
end of a bay bearing the same name. Sidestepped by main roads, it is usually accessed from the sea, by boats
starting from Herceg Novi, which was probably the practice of the ancient inhabitants of the area as well.
The existence of an archaeological site was indicated by individual chance discoveries: remains of a
church, mosaics and a stone column carved with a cross. These Þnds, from which an Early Christian basilica
was presumed around and under the church of Mala Gospa (St John) erected in 1881, prompted excavation in
1974 directed by one of the authors of this contribution, Ilija Pušic of the Local Museum at Herceg Novi. Adja-
cent to (and east of) the apse of the church, a well-preserved structure was registered with walls surviving to a
height of one metre and the ßoor coated with hydraulic mortar. Ten years elapsed until the director of the initial
excavation succeeded in reviving public interest in the site. The Museum at Herceg Novi and the Centre for
Archaeological Research of the Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade started a joint project Research of the late
antique site of Žanjic, led by Ilija Pušic, Dragoslav Srejovic and Aleksandrina Cermanovic-Kuzmanovic. The
excavations were directed by Svetozar Nani Stankovic, a man of unique spirit and a wide range of archaeologi-
cal concerns to whom we dedicate this paper.
During the two years of excavation the structure east of the apse (Þg. 1, Structure I, Cistern) was fully
exposed. It was 6.25 × 3.50 m, set on a north–east axis, and barrel-vaulted (Þg. 2). The method of building in
irregular courses of stone bound with mortar (with walls 0.75 m thick) was quite frequent in those parts in late
antiquity (Þg. 3). The interior surfaces were coated with a layer of hydraulic mortar and the junctures of walls
with the ßoor carefully rounded.
The most interesting discoveries were made south of the church. The unearthed architectural elements
were rather scant, because the antique structure had been a source of building material for the church of Mala
Gospa. They suggested a villa in close proximity to the sea. The terraced slope had dictated the design of the
complex. Its lowest rooms were in the west, but most were in the northeast, where Structure I lined with hy-
draulic mortar, probably a cistern, was located.
The movable Þnds (pottery vessels, glass, bronze and iron artefacts), most of all coins, suggested the
second half of the 3rd century as the date of the villa (Þgs. 4–5).
The coins of Constantine III discovered during the clearing of the substructure of the ßoor mosaic
give grounds to assume that the last building phase (repair works or addition of new rooms) in this section of
the complex took place in the mid 4th century. In the latter half of the 4th to the early 6th century there was
an Early Christian basilica, as indicated by ceramic lamps used for liturgical purposes. The basilica might
have been ruined in a powerful earthquake which struck the eastern parts of the province of Dalmatia in 518
(present-day Montenegro).
V¡K 904:72 (497.16 Xannne)’’2/5’’
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
171
M. Pyxnh n H. Hymnh APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna I / Plate I
!"#+/1/I%! $&*"!($3!F!
!%3!*/"$)! #+"4+G -/3/G
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Apxeonomxn nncrnryr, Feorpaµ
35@?68 398:9
3annuajnn mysej, Xepner Honn
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.2B+ (>2-$>(4+4 G$>2 .2B+), G(*(?4+ (2B4*%2 D%. R2B;$) ( E+*/+@ L2%( (>2-$>(4+4 K20,(&-$ ;>$<$
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Cnerosap Cranxonnh Hann, ncrpaxnnau-capaµnnx Oµe¬ena sa apxeonornjy unnoso]-
cxor ]axynrera y Feorpaµy, y cnojoj ôoraroj apxeonomxoj npaxcn ôno je sannrepeconan n sa nc-
rpaxnnana noµnoµnnx noxannrera.
1
Taxo je ôno y moryhnocrn µa nnµn ynnmranane noµmopcxnx
noxannrera oµ crpane neoµronopnnx ponnnana, na uax n ponnnauxnx xnyôona, xojn cy sa coôom
ocran¬ann npany nycrom µyx oôana Foxe Koropcxe. 3axna¬yjyhn yrneµy mehy npnoropcxnm
xonerama, C. Cranxonnh
2
je nnnnnpao µoronop ca ueµomnpom Mapxonnhem, µnpexropom 3anoµa
sa samrnry cnomennxa xynrype Hpne Iope na Hernny, Mnnanom Hpannnonnhem, xycrocom Ap-
1
Kpajem 80-nx roµnna npomnor nexa C. Cranxonnh je sanpmno xypc sa camocrannor ponnona y xnyôy ,,Fesôeµnocr“
n annmnpao je cnoje xonere µa my ce y rome npnµpyxe. Oµ onor xnyôa µoôno je norncrnuxy nomoh y nnµy onpeme sa
ponene, xao n crpyuny nomoh sa cne npoôneme xojn cy mornn omecrn ncrpaxnnana.
2
Apxeonomxy exnny unnnnn cy: apxeonosn mp Cnerosap Cranxonnh, ncrpaxnnau-capaµnnx Oµe¬ena sa apxeonornjy
unnoso]cxor ]axynrera y Feorpaµy, Bnxrop Bapra, xycroc 3annuajnor myseja y Xepner Honom, Mnnan Hpannnonnh,
xycroc Apxeonomxe sônpxe Hpne Iope y Hoµropnnn, cryµenr apxeonornje Anexcanµap Kanypan n camocrannn
ponnonn Xapxo Oôpauennh, Hpeµpar Hepanunh, 3narxo Paxouennh n 3opan Haxnhennh, cnn ns Feorpaµa. Cpeµcrna sa
ncrpaxnnane oôesôehena cy na cneµehn naunn: Apxeonomxa sônpxa Hpne rope 1600 µnnapa, Henrap sa apxeonomxa
ncrpaxnnana unnoso]cxor ]axynrera y Feorpaµy 400 µnnapa, 3annuajnn mysej y Xepner Honom 35 nancnona y
Hncrnryry ,,Cnmo Mnnomennh“, a cymy oµ 12 500 µnnapa µann cy unanonn exnne sa rpomxone ôensnna, norpomnor
marepnjana nrµ.
174
xeonomxe sônpxe Hpne Iope y Hoµropnnn, n Bnxropom Baprom, xycrocom 3annuajnor myseja y
Xepner Honom, µa ce y Foxn Koropcxoj nsnpme cneoôyxnarna noµnoµna pexornocnnpana apxeo-
nomxnx noxannrera paµn nnxonor ennµenrnpana n cran¬ana noµ samrnry.
Hcrpaxnnana cy sanouera noue-
rxom µenemôpa 1990. roµnne, n ro npoônnm
ponennma na noxannrery Pnôapnne, y Bn-
nnnama na Hpennann, xaµa je orxpnnen nehn
ôpoj apxeonomxnx nanasa ns pasnnx nepnoµa,
sarnm y Mannm Pocama n Mnpnmry, xao n
na noron¬enom pasapauy ns Hpnor cnercxor
para ,,Kajsep upann Jose] Hpnn“, xojn nexn
nsmehy nonyocrpna Hymrnne n Hpennaxe.
Hacranax je ycneµno 1991. roµnne, y nepn-
oµy oµ 12. µo 21. oxroôpa, pexornocnnpanem
ner noxannrera: Pnôapnne, Mano Poce, oc-
rpno Cn. Iocna y Mnpnmry, Bojnnuxa nnaxa
n xoren ,,Tonna” y Xepner Honom (xapra 1).
Mehyrnm, ycneµ neouexnnanor pasnoja µo-
rahaja y CuPJ n nouerxa parnnx onepannja
na µyôponauxom parnmry, nncmo mornn µa
cnponeµemo osôn¬nnja ncrpaxnnana, xao
mro je ônno nnannpano.
Pnôapnne
Hoxannrer Pnôapnne y Bnnnnama (xapra 1) cmemren je na cenepnoj oôann nonyocrpna
Hpennaxa, na xoopµnnarama N°25´55,3´´ EO 18°31´18,2´´ Nm 0m (-15). Hperpaxnnana mopcxor
µna nsnena cy rpn napa ponnnana, xojn cy ce xperann y oxnnpy rpn xonnenrpnuna xpyra. Hpn-
ônnxno 80 m oµ oôane, na µyônnama oµ 15 µo 20 merapa, nanase ce nehe nacnare ]nnor my¬a,
xoje nsasnnajy cnaôy nnµ¬nnocr n orexanajy ponene. Hpn cnaxom noxymajy µa ce nanasn ns-
naµe, crnapa ce nenposnpan oônax my¬a xojn cmanyje nnµno no¬e. Paµ ca naxyym-cnca¬xom n
cnrnnm anarom raxohe nnje µao nehe pesynrare. My¬ je npexpno nonpmnny nocyµa y nnµy µeôe-
nnx nacnara, na cy nocrane snarno rexe. 3ôor naneµennx oxonnocrn, ponnonn nsôeranajy onaj
noxannrer, raxo µa je y µoôpoj mepn ocrao ouynan. Jeµan µeo xonsepnnpanor marepnjana, xojn
ce nanasn y cacrany cranne nocranxe 3annuajnor myseja y Xepner Honom, nyônnxonan je 1998.
roµnne (Varga 1998).
Hpnxyn¬en apxeonomxn marepnjan noxasao je µa ce nerona najneha xonnenrpannja na-
nasnna npnônnxno 30 merapa oµ mona, y npanny nnraµene Crapor rpaµa y Xepner Honom. Bemy
npnnaµajy:
- ]parmenronane rpuxo-nrancxe am]ope (T. I/1, 2; T. V/1, 2) xaxne ce jan¬ajy mnpom jaµpancxe
oôane, µaronane y nepnoµ oµ xpaja IV µo xpaja II nexa n.n.e. Panna ropna nonpmnna oôoµa rpo-
yraonor npecexa n µoôpo neuena ]axrypa xyre ôoje onpeµe¬yjy nx y crapnjn rnn (Kirigin 1994:
16, sl. 2/1; Vrsalovic 1974: 139, sl. 90; Varga 1998: 26, sl. 1);
Kapra 1. 1. Bnnnne; 2. Mano Poce; 3. Mnpnmre – ocrpno
Cn. Iocna; 4. Bojnnuxa nnaxa; 5. Xoren ,,Tonna”
Map 1 1) Njivice; 2) Malo Rose; 3) Mirište–island of Sv.
Gospa; 4) Vojnicka Plaža; 5) Topla Hotel
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
175
- npcrenacro µno cxn]oca, ca npemasom oµ npnor ]npnnca (T. I/7; T. V/3), moxe ce µaronarn
npnônnxno y IV nex n.n.e.;
- ]parmenronann ropnn µenonn oôoµa n nparona, xao n nexonnxo ]parmenara rpôyxa n µna (T.
I/8, 9, 10) xojn npnnaµajy pnmcxnm am]opama ns µoôa Hapcrna. Ono nocyhe nspaheno je oµ µoôpo
npeunmhene rnnne, npneno neuene. Hajpannje ce µaryje ropnn µeo am]ope pasrpnyror xonnunor
oôoµa, ca omrpo npo]nnncannm nparom y npeµeny cnoja ca µpmxama n ca xanenypama na pameny
(T. I/4). Taxne am]ope moxemo onpeµennrn y xnacy 41, rnn Fenrasn (Benghazi), xojn je ôno y
ynorpeôn oµ I µo III nexa n.e. (Peacock and Williams 1984: 177, Fig. 96);
- ]parmenronana am]opa mnpoxor ynyuenor oôoµa, ôes npara, nperenacror rpôyxa yxpamenor
xopnsonrannnm ypesnma y nnnoy xparxnx rynenacrnx µpmxn (T. I/6), npnnaµa xnacn 48, rnn
Fenrasn, xojn je ôno y ynorpeôn oµ III µo IV nexa n.e. (ibid.: 196, Fig. 115);
- ]parmenr oôoµa n npara yxpamenor xanenypama, ca µne µyrauxe µpmxe xoje ce ysµnxy µo nn-
cnne oôoµa (T. I/5), npnnaµa xnacn 47 (ibid.: 193, Fig. 112) nnn ncrounomeµnrepancxom rnny XII
(Bjelajac 1996: 41–43, sl. XII/56) n µaryje ce oµ cpeµnne III µo cpeµnne IV nexa n.e. Taj rnn am]o-
pe uecr je na jaµpancxoj oôann, xao n y Hoµynan¬y n Erejn (Vrsalovic 1974: 140, sl. 122; Bjelajac
1996: 41–43; Scopran 1975: 269, Fig. 1; Kysmanon 1973: 16);
- ropnn µeo am]ope cenepnoa]pnuxe nponennjennnje npnnaµa xacnoanrnuxnm nanasnma xnace
35, rnn LI, no Hnxoxy n Bnnnjamcy. Taxne nocyµe, ca ycxnm npo]nnncannm oôoµom, xparxnm
nparom n nperenacrnm rpôyxom yxpamennm xanenypama (T. I/3), ônne cy y ynorpeôn oµ IV µo VI
nexa n.e. (Peacock and Williams 1986: 158, 162);
- xonnuno µno oµ xyro neuene rnnne moxµa npnnaµa rpuxo-nrancxnm am]opama (T. I/8), a rpôyx
n µno ca xparxnm nnnnnµpnunnm xpajem moxµa ce moxe onpeµennrn y rnn oneapnja (olearia)
(Dautova-Ruševljan 1970: 162, tip 1).
Kepamnxa ns cpeµner nexa snarno je sacryn¬ena, ann je y manom ôpojy xonsepnnpana nnn
ounmhena, raxo µa nnje noroµna sa µaronane:
- ônxonnunn nonan mannx µnmensnja, ca µne µpmxe xoje cy camo nexonnxo nenrnmerapa yµa¬ene
jeµna oµ µpyre n ca rparonnma ôene enroôe n senene rnehn na npary (T. II/2; T. V/5). Taj rnn nonna
jan¬a ce y XV n XVI nexy n.e. (Zagarcanin 2004: 64, sl. 18; Cunja 1999: 131–134, tav. X/3; Širec
1985: T. V/5). Hs ncror nepnoµa je n nonan nehnx µnmensnja (T. II/3), ca rpn mnpoxe rpaxacre
µpmxe xoje npenase oôoµ, yxpamene neprnxannnm xanenypama (Zagarcanin 2004: 61, sl. 15);
- nonan ca oôoµom mnpoxor ornopa, µyrnm xonnunnm nparom, nnnnnµpnunnm rpôyxom n jeµnom
µpmxom (T. II/4) najneponarnnje npnnaµa xepamnnn XVIII n XIX nexa n.e.;
- ôoxann nehnx µnmensnja, nsµyxenor ononµnor n ônxonnunor oônnxa, a xapaxrepncrnuan je
npnmepax ca oôoµom rponncnor ornopa n jeµnom µpmxom (T. II/5), xojn ce µaryje y xpaj XV n y
XVI nex n.e. (ibid.: 84, sl. 202). Onaj nanas je naxanocr, xao n µpyrn ôoxann, nornyno npexpnnen
xannnnannjom, raxo µa nnje moryhe yrnpµnrn nerony ]axrypy, ôojy neuena n oôpaµy nonpmnne
(T. II/6, 7, 8), nnrn npennsnnjn xpononomxn oxnnp;
- sannm¬nne craxnene amôanaxne ]name aycrpnjcxor mopnapnuxor nnna, ca osnaxom nnrpaxe,
ns XIX n XX nexa (T. V/6). Camo jeµan ]parmenr ôone pasrpnyror oôoµa yxpamenor ôenom ôojom,
uernpracror pennnnjenra, moxµa npnnaµa nosnom cpeµnem nexy (T. V/7).
A. Kanypan n B. Bapra APXEOHOBKA HCTPAXHBABA AKBATOPHJA XEPHEI HOBOI
176
Pnôapnne y Bnnnnama sa caµa cy najôorarnjn noxannrer no orxpnnennm nanasnma, xojn
cy xpononomxn onpeµe¬enn y pacnon oµ IV nexa n.n.e. µo XX nexa n.e. Ona naryna ca m¬ynxo-
nnrom nnaxom, npna na ynasy y sannn ca cenepne crpane, ônna je najônnxe npnôexnmre ôypom
omrehennx ôpoµona n moxµa je ôam na onom mecry ca nnx nsôannnan ronap xaxo ôn ce naxme
µomornn oôane. Hnnja Hymnh rnpµn µa je na norecy oµ ymha Cyropnne µo xorena ,,Pnnnjepa“
noµno pnmcxn nojnn nyr (Pušic 1980: 150) n npernocran¬a nocrojane rpajexra xojn je y pnmcxo
µoôa nnonno µo Poca na Hymrnnn. Ta moryhnocr n orxpnnenn nanasn nanoµe na sax¬yuax µa cy
neonxoµna osôn¬nnja apxeonomxa ncrpaxnnana onor noxannrera.
Mano Poce
Hoxannrer Mano Poce (xapra 1) nanasn ce na ceneposanaµnom pory nonyocrpna Hymrn-
na, na xoopµnnarama N 42°25´31,3´´ EO 18°33´30,9´´ Nm 0m (-25). ¡no onor sannna crpmo ce
cnymra xa sanaµy n npn oôann je npexpnneno rycrom nererannjom, a xa nyunnn ]nnnm my¬em.
Ponene je onµe onacno sôor ocraraxa mnna n rpanara ns npomnnx parona. Mopcxe crpyje cy neo-
ma jaxe n cesoncxn ce menajy, raxo µa nansmennuno orxpnnajy n necxom sarpnanajy marepnjan na
µny. Hpoceuna µyônna nsnocn oµ 11 µo 23 m, a noxannrer ce npocrnpe na npnônnxno 1000 m².
Oµ apxeonomxnx nanasa nsµnaja ce µoôpo ouynan ropnn µeo am]ope ca pyuxama (T.
III/1), oµ µoôpo neuene rnnne, xojn npnnaµa xnacn 5 ¡pecen (Dressel) 1c. Taxne am]ope cy xam-
nannjcxor nnn erpypcxor nopexna, ns panor II n I nexa n.n.e. (Peacock and Williams 1986: 91, Fig.
29), a na nnme noxannrera y Hcrpn n ¡anmannjn nosnare cy xao rnn oneapnja Ib ns ncror nepnoµa
(Dautova-Ruševljan 1975: 92, Tab. II/b).
Ocrann marepnjan npnnaµa penecancnoj xepamnnn orxpnnenoj y snarnom ôpojy, ann ce
camo uernpn ]parmenra mory rnnonomxn n crnncxn oµpeµnrn:
- rannp xopnsonranno pasrpnyror oôoµa n xonxannor µna, xyrooxep rnehocan (T. III/2); raxne
nocyµe pacnpocrpanene cy µyx ncroune n sanaµne jaµpancxe oôane, a µaryjy ce y XVI n XVII nex
n.e. (Zagarcanin 2004: 80, sl. 165; Nepoti 1991: 133/134);
- µyô¬n rannp xoco pasrpnyror n omrpo npo]nnncanor oôoµa, ramnoxyro rnehocan (T. III/3), c
xpaja XIV n nouerxa XV nexa n.e. (Zagarcanin 2004: 78, sl. 147; Nepoti 1991: 116/39);
- ]parmenr ôoxana ca jeµnom µpmxom n rponncnnm, mnpoxo pasrpnyrnm oôoµom, yxpamen ype-
snnanem n ôojenem senenxacrom rnehn na ôenoj noµnosn (T. III/5; T. V/8). Hpnnaµa penecancnoj
majonnnn ns XV n XVI nexa n.e., xoja ce jan¬a na cenepnom Jaµpany, xoµ Iopnne (Žbona-Trkman
1999: tav. XI/3), y ceneponcrounoj Hrannjn (Boiani, Ravanelli-Guidotti and Fanfani 1985: 101, cat.
no. 232), oµaxne je xao nmnopr µocnena na ocrpna Fpnonn (Širec 1985: 96, T. V/4) n na jyr µo
Fyµne (Križanac 1998: 330, T. II/b);
- ]parmenronan ôoxan ns ncror nepnoµa, rponncnor ornopa, yxpamen ypesnnanem rpa]nro rex-
nnxom n rnehn y senenxacrnm n xyrnm rononnma (T. III/4; T. V/9) (Nepoti 1991: tav. XXI);
- ]parmenronana amôanaxna ]nama, nµenrnuna onoj ns Bnnnna (T. V/6).
Vnana Mano Poce je nnrepecanrna sa µa¬a ncrpaxnnana n sôor cnoje µyre ncropnje. O
noj nanasnmo noµarxe y anrnuxnm nsnopnma, xoµ Hronomeja, xao n xoµ Koncranrnna Hop]npore-
nnra n y 3+42;(B5 ;2;$ J5-I$,(,$. Xnnor je onµe noueo roxom ôponsanor µoôa (Mnnnnxonnh
1999: 28), a npernocran¬a ce µa je y anrnnn rpajexrom ônna nonesana c Hpennaxom (Pušic 1980:
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
177
150; idem 1977: 124, 129). Ha onom noxannrery nahen je nonan ns IV n V nexa n.e. (Mnnnnxonnh
1997: 174), sarnm rpoôonn ns VII nexa n.e. (idem 1999: 31) n npepomannuxa npxna ca nexpononom
ns X n XI nexa n.e. (ibid.: 35). Haxo je nanasnmre samrnheno 1995. roµnne, nerona µa¬a cyµônna
je nensnecna sôor neneranne nsrpaµne nnxenµ nace¬a.
Cn. Iocna
Hoxannrer Mnpnmre – ocrpno Cn. Iocna
(xapra 1) nonnpan je na sanaµnoj crpann nonyocrp-
na Hymrnna, na xoopµnnarama N 42°23´39,5´´ EO
18°34´23´´ Nm 0 (-15). Hanasn ce na penarnnno mannm
µyônnama (7–17 m), rµe je noµa uncra, ronna (16°–
21°C) n nposnpna, raxo µa ra neh µyxe npeme ponnonn
nemnnocpµno ynnmranajy. Hajneha xonnenrpannja
apxeonomxor marepnjana saxnara npocrop ceneponc-
rouno oµ ocrpna, oxo 15 m oµ oôane, µyxnne 70 m n
mnpnne 50 m, na npoceunoj µyônnn oµ 9 m. Hanasn ce
npocrnpy na norecy jyxno oµ ocrpna, na µyônnama oµ
12 m µo 17 m.
Xpononomxn onpeµe¬enn, nanasn cy:
- uernpn ]parmenronane am]ope, µoôpo neuene, oµ
npeunmhene npnene rnnne (T. IV/2, 3, 4, 5; T. V/10),
xnace 33, rnn A]pnxana (Africana) I, xoje ce µaryjy y
III n IV nex n.e. (Peacock and Williams 1986: 153, Fig.
79), xao n µna oµronapajyha noxnonna (T. IV/6, 7; T.
V/10);
- ]parmenr am]ope oµ xyrooxep neuene rnnne (T.
IV/8), xojn moxµa npnnaµa xnacn 40a, rnn Fenrasn, ns
I n II nexa n.e. (ibid.: 175, Fig. 93);
- rpôycn am]opa yxpamenn xanenypama (T. IV/13, 14);
- pasnn rnnonn µna, xojn nncy noysµann sa npennsnnje µaronane (T. IV/9, 10, 11, 12);
- ]parmenr ropner µena pnmcxor nonna, npneno neuene n µoôpo yrnauane nonpmnne (T. IV/1),
rnna 28 Fpyxnep, xojn ce µaryje oµ II µo IV nexa n.e. (Brukner 1981: 107–108, T. 122);
- xacnoanrnuxn xnxax ca µyxnm x¬ynom, xonxannor µna n xparxe xopnsonranne µpmxe (T.
IV/15), xojn je nponsneµen y nepnoµy oµ IV µo VI nexa n.e. (Kysmanon 1992: 46, 128, rnn 350).
Hoxannrer je cran¬en noµ samrnry 1995. roµnne, maµa n µa¬e nnje nornyno samrnhen
oµ ynnmranana.
Bojnnuxa nnaxa
Hoxannrer Bojnnuxa nnaxa y Xepner Honom (xapra 1) nanasn ce na xoopµnnarama N
42°26´57,6´´ EO 18°32´20,8´´ Nm 0m n oôyxnara npocrop oµ rnannor mona, npexo xpnµn Kapa-
rou,
3
µo xynannmra xorena ,,Hnaxa”. Ha rom norecy mope je neoma nposnpno n nnµ¬nnocr, sax-
Cn. 1. Cnerosap Cranxonnh ncnpeµ
anrnuxe xyne na Bojnnuxoj nnaxn
Fig. 1 Svetozar Stankovic in front of an
antique tower on Vojnicka Plaža
A. Kanypan n B. Bapra APXEOHOBKA HCTPAXHBABA AKBATOPHJA XEPHEI HOBOI
178
na¬yjyhn crenonnrom µny, nsnocn nnme oµ 20 m. Hsa nnnnje xpnµn y nnµy nyunor rpeôena, µno
ce npema jyry cnymra µo 23 m µyônne n npexpnneno je my¬em, re je orexano cxyn¬ane perxnx
nanasa xoje unne arnnnunn ynomnn majonnxe. Hame nnrepeconane ônno je ycmepeno na ocrarxe
xpyxne xyne na sanaµnom µeny ôeroncxor xynannmra xorena ,,Hnaxa”. Hajouynannjn µeo snµa
onor oôjexra ysµnxe ce nsnaµ nonpmnne noµe 0,6 m, a ncnoµ nonpmnne y nncnnn oµ 2,05 m.
Ha snµy cy nnµ¬nne nennxe nyxornne, napounro na jyxnom µeny. Ha sanaµnom µeny, na µyôn-
nn oµ 1,7 m, nanasn ce ornop nejacne namene. ¡o nncnne oµ 1,6 m cno¬no n ynyrpamne nnne
snµano je nehnm recannnnma y npannnnnm peµonnma,
nncoxnm npnônnxno 0,35 m (cn. 2). Hpn µny ce nanasn
coxn mnpnne 0,16 m. Hsmehy µna nnna snµa je ncnyna
oµ rpnanna, mro je xapaxrepncrnuno sa apxnrexrypy
ns pnmcxor nepnoµa. Onaj noxannrer je sannm¬nn sa
µa¬e ncrpaxnnane sôor jom jeµnor nnhena pyre an-
rnuxor rpajexra. H. Mnjonnh rnpµn µa ona anrnuxa
xyna npnnaµa npemeny nosnor Pnmcxor napcrna n µa je
mrnrnna npncrannmre rpajexra xojn je moxµa nnonno
xa Pocama (Mijovic 1980: 137).
Xoren „Tonna“
Hocneµnn pexornocnnpan noxannrer je npoc-
rop ncnpeµ xorena ,,Tonna” (xapra 1), na xoopµnna-
rama N 42°26´51,5´´ EO 18°32´07,4´´ Nm 0m (-13m).
Hpema xasnnany memrana, apxeonomxn marepnjan je
nanaxen na yµa¬enocrn oµ 120 m oµ xonna, cne µo
crene Kaparou na ncroxy. Ono mecro nnje noroµno
sa ponene sôor jaxnx yµapa jyra, naxo ce µno nanasn
na mannm µyônnama, µo 9 m. 3ôor rycre nererannje,
y sanaµnom µeny orxpnnen je mann ôpoj arnnnunnx
]parmenara majonnxe, a µno je npexpnneno penenrnnm
ornaµom, re je noxannrer exonomxn neoma yrpoxen.
***
Cnerosap Cranxonnh je onnm pexornocnnpannma yxasao naµnexnnm nncrnrynnjama sa
samrnry cnomennxa xynrype y Hpnoj Iopn na norpeôy samrnre µna y Foxn Koropcxoj, ca cnnm
noxpernnm n nenoxpernnm xynrypnnm µoôpnma. Ocnm ponnnana xojn cy µenacrnpann apxeo-
nomxe noxannrere, µno ynnmranajy n pnôapn, neneranno nonehn ys ynorpeôy µnnamnra. Taxohe,
mope neoma uecro noxannom cranonnnmrny cnyxn xao µenonnja ornaµa, raxo µa je n exonomxa
cnryannja xpajne anapmanrna.
Haxanocr, npepana cmpr cnpeunna je Hannja µa yuecrnyje y samrnrnnm ncxonanannma
noxannrera pr Kaôana na nonyocrpny Hymrnna, jyrosanaµno oµ Poca (Hannh 1997). Hcrpaxn-
nane onor nanasnmra oxroôpa 1996. roµnne, nsmehy ocrannx, cnponenn cy n unanonn exnne ca
pexornocnnpana 1990–1991. roµnne, y capaµnn ca noxannnm ponnnauxnm xnyôonnma. Hcxycrna
Cn. 2. Ocrann anrnuxe xyne na Bojnnuxoj
nnaxn
Fig. 2 Remains of the antique tower on
Vojnicka Plaža
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
179
creuena capaµnom ca Cnerosapom Cranxonnhem µonpnnena cy crnapany cnecrn xoµ noxannor
cranonnnmrna o norpeôn samrnre xynrypne ôamrnne na npocropy Foxe Koropcxe. Ayropn onor
paµa saxna¬yjy ce Hannjy na snany xoje nam je npeneo n na npemeny xoje cmo nmann uacr µa
nponeµemo y neronom µpymrny.
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Aleksandar Kapuran
Viktor Varga
Archaeological research in the Herceg Novi aquatorium
Summary
Underwater survey in the Herceg Novi aquatorium in November 1990 and September 1991 provided
fresh evidence for the cultural history of the Montenegrin coast. Five surveyed locations: Njivice—site Ribarice;
Rose—site Malo Rose; Mirište—island of Sveta Gospa, site Vojnicka plaža; and the zone in front of the Topla
Hotel (see Map), yielded vestiges of ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine civilizations. The sites also yielded
Þnds from the period of Renaissance and Venetian domination, as well as from the period of Austrian rule over
the region. To the Greek and Hellenistic periods belong the Þnds from Ribarice at Njivice, dating from the 4th
to 2nd centuries BC (Pl. I/1,2,7).
Most of the material belongs to the Roman period, such as amphorae, which occurred on all sites and
mostly were older types of olearia from the Republican period of the 2nd and 1st centuries BC (Pl. III/1; I/9).
North African amphorae were found at Mirište (Pl. IV/2–5), and the Benghazi type at Ribarice (Pl. I/4,6; IV/8).
The material also included amphorae of the East Mediterranean type dating to the 2nd to 4th century AD (Pl.
I/5), as well as a fragmented late antique lamp (Pl. V/11). The remains of a fortiÞcation of the same date at the
site Vojnicka plaža were explored (Þg. 2). Renaissance majolica of the 15th and 16th centuries was found on
all sites (Pl. V/8,9). A few fragmented vessels and bottles (Pl. V/6,7) were of a more recent date, from the 18th
and 19th centuries. The team of divers also registered the wreck of a WWI destroyer, “Keiser Franz Josef I”
(Pl. V/12).
The credit for rescuing the sites from destruction goes to Svetozar Nani Stankovic who was the Þrst
to record them and to warn the public about their endangerment, which eventually led to their being placed
under protection.
V¡K 902.(262.3) (497.16)
A. Kanypan n B. Bapra APXEOHOBKA HCTPAXHBABA AKBATOPHJA XEPHEI HOBOI
182
A. Kanypan n B. Bapra APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna I / Plate I
Pnôapnne, anrnuxa xepamnxa
Ribarice, antique pottery
183
A. Kanypan n B. Bapra APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna II / Plate II
Pnôapnne, cpeµnonexonna xepamnxa
Ribarice, medieval pottery
184
A. Kanypan n B. Bapra APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna III / Plate III
Mano Poce, anrnuxa n cpeµnonexonna xepamnxa
Malo Rose, antique and medieval pottery
185
A. Kanypan n B. Bapra APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna IV / Plate IV
Cn. Iocna – Mnpnmre, anrnuxa n xacnoanrnuxa xepamnxa
Sv. Gospa–Mirište, antique and medieval pottery
186
A. Kanypan n B. Bapra APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna V / Plate V
Pnôapnne (1–7); Mano Poce (8, 9); Cn. Iocna – Mnpnmre (10, 11);
Pasapau ,,Kajsep upann Jose] Hpnn” (12)
Ribarice (1–7); Malo Rose (8, 9); Sv. Gospa–Mirište (10, 11); WWI destroyer Keiser Franz Joseph I (12)
defegh - STATERA
)+'-/&*!3-! $ &!3"I+-! 2+"-! -!."!3!
L89D@6 '8C9
Hapoµnn mysej, Feorpaµ
!=>?89@?: ) :5"+0B-+ "8(*-+ ;2%*+:+,2 #2B;+05 ;*+#:+4( (" ;*2?>2B4( -20( B+ :2@5 ;*+;2",$4(, $>(
2B4$05 ,+#2%2I,2 280$?C+,(. 1*+#B4$%I$: #%$ -$,4$*$: 0+#$, B+ &5%$ 5 L$*2#,2: :5"+05 5 M+2@*$#5,
$ #*5@( 5 G5"+05 K20%2#(,+ 5 L2%2: D$#5. ) 2%2: *$#5 #$0+: B%20 B-*2:,( #2;*(,2B "8>(<$%$C5 B$ :+7$-
,(-2:, #+>2: O("(-+ -20( B+ 8$%( ;*25&$%$C+: ;20$%$ -*+4$C$ ( :(*2%$C$, 2#,2B,2 "$-2,(:$, B(>$:$
( ;2:2S,(: B*+#B4%(:$ -20$ ("$"(%$05 -*+4$C+ ( *$%,24+<5 4+>$.
%ABCDE 8EC5: B4$4+*$, ;2>5@$, 4+<(?4+, :+7$,(-$, :2:+,4,2 ;*$%(>2, *(:B-$ >(8*$, B-*(;5>$.
V npeme µox je Hapoµnn mysej oôan¬ao jeµan oµ ocnonnnx saµaraxa n nyµno µeo cauy-
nanor n cxpomnor nacneha npomnocrn, yoônuanao cam µa npomeram nsnoxôennm npocropom.
Honpemeno ônx ocnymnyo xomenrape nocernnana xojn cy ce, y neµoymnnn, nnrann uemy n xaxo
je nexn npeµmer cnyxno. Vncrnny, nsnoxenn npeµmern, cneµonn saryô¬ennx npnua ns nonecrn,
orprnyrn ns npemena n oro¬eno npeµcran¬enn nocernonnma, rpnenn cy, cxpymeno, nenaµano
sarouennmrno. Cpehom, nocreneno pasymenajyhn nonecno snauene n caµpxaj nojma :$4+*(0$>-
,$ -5>45*$, apxeonornja je ynyhena µa cne yuecrannje ynnpe norneµ y saôpan npnpoµnnx nayxa.
V peµonnma xojn cneµe µajem cnoj cxpomnn µonpnnoc sônnxanany ca mexannxom, µenom ]nsnxe
xojn ce ôann npoyuananem nojana xperana n mnponana, oµnocno nnxonnm saxonnma, cnnama n
nomohnnm cpeµcrnnma xoja nsasnnajy xperane n pannorexy rena.
3axnanan Cnpaxyxannny,
1
npeµcran¬am D4$4+*5, npeµnnny ann n pannonanny anrnuxy
µamy n npnxasyjem canpmene nponopnnje nenor rena.
2
1
Apxnmeµ je yuno µa nonyra y pannorexn na cnom µecnom xpajy nocn reper xojn je µna nyra nehn oµ onor na nenom
xpajy. Ta µna repera µpxe ce y pannorexn n nnxona oµcrojana oµ rauxe y xojoj je nonyra oôemena oôpnyro cy
nponopnnonanna nennunnn rnx repera.
2
Hoceôno saxna¬yjem mom µparom pohaxy, rocnoµnny ¡paro¬yôy Tophennhy, ynnnepcnrercxom npo]ecopy, xojn me
je yneo y napcrno pannonanne mexannxe. 3axnannocr µyryjem n µparoj xonernnnnn ¡yôpanxn Hpepaµonnhenoj, xoja
je mannpom npcnor crpenna yxnonnna nexonnxo mojnx cynnmnnx mncnn. Taxohe, saxnanan cam n mojnm µparnm
xonerama, rocnoµn Mnpocnany Herennny, Mnnany uononnhy, Cnoôoµany Tpnnxonnhy n Be¬xy Hnnhy, crpyunnm
capaµnnnnma Hapoµnor myseja, na ncxasanoj nomohn.
188
%!-*!" $K %!&-/!-*$J%+ KL$"%+ -!"/'-/G 2,K+)! , L+/G"!',
Kanrap
3
je jeµnocranna n canpmena mepna nanpana, a eno samro (cn. 1). Tauxa nemana C
je rexnmna rauxa oxo xoje nonyra BK (19.6 cm) pornpa. Honyra mopa ônrn xopnsonranna xaµa
je rer rexnne G
1
(260 g) na nynrom noµeoxy n xaµa on µpxn pannorexy onome mro ce nanasn
oxaueno y rauxn = (nanan, rac); ro je rexnna G
2
(T. I/1).
V cnyuajy µa nnje raxo, nocroje µna pasnora:
- nnn na µecnom µeny nexa rexnna neµocraje (nanan, rac),
- nnn je nomnunn rer neoµronapajyhn.
Crarnuxn rneµano, rac xanrapa nma rpn nanna (reopnjcxn nnje norpeôno nnme). ¡yxn-
na µecnor µena (b = 4.1 cm) nma nese ca µyxnnom nenor µena nonyre (c = 15.5 cm); µecnn µeo je
xpahn, uecro macnnnnjn, n raxne je rexnne µa ca rexnnom nenor µena oôesôehyje rexnmre nene
nonyre y rauxn C. Axo je nomnunn n oµronapajyhn rer na nynrom noµeoxy, a rauxa = (rexnna
G
2
) oµe rope, snaun µa y rauxn = mopa µa ce µoµa nexn reper, moxµa rac, µa ôn nonyra nonono
µomna y xopnsonranan nonoxaj.
3
Pyxonoµnnan Kacnoanrnuxe sônpxe je rocnoha Jenena Konµnh.
Fponsann xanrap (nar. statera); nnn. ôp. 746, Hapoµnn mysej, Feorpaµ.
Mecro nanasa: nenosnaro.
Cauynann cy nonyra ca rerom n µna ôponsana nanna ca xyxama. Honyra je xnaµparnor nonpeunor npecexa n na µne
crpane je nsôaxµapena ypesnma. Ter moxe µa xnnsn no nonysn; onnara rera je ôponsana, ca ononnnm jesrpom.
Texnna nonyre = 60 g. Texnna oôa nanna = 48 g. Texnna rera = 260 g.
Fnônnorpa]nja: Lj. B. Popovic et al., AntiTka bronza u Jugoslaviji. Beograd: Narodni muzej, 1969, 45–46, 157, fot. 339.
Taxohe nnµern: M. Jepemnh, Pnmcxn mepnn pexnnsnrn ns Myseja Cpema. D5,&$,( B$4 7, 1997, 35–43.
Cn. 1. • Fig. 1
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
189
Momenrno npannno
Mnorn noµann mory ce nponepnrn excnepnmenranno. Horpeôna je nexa rauna nara n
unpcra noµnora (ocnonan). Hoµnora n nara ne mopajy ônrn na ncroj nncnnn (T. I/2).
Ha namem npnmepy najnpe rpeôa nponepnrn nonoxaj rexnmra nonyre, oµnocno rauxe
C oxo xoje ce nonyra oxpehe n o xojy ce nonyra nema. Hoxe¬no je µa nonyra ôyµe oro¬ena.
Taxny nonyry jeµnnm xpajem (B) rpeôa ocnonnrn na nary, a µpyrn xpaj (K) rpeôa nocrannrn na
unpcr ocnonan. V rom momenry nnje (reopnjcxn) nosnar nonoxaj rexnmra n onnm nocrynxom
ra rex rpeôa oµpeµnrn.
Bara he noxasarn nexy rexnny (cnny) G
B
, xoja je µeo rexnne G nonyre. (Hanomena:
xpajenn ce mopajy ocnonnrn cnoôoµno, oµnocno rpeôa µa nmajy µoµnpe camo ca narom n ocnon-
nem.) Texnna (cnna) G
K
na ocnonny, ca nsmepenom rexnnom (cnnom) G
B
unnn rexnny nonyre;
G = G
B
+ G
K
. ¡axne, caµa cy nosnare cnne (rexnne) G n G
B
.
Hpncrynam npnmenn momenrnor npannna
4
n nponepanam nonoxaj rexnmra nonyre (µy-
xnna X
C
) ca npeµnocrnma:
G = 60 g; G
B
= 32 g; l = 19.6 cm;
X
C
= 9.146 cm
Pauyn noxasyje, y ro nema cymne, µa nonoxaj rexnmra nonyre nnje na mecry xoje je sa
ro npeµnnheno. Pasmnm¬ao cam, nocnehen µocrnrnyhnma anrnuxor cnera, mra ôn morao ônrn
yspox onom necnarany. Oµnyunx crora µa rexnnn oro¬ene nonyre (G = 60 g) µoµam rexnne µna
cauynana nanna (48 g), rpeher neµocrajyher nanna (24 g) n rexnny npernocran¬enor raca (24 g),
mro yxynno nsnocn 156 g.
H, sancra,
X
C
= 15.57 cm
3aµnn¬yjyha npennsnocr pomejcxnx crarnuapa!
Hponepa n yrnphnnane nonoxaja rexnmra xanrapa omoryhana µa¬e ôaparane rerom,
nannnma n racom.
4
Momenrnn ycnon pannorexe (momenrno npannno) rnacn: axo je nexo reno y pannorexn (y mnpy), onµa je sônp momenara
cnnx cnna xoje na reno µenyjy sa nponsno¬no nsaôpany rauxy jeµnax nynn.
;
F. ¡pua LTATHP - STATERA
190
Hponepa rera
Vcnon xojn mopa ônrn saµono¬en xaµa je rer na noµeoxy 0 je: Qa
0
= Pa, rµe je:
Q = rexnna rera
P = rexnna nanana n raca
a = xoncranra
a
0
= xoncranra
¡axne, nponsnoµ ns jeµne cnne P n pacrojana a nexe rauxe oµ npanna cnne sone ce crarnu-
xn momenar cnne y oµnocy npema roj rauxn.
Hpncrynamo nponepn rera. ¡axne, Q · 0.51 = 96 · 1.4; Q = 263.5 g (T. I/3). Fyµyhn µa rer
mepn 260 g, jacno je µa pasnnxa nsnocn 3.5 g.
Vcnon mepena µaje rexnny Q
1
(T. I/4).
Q(x + a
0
) = (P + Q
1
)a
Qx + Qa
0
= Pa + Q
1
a
Hperxoµno je naheno µa je Qa
0
= Pa n saro oµarne cneµn:
Qx = Q
1
a ;
x = nsôaxµapene npre na nonysn,
a = 1.4 cm, mro je ynanpeµ nosnaro.
Kaxo ce nnµn, µyxnna CA = a nma nese ca noµenama na nenoj crpann nonyre, oµnocno
xapaxrepncrnuna je sa ôaxµapene nenor µena nonyre, raxo µa repery Q
1
(xojn ce mepn) oµmax
oµronapa nexa npra na nonysn neno.
Honyra
Honyra xanrapa nsôaxµapena je µnocrpyxo. Hpno, npernocrannmo crapnje ôaxµapene
ypaheno je nemapno n necnperno mnpoxnm ypesnnanem (cn. 2). Vpesann noµeonn xojn ce npore-
xy µyxnnom nonyre nemajy yjeµnaueno pacrojane.
Cn. 2. • Fig. 2
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
191
Vcnon mepena, nµyhn oµ ypesa µo ypesa, µaje cneµehe rexnne (cn. 2):
Q
(x=0.09)
= 16.939 g; Q
(x=0.19)
= 35.76 g; Q
(x=0.7)
= 131.75 g; Q
(x=1.75)
= 329.375 g; xaµa je rer no-
cran¬en na ypesy 7 (T. II/1) ycnon mepena je Q
(x=6.99)
= 1315.6 g. Q
(x=13.29)
= 2501.3 g.
¡pyro, moxµa norone ôaxµapene ypesano je c naxnom. Vcnon mepena (cn. 3; T. II/2) µaje
cneµehe npeµnocrn:
Q
(x=0.49)
= 92.2 g; Q
(x=0.74)
= 139.2 g; Q
(x=0.99)
= 186.3 g; Q
(x=1.49)
= 280.4 g; Q
(x=11.49)
= 2162.5 g.
Kaµ ce rer nocrann y xpajnn nenn nonoxaj, ycnon mepena µaje npeµnocr
Q
(x=14.29)
= 2689.582 g.
%!-*!" $K !-*$J%+ KL$"%+ 2,K+)! 3/)3/'$-+ , -/3/2 &!',
5
(cn. 4)
Hponepa n yrnphnnane nonoxaja rexnmra xanrapa
Cn. 3. • Fig. 3
Cn. 4. • Fig. 4
5
Pyxonoµnnan Anrnuxe sônpxe je rocnoha Bennxa ¡ayrona-Pymen¬an.
Fponsann xanrap; nnn. ôp. H 1357, Mysej Bojnoµnne, Honn Caµ.
Mecro nanasa: Xprxonnn, arap Byxoµep.
Kanrap je npeµcran¬en y: V. Dautova-Ruševljan, M. Vujovic, Roman Army in Srem. Novi Sad: Museum of Vojvodina,
2006, 74, 115.
F. ¡pua LTATHP - STATERA
192
Fyµyhn µa n onom xanrapy neµocraje µeo xomnnera sa mepene (npernocran¬ena rpn nan-
na ca racom), xopncrnm npehamne ncxycrno n ynorpeôom momenrnor npannna npncrynam npone-
pn rauxe oxo xoje ce nonyra oxpehe. ¡axne (G = 207 g; G
B
= 50 g; l = 20.1 cm):
Xc = 15,24;
1*2%+*$ 4+@$ (ycnon Qa
0
= Pa):
Q · 1.3 = 100 · 2.3; Q = 176.923 rpama.
Fyµyhn µa rer mepn 178 g, jacno je µa pasnnxa nsnocn 1.077 g.
&?89D9 =6;B:E 6[D9CED9 >9 I, II, III, IIII (cn. 5; T. II/3)
¡a noµcernm,
Bennunna sa ypes npe osnaxe I (x = 1.4):
Q
1
= 107.6922608 g = 95.43191298 cxpnnyna, oµnocno jeµna rpehnna nnôpe.
6
Bennunna sa osnaxy I (x = 2.7):
Q
1
= 207.6922173 g = 184.0472608 cxpnnyna, oµnocno neµocraje ocam cxpnnyna µo µne
rpehnne nnôpe.
Bennunna sa osnaxy II (x = 5.5):
Q
1
= 423.0767389 g = 374.9110867 cxpnnyna, oµnocno neµocraje µener cxpnnyna sa jeµny
neny n jeµny rpehnny nnôpe.
Bennunna sa osnaxy III (x = 8.3):
Q
1
= 638.4612608 g = 565.774913 cxpnnyna, oµnocno neµocraje 10 cxpnnyna µa ynnmemo
npeµnocr oµ µne nnôpe.
Bennunna sa osnaxy IIII (x = 11.1):
6
Bpeµnocr sa jeµny nnôpy je 325 rpama. ¡era¬nnje o oµnocnma cxpnnyna n rpama, nnµn: B. Drca, Diocletian and
Constantine’s Monetary System or why 50 000 = 1. Archaeological Monographies 16. Belgrade: National Museum,
Sremska Mitrovica: Blago Sirmiuma, 2004, 29–32, 141–152.
Cn. 5. • Fig. 5
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
193
Q
1
= 853.8457825 g = 756.638739 cxpnnyna, oµnocno neµocraje 11 cxpnnyna sa npeµnocr
oµ µne nene n µne rpehnne nnôpe.
'8B:9 >?89D9 =6;B:E (cn. 6; T. II/4)
Bennunna sa osnaxy X (x = 4.1; a = 2.3):
Q
1
= 315.3844781 g = 279.4791737 cxpnnyna, oµnocno neµocraje ocam cxpnnyna sa npeµ-
nocr oµ jeµne nnôpe.
Bennunna sa osnaxy V (x = 8.4; a = 2.3):
Q
1
= 646.1535652 g = 572.5914782 cxpnnyna, oµnocno neµocrajy rpn cxpnnyne sa npeµ-
nocr oµ µne nnôpe.
Bennunna sa osnaxy III (x = 12.1; a = 2.3):
Q
1
= 930.768826 g = 824.8043912 cxpnnyna, oµnocno neµocraje 39 cxpnnyna µo rpn nn-
ôpe.
Ca xe¬om µa onaj paµ ôyµe µonpnnoc cneoôyxnarnnjem carneµanany apxeonornje n ny-
mnsmarnxe, npeµajem ra crpyunoj jannocrn na ynnµ.
7
Cn. 7. • Fig. 7
7
Hsnecno je µa cy anrnuxn mepnn nncrpymenrn ynorpeô¬anann n y npeme xaµa je nam npocrop saoµenyr nonnm
nonnrnuxnm xonopnrom. Ha ry nomncao naronn me nonyra xanrapa ns Hapoµnor myseja. C µpyre crpane, ro snaun
ornapane npara xoja noµe y B%+4 :+*$. 3aro npeµnaxem xonerama, npenacxoµno mnahnm, µa ynosnajy rocnoµnna
Mnnana Bnajnnna n neron .+&,(- ,$?(7 B4$*(7 :+*$, 5 42-5 %+-2%$ I–IV, Feorpaµ: CAHV, 1961–1974.
F. ¡pua LTATHP - STATERA
194
Branko Drca
defegh – STATERA
A simple and perfect measuring device
Summary
Museum collections sometimes receive objects from the past which are recognizable, but remain inad-
equately explained. I present two balances: one is kept in the National Museum in Belgrade, the other, in the
Museum of Vojvodina in Novi Sad. This paper is a small contribution to familiarizing ourselves with mechan-
ics, the branch of physics which studies motion and rest, or the laws, forces and devices causing the motion
and equilibrium of bodies.
V¡K 681:2 (497.11)’’652’’
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
195
F. ¡pua APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna I / Plate I
196
F. ¡pua APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007) Taôna II / Plate II
-!1!K$ -/34! &! $&*"!($3!F! 1/%!1$*+*!
/"!I)+ (2!"G,2) 2004. G/'$-+
1
!79X -. 48D6]8^9
Mysej rpaµa Feorpaµa, Feorpaµ
!=>?89@?: ) *$#5 B5 28*$A+,( ,5:(":$4(&-( ,$>$"( B$ B(B4+:$4B-(7 $*7+2>2?-(7 (B4*$<(%$C$
>2-$>(4+4$ \*$?0+ ($,4(&-( Margum), ;*+#5"+4(7 2# B4*$,+ L$*2#,2@ :5"+0$ 5 12<$*+%/5 2004.
@2#(,+. \# 46 28*$A+,(7 -2:$#$ ,2%/$, 44 ;*(;$#$05 *(:B-2: ;+*(2#5, 0+#$, 0+ %("$,4(0B-( ( 0+#$,
5@$*B-(. '$B45;I+,2B4 *(:B-2@ ,2%/$ ;2 ;+*(2#(:$ 0+ B>+#+S$: I %+- (1), B*+#(,$ III %+-$ (1), 4*+S$
&+4%*4(,$ III %+-$ (7), IV %+- (35).
%ABCDE 8EC5: .(:, K("$,4(0$, )@$*B-$, ,$>$"( ,2%/$, \*$?0+, Margum.
Hcrpaxnnana noxannrera Opamje xoµ ¡yôpannne, anrnuxora Mapryma, ornouera cy jom
µanexe 1947. roµnne. Hpnoônrno nacnon¬ena xao nperxoµna, neh napeµnnx roµnna npepacrajy
y cncremarcxa nrpaxnnana n nacran¬ajy ce roxom 1948. n 1949. roµnne. Pesynrarn ns nomeny-
re rpn xamnane cy oôjan¬enn n jom ynex npeµcran¬ajy naxomnnexcnnjn npnxas µyre ncropnje
xnnora na onome noxannrery (Mano-3ncn, Mapnh n Iapamannn 1950; Mapnh 1951). V µna na-
neµena paµa ayropn cy npnxasann crane noxannrera, crparnrpa]njy n xopnsonre xnn¬ena oµ
neonnra µo nosnor cpeµner nexa, na nnme mecra naronemranajyhn µa he noxpernom marepnjany
nponahenom roxom ncrpaxnnana ônrn nocnehena noceôna nyônnxannja. Haxanocr, ona nnxaµa
nnje yrneµana cnernocr µana, re cy noxpernn nanasn sa mnpy crpyuny jannocr yrnannom ocrann
nenosnannna. C µpyre crpane, nexn npeµmern ca onora noxannrera oôjan¬nnann cy nojeµnnauno,
y oxnnpy paµona y xojnma cy oôpahnnane nojeµnne npcre apxeonomxe rpahe ca nnme noxannrera
(nnµern ônônnorpa]njy xoµ: Jacanovic, ”uric-Spasic 2003: 40–41). Ca nomenyrnx ncxonanana
1947–1949. roµnne, µo caµa cy nyônnxonann jeµnno nanasn pnmcxora craxna (Kaponnh 1995–
1996).
Beha naxna no apxeonomxoj rpahn noxnonena je, mehyrnm, ncropnjn Mapryma n narnn-
cnma ca nerone repnropnje, re hy onom npnnnxom µarn ynyre camo na ocnonne paµone y xojnma
je ra npoônemarnxa pasmarpana (Mirkovic 1968: 50–55; idem 1986: 207–213).
1
Texcr je nacrao y oxnnpy nayuno-ncrpaxnnauxor npojexra =*7+2>2?-$ @*$A$ – 2B,2%$ "$ ;*25&$%$C+ -5>45*,2@ -2,-
4(,5(4+4$ 5 ;*$(B42*(0( ( $,4(/( ,$ 4+*(42*(0( D*8(0+ (en. ôp. 174071), xojn peannsyje unnoso]cxn ]axynrer
y Feorpaµy, a ]nnancnpa ra Mnnncrapcrno sa nayxy Penyônnxe Cpônje.
198
Hapeµna apxeonomxa ncxonanana anrnuxor Mapryma ycneµnna cy rex 1989. n 1990. ro-
µnne, rorono uerpµecer roµnna no oxonuany nperxoµnnx. Fnna cy ro, mehyrnm, camo samrnrna
ncrpaxnnana, unjn cy pesynrarn raxohe oôjan¬nnann y nnµy nsnemraja, re je ys µna xpaha paµa
(Hynax 1990; idem 1991), nyônnxonan n nemro oônmnnjn nsnemraj o ncrpaxnnany nexponona
Mapryma, y xome je µar n nperneµ oµaôpannx noxpernnx nanasa (Jonanonnh, Hynax 1994).
Exnna Hapoµnor myseja y Hoxapenny ornouena je, 2004. roµnne, npny xamnany cnc-
remarcxnx apxeonomxnx ncxonanana Mapryma, noµ pyxonoµcrnom ¡parane Cnacnh-Typnh n
¡parana Jananonnha.
2
Hpnnnxom ncrpaxnnana cramôennx oôjexara nponaheno je n 46 nonunha
xojn npnnaµajy nepnoµnma I–V n X–XI nexa.
Honnn ns pannjnx apxeonomxnx xamnana y nnreparypn cy nanohenn camo cymapno, re
raxo snamo µa ns npepnmcxor cramôenor xopnsonra nornue jeµan Anrycron ôponsann nonunh
(Mapnh 1951: 121), ns ocraraxa xamene rpahennne Becnasnjanon n Tpajanon nonunh, (ibid. 122),
µox je y rpoôonnma nponahen nonunh ns µpyre nononnne IV nexa (Mano 3ncn, Mapnh n Iapama-
nnn 1950: 159), xao n nonnn Xaµpnjana, Anronnna Hnja, uaycrnne, Mapxa Aypennja, Komoµa n
unnnna I (Jonanonnh, Hynax 1994: 110).
Kao mro ce ns cnera naneµenor moxe sax¬yunrn, noxperna apxeonomxa rpaha ca Map-
ryma ocxyµno je nyônnxonana. 3ôor rora cmo npncrynnnn oôjan¬nnany nymnsmarnuxor mare-
pnjana norexnor ca najnonnjnx ncrpaxnnana, re he, sa pasnnxy oµ nperxoµne npaxce, nsnemraj o
camnm ncxonanannma rex ycneµnrn.
Fyµyhn µa nonnn xoje onom npnnnxom nyônnxyjemo nncy ôpojnn n µa ne nornuy ns sa-
rnopenor nanasa, nehemo ce ynymrarn y pasmarpane nnxone nnpxynannje na npocropy Mapryma
jep sa ro nema unpcrnx ocnona. Oµ nomenyrnx 46 xomaµa nonna, 44 npnnaµajy pnmcxom nepnoµy,
jeµan je nnsanrnjcxn n jeµan yrapcxn.
3acryn¬enocr pnmcxor nonna no nepnoµnma je cneµeha: I nex (1), cpeµnna III nexa (1),
rpeha uernprnna III nexa (7), IV nex (35). Onom npnnnxom ôncmo yxasann na noµarax µa roxom
ncrpaxnnana 2004. roµnne nnje nponahen nnjeµan npnmepax pnmcxor nonna ns II n c nouerxa
III nexa, a µa ynpano rom nepnoµy npnnaµajy nonnn orxpnnenn y rpoôonnma roxom samrnrnnx
ncrpaxnnana 1989–1990. roµnne.
V xaranomxom µeny, naxon narnnca n onnca npeµcrana na nonny, naneµenn cy n cneµehn
noµann: nomnnan nnn meran oµ xora je nonan nspahen, npeunnx, rexnna, pe]epenna y nnrepary-
pn, xonnnna, roµnne xonana n ôpoj repencxor nnnenrapa.
CLAVDIVS I (41-54)
3
1. Av. GERMANICVS CAESAR T[I AV]G F DIVI [AVG N]
Fncra napa naµecno.
Rv. TI CLAVDIVS [CAESAR AVG G]ERM P M TR P IMP
P P
V nenrpy SC.
As, R 29 mm, T 10.44 g. RIC-II, 84. Roma, 41-54. r. H-
117
2
Onom npnnnxom ce saxna¬yjem rocnohn ¡parann Cnacnh-Typnh na ycryn¬enom marepnjany.
3
Knayµnjeno xomemoparnnno xonane sa Iepmannxa.
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
199
GORDIANVS III (238-244)
2. Av. […] GORDIANVS AVG
Onenuena ôncra napa naµecno.
Rv. PMS […] / AN II
Ouynan je camo µonn µeo npeµcrane (nore nepconn]nxannje Mesnje, ônx n nan).
Ae, R 31 mm, T 8.93 g. Viminacium, 240–241. r. H-11
GALLIENVS (253-268)
3. Av. [GA]LLIENVS AVG
Fncra napa ca spaxacrom xpynom, naµecno.
Rv. PA[X AVG]
Haxc crojn naneno, µpxn macnnnony rpanunny n cxenrap.
Ae, R 19 mm, T 1.85 g. RIC V-1, 256. Roma. H-12
4. Av. GALLIENVS AVG
Fncra napa ca spaxacrom xpynom, naµecno.
Rv. [AEQVI]TAS
Exnnrac crojn naneno, µpxn repasnje n por nsoôn¬a.
Ae, R 20 mm, T 2.76 g. RIC V-1, 159. Roma. H-14
5. Av. GAL[LIENVS AV]G
Fncra napa ca spaxacrom xpynom n noµ oxnonom, naµecno.
Rv. [P]ROVID AV[G], y no¬y neno Q
Hponnµennnja crojn naneno, µpxn rnoô n cxenrap.
Ae, R 18 mm, T 1.47 g. RIC V-1, 270. Roma. H-59
6. Av. [GALLI]ENVS [AVG]
Fncra napa ca spaxacrom xpynom, naµecno.
Rv. [P]RO[VID AVG]
Hponnµennnja crojn naneno, µpxn rnoô n cxenrap.
Ae, R 18 mm, T 3.34 g. RIC V-1, 270. Roma. H-55
7. Av. [G]ALLIENVS [AVG]
Fncra nmneparopa ca spaxacrom xpynom, naµecno.
Rv. FORTVN[NA RED]
uopryna crojn naneno, µpxn xpmy n por nsoôn¬a.
Ae, R 17 mm, T 1.76 g. RIC V-1, 572. Siscia. H-96
8. Av. GALLIENVS AVG
Rv. Heunrax narnnc, y no¬y neno T. Hpeµcrana Bnxropnje.
Ae, R 20 mm, T 2.61 g. H-67
CLAVDIVS II (268-270)
9. Av. IM[P] CLAVDIVS [AV]G
Fncra napa ca spaxcrom xpynom n noµ oxnonom, naµecno.
Rv. PROVIDEN AVG, y no¬y µecno T.
Hponnµennnja crojn naµecno, µpxn mran n por nsoôn¬a, xpaj nory rnoô.
Ae, R 19 mm, T 2.36 g. RIC V-1, 187. Siscia. H-97
A.H. Hpnoôpna HAHA3H HOBHA CA HCTPAXHBABA HOKAHHTETA OPABJE (MAPIVM)...
200
CONSTANTINVS I (306-337)
10. Av. Hornyno nsnnsan.
4
Rv. V nenny, y uernpn peµa: [V]OT/[X]X/MVLT/XXX
5
Ae, R 14 mm, T 0.77 g. Thessalonica, 318–319. r. H-70
11. Av. IMP CONSTAN–TINVS IN AVG
Hmneparopona ôncra naµecno, noµ oxnonom n ca mnemom.
Rv. VISTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP –/PLN/–
6
¡ne Bnxropnje croje jeµna nacnpam µpyre n sajeµno npnµpxanajy mrnr na cryôy. Ha mrnry,
y µna peµa, ncnncano VOT/PR.
Ae, R 17 mm, T 3.05 g. RIC VII, 155. Londinium, 319. r. H-111
12. Av. CONSTAN–TINVS AVG
Fncra ca onenuenom rnanom naµecno.
Rv. PROVIDE[N–TIAE] AVGG –/SMKB·/–
Kannja yrnphena ca µne xyne n snesµom nsmehy nnx.
Follis, R 18 mm, T 2.63 g. RIC VII, 34. Cyzicus 325–326. r. H-58
13. Av. CONSTAN–TINVS AVG
Fncra ca onenuenom rnanom naµecno.
Rv. PROVIDEN–TIAE AVGG –/ASIS&/–
Kannja yrnphena ca µne xyne n snesµom nsmehy nnx.
Follis, R 19 mm, T 2.73 g. RIC VII, 214. Siscia, 328–329. r. H-66
14. Av. CONSTAN–TINVS AVG
Fncra napa naµecno, ca µnjaµemom oµ cnrnnx nepnn y rpn peµa.
Rv. PROVIDEN–TIAE AVGG –/SMNA/–
Kannja ca µne xyne, nsmehy nnx snesµa.
Ae, R 19 mm, T 2.19 g. RIC VII, 154. Nicomedia, 328–329. r. H-4
4
Ouynana je camo nononnna nonunha. Hajneponarnnje je, cyµehn no pesy, jom y anrnuxo npeme npenonon¬en.
5
Onaxna penepcna npeµcrana xonana je camo y xonnnnn Thessalonica, n ro oµ crpane Koncranrnna I n Hnnnnnja, nnµn
RIC VII, crp. 504.
6
Hpnnnxom nanohena osnaxa o]nnnna n xonnnna xopnmhen je cneµehn naunn: no¬e neno/oµceuax/no¬e µecno.
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
201
15. Av. CONSTAN–TINOPOLI
Fncra nepconn]nxannje Koncranrnnononnca y napcxoj oµexµn, naneno, rnana onenuena n noµ
mnemom, y nenoj pynn µpxn xon¬e oxpenyro naµone.
Rv. –/CONSA/–
Bnxropnja na npamny oxpenyra naneno, nenom pyxom µpxn mrnr, a µecnom xon¬e.
Ae, R 17 mm, T 1.88 g. RIC VII, 63. Constantinopolis, 330–333. r. H-65
16. Av. CONSTANT–INVS MAX AVG
Fncra napa noµ oxnonom n nnamrom, naµecno. Ha rnann µnjaµema ca poserom.
Rv. GLOR–IA EXERC–ITVS –/[CO]NSA/–
¡na nojnnxa oxpenyrn jeµan npema µpyrom, µpxe no jeµno xon¬e y cno¬amnoj pynn, µna
cranµapµa nsmehy nnx.
Ae, R 18 mm, T 1.55 g. RIC VII, 59. Constantinopolis, 330–333. r. H-60
17. Av. CONSTANTI–NVS MAX AVG
Fncra napa ca orprauem, naµecno, na rnann µnjaµema oµ nepnn.
Rv. GLOR–IA EXERC–ITVS –/A SIS/–
¡na nojnnxa oxpenyrn jeµan xa µpyrom, µpxe no jeµno xon¬e y cno¬amnoj pynn, jeµan cran-
µapµ nsmehy nnx.
Ae, R 16 mm, T 1.36 gr. RIC VII, 252. Siscia, 335–336. r. H-38
18. Av. [CONSTA]NTI–NVS MAX AVG
Fncra napa noµ µpanepnjom, naµecno, na rnann µnjaµema oµ nepnn.
Rv. Tnn GLORIA EXERCITVS
(¡na nojnnxa croje oxpenyrn jeµan xa µpyrom, jeµan nexcnn nsmehy nnx). Oµceuax neunrax.
Ae, R 16 mm, T 1.40 g. Tnn xonan y nepnoµy 335–337. r. H-13
19. Av. CONSTANTI[…]. Ho nnxy moxµa Koncranrnn.
Fncra napa ca oxnonom n µnjaµemom oµ nepnn, naµecno.
Rv. Tnn GLORIA EXERCITVS
(¡na nojnnxa croje oxpenyrn jeµan xa µpyrom, µna nexcnna nsmehy nnx).
Ae, R 17 mm, T 1.86 g. Tnn xonan y nepnoµy 330–337. r. H-81
20. Bapnapcxa (nanoncxa) nmnrannja
Av. Fncra nmneparopa noµ oxnonom n ca mnemom na rnann, naµecno, nspasnro memarnsonana.
Harnnc nnnepsnnan, na mra yxasyje nonexo ouynano cnono.
Rv. Hoµpaxana rnn VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP. ¡ne ]nrype, neno xencxa, a µecno
mymxa, croje oxpenyre jeµna xa µpyroj. Hsmehy nnx, na nocro¬y ynyrap xora je nyraua ca
xpyrom y cpeµnnn, nanasn ce mrnr. V no¬y mrnra je jom jeµna ¬yµcxa ]nrypa, a na mrnry
meceuen cpn.
Ae, R 17 mm, T 3.29 g. H-26
A.H. Hpnoôpna HAHA3H HOBHA CA HCTPAXHBABA HOKAHHTETA OPABJE (MAPIVM)...
202
CONSTANTINVS II (xao nesap 317-337)
21. Av. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Onenuena ôncra napa naµecno.
Rv. CAESARVM NOSTRORVM –/ISIS` /–
V nenny, y rpn peµa: VOT/ · /X
Follis, R 19 mm, T 3.09 g. RIC VII, 182. Siscia, 321–324. r. H-92
DELMATIVS (335-337)
22. Av. FL DELMATIVS NOB C
Hapena ôncra onenuene rnane, noµ oxnonom n nnamrom, naµecno.
Rv. GLOR–IA EXERC–ITVS –/BSIS/–
¡na nojnnxa croje jeµan npema µpyrom, µpxe no jeµno xon¬e y cno¬amnoj pynn, jeµan nexcnn
nsmehy nnx.
Ae, R 17 mm, T 1.65 g. RIC VII, 256. Siscia, 335–336. r. H-45
CONSTANS (337-350)
23. Av. DN CONSTA–NS PF AVG
Fncra napa ca nnamrom, naµecno, na rnann µnjaµema oµ nepnn.
Rv. FEL TEMP – REPARATIO –/TESB/–
Hmneparop y nojnoj onpemn crojn naneno na rannjn, µpxn ]ennxca na rnoôy n cranµapµ ca
xpncrorpamom #. Ha xpmn ceµn Bnxropnja xoja ynpan¬a ôpoµom.
Ae, R 18 mm, T 1.63 g. RIC VIII, 120. Thessalonica, 348–350. r. H-47
CONSTANTIVS II (337-361)
24. Av. CONSTANTI–VS PF AVG
Hapena ôncra noµ oxnonom n orprauem, ca µnjaµemom, naµecno.
Rv. VICTORIAE DD AVG[G Q NN] –/SMTSA/–
¡ne Bnxropnje croje oxpenyre nnnem jeµna xa µpyroj, cnaxa µpxn nenan n nanmnny rpanun-
ny.
Aes 4, R 16 mm, T 1.17 g. RIC VIII, 99. Thessalonica, 347–348. r. H-77
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25. Av. CONSANTI–VS PF AVG
Fncra napa naµecno noµ oxnonom n ca orprauem, na rnann µnjaµema.
Rv. VICTORIAE DD AVGG Q NN –/SMTSE/–
¡ne Bnxropnje oxpenyre jeµna xa µpyroj, cnaxa µpxn nenan n macnnnony rpanunny.
Aes 3, R 17 mm, T 1.08 gr. RIC VIII, 99. Thessalonica, 347–348. r. H-123
26. Av. Hornyno neunrax.
Rv. [FEL TEMP] REPARATIO A/SMTS/–
Bojnnx ca mnemom n mrnrom na nenom pameny, nacryna na neno n xon¬em npoôaµa nanor
xonannxa.
Aes 3, R 16 mm, T 2.28 g. RIC VIII, 189. Thessalonica, 351–354. r. H-5
VALENTINIANVS I (364-375)
27. Av. DN VAL[ENTINI–AN]VS PF AVG
Fncra napa noµ µpanepnjom, naµecno, na rnann µnjaµema oµ nepnn.
Rv. GLORIA RO–MANORVM
Hmneparop crojn naµecno, µpxn sapoô¬ennxa xojn xneun, y nenoj pynn naôapym ca xpncrorpa-
mom. M/TES/A*
Aes 3, R 17 mm, T 2.92 g. RIC IX, 16a. Thessalonica, 364–367. r. H-43
28. Av. DN VALENTIN[IANVS PF AVG]
Fncra napa noµ oxnonom, naµecno, na rnann µnjaµema oµ nepnn.
Rv. [GLORIA ROMA]NORVM –/[AN]T[?]/–
Hmneparop crojn naµecno, µpxn sapoô¬ennxa xojn xneun.
Aes 3, R 17 mm, T 1.80 g. RIC IX, 10. Antiochia, 364–367. r. H-91
29. Av. [D]N VALEN[TINIANVS PF AVG]
Fncra napa noµ oxnonom, naµecno, µnjaµema oµ nepnn na rnann.
Rv. GLORIA RO–[MANORVM] Oµceuax omrehen, ne unra ce.
V no¬y neno B, µecno / , mro nac ynyhyje na xonnnny Constantinopolis.
Hmneparop crojn naµecno, µpxn sapoô¬ennxa xojn xneun, y nenoj pynn naôapym ca xpncrorpa-
mom.
Aes 3, R 16 mm, T 1.93 g. Constantinopolis. H-105
30. Av. DN VALEN[TINIANVS PF] AVG
Fncra napa noµ oxnonom n nnamrom, naµecno, µnjaµema oµ nepnn na rnann.
Rv. SECVRITAS – REI PVBLICAE OF/?/II
7
Bnxropnja xoµa na µecno, µpxn nenan n nanmy.
Ae, R 17 mm, T 2.32 g. Roma. H-48
7
Osnaxa OF y no¬y neno xopnmhena je y xonnnnn Roma (no RIC IX) rex sa Teoµocnja, Apxaµnja n Xonopnja, a osnaxy
II y no¬y µecno RIC n ne nosnaje (xopncre ce P, S, T, Q).
A.H. Hpnoôpna HAHA3H HOBHA CA HCTPAXHBABA HOKAHHTETA OPABJE (MAPIVM)...
204
31. Av. […]–ANVS PF AVG
Fncra napa noµ oxnonom n nnamrom, naµecno, µnjaµema oµ nepnn na rnann.
Rv. GLORIA RO–[MANORVM]
Hmneparop crojn naµecno, µpxn sapoô¬ennxa xojn xneun, y nenoj pynn naôapym ca xpncrorpa-
mom. Heunrax narnnc xonnnne y oµceuxy.
Ae, R 18 mm, T 2.00 g. H-75
MAGNVS MAXIMVS (383-388)
32. Av. DN MAG MA–XIMVS PF AVG
Fncra napa naµecno noµ oxnonom n ca orprauem, µnjaµema oµ nepnn na rnann.
RV. SPES RO–MA–NORVM –/SMAQP/–
Kannja yrnphena ca snesµom nsmehy µne xyne.
Aes 4, R 14 mm, T 1.53 g. RIC IX, 55a. Aquileia, 387–388. r. H-17
THEODOSIVS I (379-395)
33. Av. DN THEODO–[SIVS] PF AVG
Fncra napa noµ oxnonom n ca orprauem, naµecno, µnjaµema na rnann.
RV. [GLORI]A RO–M[ANOR]VM
Hmneparop crojn naµecno, µpxn sapoô¬ennxa xojn xneun, y nenoj pynn naôapym ca xpncrorpa-
mom. Heunrax narnnc xonnnne y oµceuxy.
Aes 3, R 18 mm, T 1.72 g. H-53
HEO¡PETEHH n neunrxn nonnn IV nexa
34. Av. Heunrax, no nnxy ce moxe onpeµennrn y rpehy uernprnny III nexa.
Rv. Hsnnsan.
Ae, R 21 mm, T 1.97 g. H-54
35. Av. Heunrax.
Rv. Tnn SALVS REI PVBLICAE (Bnxropnja xoµa na neno).
Ae, R 16 mm, T 1.99 g. ¡pyra nononnna IV nexa. H-42
36. Av. Heunrax.
Rv. Tnn SALVS REI PVBLICAE (Bnxropnja xoµa na neno).
Ae, R 16 mm, T 1.82 g. ¡pyra nononnna IV nexa. H-41
37. Av. Heunrax.
Rv. Tnn SALVS REI PVBLICAE (Bnxropnja xoµa na neno).
Ae, R 13 mm, T 1.06 g. ¡pyra nononnna IV nexa. H-37
38. Av. Heunrax.
Rv. Tnn GLORIA ROMANORVM (Hmneparop crojn naµecno, µpxn sapoô¬ennxa xojn xneun)
?/SM?/?
Ae, R 15 mm, T 1.52 g. ¡pyra nononnna IV nexa. H-31
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205
39. Av. Heunrax.
Rv. Tnn GLORIA ROMANORVM (Hmneparop crojn naµecno, µpxn sapoô¬ennxa xojn xneun).
Ae, R 18 mm, T 1.55 g. ¡pyra nononnna IV nexa. H-119
40. Av. Heunrax.
Rv. Tnn GLORIA ROMANORVM (Hmneparop crojn naµecno, µpxn sapoô¬ennxa xojn xneun).
Ae, R 17 mm, T 1.93 g. ¡pyra nononnna IV nexa. H-56
41. Av. Heunrax.
Rv. Tnn VICTORIA AVGGG (Bnxropnja y xoµy na neno, µpxn nenan).
Ae, R 15 mm, T 1.42 g. ¡pyra nononnna IV nexa. H-76
42. Av. Ho nnxy Apxaµnje nnn Xonopnje.
Rv. Tnn SALVS REI PVBLICAE (Bnxropnja xoµa na neno).
Aes 4, R 13 mm, T 0.89 g. Kpaj IV nexa. H-15
43. Av. Ho nnxy Apxaµnje nnn Xonopnje.
Rv. Tnn SALVS REI PVBLICAE (Bnxropnja xoµa na neno).
Ae, R 13 mm, T 1.49 g. Kpaj IV nexa. H-72
44. Hom, nornyno neunrax n nenpenosnar¬nn. Hpnnaµa xonannma IV nexa.
Aes 4, R 15.5 mm, T 1.60 g. H-79
CONSTANTINVS VII PORPHYROGENITVS (913-959)
45. Av. + CONST ´ •A SIL´ ROM
Fncra napa ca ôpaµom an face, y napcxoj oµexµn. Ha rnann xpyna ca xpcrom, y nenoj pynn rnoô
ca xpcrom.
Rv. + CONST ´ /ENOEO•A/SILEVSR/ROMEON
Follis, R 24 mm, T 8.86 gr. DOC III/2, 26.15. Constantinopolis, 945–950. r. H-16
ANDREAS I (1046-1060)
46. Av. + · REX · ANDREAS ·
Rv. RE! IACI!IT!S
Ag, R 16 mm, T 0.41 g. MU, 8. Vrapcxa, 1046–1060. r. H-19
A.H. Hpnoôpna HAHA3H HOBHA CA HCTPAXHBABA HOKAHHTETA OPABJE (MAPIVM)...
206
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
L$L1$/G"!H$)!
DOC = Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore
Collection.
JacanoviM, D. i OuriM–SpasiM, D.
2003 Margum, Požarevac: Narodni muzej Požarevac.
)6Q9D6Q5<, A. 5 4B^9@, M.
1994 Apxeonomxa ncrpaxnnana y ¡yôpannnn (anrnuxom Maprymy) roxom 1989. n 1990. roµnne.
D$2;?4+C$ XXVI: 107–122.
%986Q5<, G.
1995–1996 Pnmcxo craxno Mapryma. Viminacivm 10: 75–99.
29D6-K5>5, V., 2985<, ". 5 G989P9D5D, 2.
1950 Hcxonanane na Opamjy. Hperxoµnn nsnemraj o paµonnma y 1947. roµnnn. D4$*(,$* n.c. I: 143–
164.
2985<, ".
1951 Hcxonanana na Opamjy. Hperxoµnn nsnemraj o paµonnma y 1948 n 1949 roµnnn. D4$*(,$* n.c. II:
113–132.
MirkoviM, M.
1968 Rimski gradovi na Dunavu u Gornjoj Meziji. Dissertationes 6. Beograd: Arheološko društvo
Jugoslavije.
1986 Viminacium et Margum. Inscriptions de la Mesie Superieure II. Beograd: Centre d’ études épigraphiques
et numismatiques de la Faculté de philosophie de l’Université de Beograd.
MU = Huszár L., Münzkatalog Ungarn: von 1000 bis heute, München: Battenberg 1979.
RIC = Roman Imperial Coinage.
4B^9@, 2.
1990 3amrnrna apxeonomxa ncrpaxnnana y 1989. roµnnn. R>$B,(- J*5?4%$ -2,"+*%$42*$ D*8(0+ 14:
73–75.
1991 3amrnrna apxeonomxa ncrpaxnnana y Maprymy y 1990. roµnnn. R>$B,(- J*5?4%$ -2,"+*%$42*$
D*8(0+ 15: 39–41.
207
Adam Crnobrnja
Coin Þnds on the site of Orašje (Margum) from the 2004 excavation
Summary
Excavations on the site of Orašje near Dubravica, Roman Margum, began as early as 1947. Initially
deÞned as preliminary, they soon became systematic and continued in 1948 and 1949. The published reports
from the three campaigns still are the most comprehensive account of the site’s long period of occupation
(Mano-Zisi, Maric, Garašanin 1950; Maric 1951). Unfortunately, the movable Þnds from this phase of excava-
tion have never been published, with the exception of Roman glass (Karovic 1995–96).
Conversely, publication of inscriptions and the history of Margum have been given more attention
than the archaeological material. Therefore I shall only cite the key works discussing these issues (Mirkovic
1968: 50–55; Mirkovic 1986: 207–213).
The investigation of Roman Margum, this time in the form rescue excavations, was resumed only
forty years later, in 1989 and 1990, and the results were also published in the form of reports. The National
Museum at Požarevac has begun systematic excavations in 2004. Residential structures yielded 46 coins dating
from the 1st–5th and the 10th–11th centuries.
Given the inadequate publication of the movable Þnds from Margum, this paper presents part of the
material in advance of the latest report.
Of the 46 coins found, 44 are Roman, one is Byzantine and one Hungarian. The number of Roman
coins by periods is as follows: 1st century (1); mid-3rd century (1); third quarter of the 3rd century (7); and 4th
century (35).
V¡K 737 (497.11 Maprym)’’0/3’’
A.H. Hpnoôpna HAHA3H HOBHA CA HCTPAXHBABA HOKAHHTETA OPABJE (MAPIVM)...
-+%"/./1+ $K .+"$/'! &+/L+ -!"/'!
, 3$2$-!4$),2, – !-*"/./1/I%! "+3$K$)!
(5Q@6 25@5<
unnoso]cxn ]axynrer, Feorpaµ
!=>?89@?: 1*(>2@ B+ 2#,2B( ,$ *+"5>4$4+ $,4*2;2>2?-+ *+%("(0+ ,+-*2;2>+ K(?+ @*28$I$ (" ;+*(-
2#$ K+>(-+ B+28+ ,$*2#$. K2A+, B4$*(0(: $*7+2>2?-(: -*(4+*(05:(:$, $542* 0+ (,4+*;*+4(*$2 2%5
,+-*2;2>5 -$2 0+#(,B4%+,5. L$0,2%(0$ $*7+2>2?-$ $,$>("$ ;2-$"$>$ 0+, :+A54(:, #$ B+ "$;*$%2 *$#( 2
#%+ ,+-*2;2>+ -20+ B+ B$:2 ;*2B42*,2 #2#(*505: B4$*(020, B$ 36 (,#(%(#5$>,(7 B-+>+4$, ( :>$A20, B$ 58
B-+>+4$. \8+ B5 ;*(;(B$,+ R+;(#(:$ ( B$#*<+ 26, 2#,2B,2 ;+4 %+?4$&-( #+O2*:(B$,(7 >28$C$.
%ABCDE 8EC5: ,+-*2;2>$, B-+>+4, ;2>,$ ;*(;$#,2B4, (,#(%(#5$>,$ B4$*2B4, R24(, R+;(#(, %+?4$&-(
#+O2*:(B$,+ >28$C+.
Ocnm anrnuxnx nexponona Bnmnnannjyma, na xojnma je µo 2007. roµnne axeonomxn nc-
rpaxeno oxo 13 000 rpoôona, anrpononomxn cy noceôno nnrepecanrne n nexponone ns nepnoµa
Bennxe ceoôe napoµa. Ha noxannjn Fypµe¬, roxom apxeonomxnx xamnana 1977. n 1978. roµnne,
ncnnrano je 45 rpoôona. Hpema xapaxrepy rpoônnx npnnora, npnnncann cy Hcrounnm Iornma
(3oronnh 1980). Anrpononomxa oôpaµa caµpxaja rnx rpoôona je, mehyrnm, nsocrana. Hocne ap-
xeonomxnx ncxonanana cxenern cy nonono sarpnann, raxo µa ce ca anrpononomxor acnexra ne
moxe nnmra nnme ronopnrn o onoj panocpeµnonexonnoj nexpononn.
Ha noxannjn Bnme rpoôa¬a 1979. roµnne nahene cy µne noôane (ôpojenn 55 n 56), oµ
xojnx je jeµna ônna nemrauxn µe]opmncana. Hemro xacnnjnm apxeonomxnm ncxonanannma,
1984. n 1985. roµnne, orxpnneno je jom crornnax rpoôona, xojn cy ônnn na snarno nehoj µyônnn
y oµnocy na oxonne xacnopnmcxe rpoôone. Hpnônnxno jeµna rpehnna noôana ns rnx rpoôona
nmana je nemrauxe µe]opmannje, mro je oµmax npnnyxno nennxy naxny ayropa onor npnnora.
Henocpeµno nocne cnponeµennx apxeonomxnx ncxonanana cmarpano ce µa ce paµn o jeµnncrne-
noj nexpononn ns npemena Bennxe ceoôe (Zotovic 1987; idem 1994), mro je yrnnano n na nehy
anrpononomxy axrnnnocr y cmncny nyônnxonana marepnjana, npnencrneno sôor nennxor ôpoja
n µoôpe ouynanocrn nemrauxn µe]opmncannx noôana (Mnxnh 1993; idem 1994a; idem 1994b;
idem 1999).
Hocne neµanno oôjan¬ene µera¬ne anannse apxeonomxnx npnnora ns nomenyrnx cro-
rnnax rpoôona, noxasano ce µa cy y nnrany µne xpononomxn pasnnunre nexponone xoje ce camo
210
npocropno µoµnpyjy (Ivaniševic, Kazanski and Mastykova 2006). Ayropn Hnannmennh, Kasancxn
n Macrnxona yrnpµnnn cy µa crapnjoj nexpononn oµronapa µpyra nononnna V nexa, a mnahoj
µpyra nononnna VI nexa. Ayrop npnnora caµa je y moryhnocrn µa cnaxy oµ onnx nexponona npn-
xaxe noceôno, oµnocno µa pasµnojn nnxone anrpononomxe caµpxaje, unme pannje nyônnxannje
µoônjajy oµronapajyhy xopexnnjy.
***
Cnn meroµonomxn npnnnnnn n xpnrepnjymn oôpaµe onor xymanor ocreonomxor mare-
pnjana ca Bnmnnannjyma npeysern cy ns pannjnx n naneµennx nyônnxannja ayropa npnnora.
Pennsnonom oôpaµom camo cy pasµnojenn neh µoônjenn anrpononomxn pesynrarn na crapnjy n
mnahy nexponony Iennµa. Ha onom mecry nnje norpeôno nonono nx nanoµnrn.
***
Kao anrpononomxn µoµarax apxeonomxoj anannsn Hnannmennha, Kasancxor n Macrnxo-
ne, onom npnnnxom ônhe npnxasana ynyrpamna crpyxrypa nexponona Iennµa ca Bnmnnannjyma,
ys axnenar na nemrauxn µe]opmncane noôane xao noceôan ]enomen.
CTAPHJA HEKPOHOHA
Crapnja nexponona caµpxana je 36 nnµnnnµyannnx cxenera, na xojnma je pannje oôan¬e-
na anrpononomxa anannsa. Hocmarpano npema µncrpnôynnjn nonona, mro noxasyje n raôena 1,
mymxom nony oµronapa 13 cxenera, a xencxom 12. V µeujem yspacry ônno je 10 cxenera. Camo
jeµan cxener nnje morao ônrn onpeµe¬en no nony sôor npno cnaôe n nexomnnerne ouynanocrn.
¡oônjena naneoµemorpa]cxa crpyxrypa yxasyje, na npnom mecry, na µe]nnnr µene. To ce moxe
µnojaxo nocmarparn: c jeµne crpane, ro moxe ônrn ônonomxn npoônem crnopen oµpehennm co-
nnoxynrypnnm n ncropnjcxnm enemenrnma, a c µpyre, enenryannn µe]exr y apxeonomxnm ncxo-
nanannma.
Oµ 36 nomenyrnx anrpononomxn oôpahennx cxenera, nnµnnnµyanna crapocr nnje mo-
rna ônrn yrnphena xoµ µne oµpacne ocoôe, oner sôor cacnnm manor crenena ouynanocrn xocrnjy.
Hoxasano ce µa je yxynna µyxnna xnnora npnônnxno nsnocnna oxo 33 roµnne. Mymxapnn cy
y npocexy xnnenn oxo 37 roµnna, a xene oxo 44 roµnne. Hajneha cmprnocr µene µorahana ce y
npnoj µenennjn xnnora, a npoceunn nex nm ce xperao oxo 6,5 roµnna.
Oµ 36 nnµnnnµyannnx cxenera oôyxnahennx onom anannsom, xoµ 26 noôane cy rexnnxom
ôanµaxnpana ônne nemrauxn µe]opmncane. Kaxo noxasyje raôena 1, ocam mymxapana, µener
xena n µeneropo µene nmano je ôanµaxnpane noôane, mro ce ounronano xao rpajna nemrauxa
µe]opmannja. Ta unnennna noxasyje µa je npaxca nemrauxor µe]opmncana noôana npncyrna y
npno nennxom ôpojy n µa nsnocn 72% yxynne nonynannone rpyne caxpanene na onoj nexpononn.
Konxperno, camo na jeµnoj µeujoj, rpn xencxe n ner mymxnx noôana nncy npncyrnn rparonn
ôanµaxnpana. Axo ce onom ôpojy µoµa n nonno neonpeµe¬en cxener ôp. 1961, µoônjamo cneµehn
ôpojno-nponenryannn oµnoc y xopncr nemrauxn µe]opmncannx – ôanµaxnpannx noôana: 26 +
10 = 36 / 72% + 28% = 100%.
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
211
L86T .6; $D75Q57B9;D9 >?986>? 'E\68X9U5T9 ;6]9^E
55 mymxn npexo 45 roµnna
56 xencxn npexo 40 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
163 µere 6 µo 8 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
202 xencxn 35 µo 40 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
206 xencxn µo 40 roµnna
207 µere oxo 7 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
227 xencxn µo 40 roµnna
1216 µere 8 µo 10 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
1218 xencxn µo 40 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
1220 xencxn µo 30 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
1300 xencxn µo 20 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
1313 xencxn oµpacna ocoôa nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
1318 mymxn µo 40 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
1420 xencxn oxo 20 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
1461 xencxn µo 60 roµnna
1516 xencxn µo 60 roµnna
1582 µere 6 µo 8 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
1594 xencxn npexo 30 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
1607 xencxn(?) µo 40 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
1637 xencxn µo 30 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
1645 µere oxo 2 roµnne nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
1685 mymxn µo 45 roµnna
1758 mymxn µo 45 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
1770 mymxn µo 30 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
1804 µere oxo 8 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
1821 µere oxo 10 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
1876 mymxn µo 60 roµnna
1961 ? oµpacna ocoôa
1964 mymxn oxo 40 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
2005 µere oxo 4 roµnne
2010 mymxn µo 45 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
2022 µere oxo 4 roµnne nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
2037 mymxn µo 40 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
2047 mymxn npexo 50 roµnna
2061 mymxn µo 30 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
2078 µere 6 µo 8 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
Taôena 1. Crapnja nexponona
Tabelle 1. Älterer Friedhof
MHATA HEKPOHOHA
Mnaha nexponona caµpxana je 58 cxenera na xojnma je morna ônrn oôan¬ena µera¬na
anrpononomxa anannsa. Taôena 2 npnxasyje nonny npnnaµnocr n nnµnnnµyanny crapocr, ys na-
nomeny o nemrauxoj µe]opmannjn noôana sa oµronapajyhe nennne (ananorno raôenn 1).
Oµ yxynnor ôpoja (n=58), mymxom nony oµronapa 30 cxenera, a xencxom 21 cxener.
Camo jeµan cxener nnje morao ônrn nonno onpeµe¬en (ôp. 150). Ocnm 52 nnµnnnµyanna cxenera
oµpacnnx ocoôa, npeocrannx mecr npnnncano je µeujem yspacry. ¡oônjena naneoµemorpa]cxa
cnnxa cnaxaxo jom nnme narnamana µe]nnnr µene, a n oµnoc nonona je nnµno napymen. Beh
nocran¬ena resa o oµpehennm ônonomxnm npoônemnma, n xoµ one nonynannone rpyne ca Bn-
mnnannjyma, ns nepnoµa Bennxe ceoôe napoµa, jom je ounrneµnnja. Hapanno, moryhnocr rpemxe
npnnnxom apxeonomxnx ncxonanana rpeôa narnacnrn n y onom cnyuajy.
X. Mnxnh HEKPOHOHE H3 HEPHO¡A CEOFE HAPO¡A V BHMHHAHHJVMV...
212
L86T .6; $D75Q57B9;D9 >?986>? 'E\68X9U5T9 ;6]9^E
97 xencxn µo 40 roµnna
100 xencxn npexo 23 roµnne
103 mymxn npexo 40 roµnna
111 xencxn oµpacna ocoôa
112 xencxn oµpacna ocoôa
113 mymxn npexo 45 roµnna
114 mymxn oµpacna ocoôa
115 mymxn µo 45 roµnna
116 xencxn µo 23 roµnne
117 mymxn µo 35 roµnna
118 xencxn µo 21 roµnne
119 µere 4 µo 6 roµnna
120 mymxn npexo 40 roµnna
121 mymxn µo 40 roµnna
123 mymxn µo 45 roµnna
124 xencxn oµpacna ocoôa
125 µere y npnoj roµnnn
126 mymxn npexo 30 roµnna
127 mymxn oµpacna ocoôa
128 mymxn µo 45 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
129 mymxn npexo 45 roµnna
130 µere 2 µo 3 roµnne
131 µere 2 µo 3 roµnne
132 xencxn npexo 45 roµnna
133 xencxn npexo 45 roµnna
135 mymxn µo 30 roµnna
136 xencxn npexo 30 roµnna
137 xencxn µo 30 roµnna
138 xencxn npexo 45 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
139 xencxn oµpacna ocoôa
140 mymxn npexo 45 roµnna
141 mymxn npexo 45 roµnna
142 mymxn npexo 21 roµnne
143 xencxn µo 30 roµnna
144 xencxn npexo 23 roµnne
145 mymxn µo 45 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
146 mymxn µo 60 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
147 µere 6 µo 8 roµnna
148 µere µo 15 roµnna
149 mymxn µo 45 roµnna
150 ? oµpacna ocoôa
151 mymxn oxo 60 roµnna
152 mymxn npexo 45 roµnna
153 xencxn oµpacna ocoôa
154 xencxn npexo 45 roµnna
352 mymxn µo 21 roµnne
357 xencxn µo 45 roµnna
572 mymxn µo 45 roµnna
573 mymxn µo 23 roµnne
628 xencxn µo 21 roµnne
654 mymxn µo 60 roµnna
2075 mymxn µo 60 roµnna
2083 xencxn µo 45 roµnna
2093 mymxn µo 50 roµnna
2131 mymxn µo 50 roµnna
2142 mymxn µo 40 roµnna
2157 mymxn 30 µo 35 roµnna nemrauxn µe]opmncana noôana
2195 mymxn oµpacna ocoôa
Taôena 2. Mnaha nexponona
Tabelle 2. Jüngerer Friedhof
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
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Hnµnnnµyanna crapocr nnje morna ônrn yrnphena xoµ µener oµpacnnx ocoôa, raxo µa
µoônjenn naneoµemorpa]cxn pesynrarn y jeµnom manem nponenry ryôe npennsnocr. Hspauy-
nanana cy, mehyrnm, noxasana µa yxynna npoceuna µyxnna xnnora nsnocn oxo 36 roµnna. Cne-
nn]nnnpano no nononnma, mymxapnn one rpyne Iennµa y npocexy xnne oxo 43 roµnne, a xene,
oner y npocexy, oxo 35 roµnna. Hajneha cmprnocr µene ce nonan¬a n µoraha ce y npnoj µenennjn
xnnora. Bnxona npoceuna crapocr xpehe ce oxo mecr roµnna.
Hpaxca nemrauxor µe]opmncana noôana ôanµaxnpanem npncyrna je n xoµ one nony-
nannone rpyne, ann y snarno manem oônmy. V nopeheny ca crapnjom rpynom, apxeonomxn nnje
ncxonana, a nn anrpononomxn nornphena nnjeµna µeuja noôana ca rparonnma ôanµaxnpana.
Vxynno ner nemrauxn µe]opmncannx noôana npnnaµa ncx¬yunno oµpacnnm ocoôama. Konxper-
no, uernpn noôane npnnaµajy mymxom, a camo jeµna xencxom nony. Fpojno-nponenryannn oµnoc
nemrauxn µe]opmncannx noôana n onnx ca rsn. nopmannom mop]ocrpyxrypom je pasnnunr n na
onoj nexpononn Iennµa nµe y npnnor onnx µpyrnx, rj. neµe]opmncannx noôana. Hsnocn: 53 + 5
= 58 / 91% + 9% = 100%.
Moxe ce cmarparn µa cy oôe nexponone, crapnja n mnaha, na noxannjn Bnme rpoôa¬a
apxeonomxn y nennnn ncrpaxene, na ce n o µoônjennm pesynrarnma o nnxonoj ynyrpamnoj
crpyxrypn moxe cacnnm xoncexnenrno µncxyronarn. To ce, na npnom mecry, oµnocn na npoceu-
ny µyxnny xnnora y cmncny ynopehnnana n nnrepnperannje. 3a crapnjy nexponony yrnphen
je npocex oµ oxo 33 roµnne, a sa mnahy oxo 36 roµnna. Ann, c oôsnpom na xpononomxy pasnnxy
oµ crornnax roµnna nsmehy one µne nexponone Iennµa na Bnmnnannjymy, xao n na pasnnunry
nennunny nonynannonnx rpyna (oxo 40, oµnocno oxo 60 xnre¬a), µoônjena pasnnxa ne mopa µa
npeµcran¬a µnjamerpanne npeµnocrn.
Cacnnm je cnnuna cnryannja n ca µeujnm yspacrom. C oôsnpom µa je najneha cmprnocr
µene xoncraronana y npnoj µenennjn xnnora, rj. µa µena y npocexy xnne oxo mecr roµnna, rpe-
ôano ôn µarn nonn]axropcxo rymauene.
Cnaxaxo rpeôa ysern y oôsnp moônnnocr nonynannone rpyne, aµanrannjy na oµpehene
ycnone xnnora n cn., mro ôn saxrenano noceôny anannsy xaxo sa crapnjy raxo n sa mnahy ne-
xponony. ¡oônjene cy, mehyrnm, onpeune npeµnocrn sa nonno cnenn]nnnpane µyxnne xnnora
mymxapana n xena, n ro sa oôe nexponone Iennµa. Konxperno peueno, mymxapnn ca crapnje
nexponone y npocexy xnne oxo 37 roµnna, a ca mnahe oxo 43 roµnne. Koµ xena je cacnnm oôpnyra
cnryannja. Ha crapnjoj nexpononn one y npocexy xnne oxo 44 roµnne, a na mnahoj oxo 35 roµnna.
Oryµa xoncraryjemo µa cy mymxapnn ônnn nnme yrpoxenn y µpyroj nononnnn V nexa, a xene
y µpyroj nononnnn VI nexa. Cnaxaxo rpeôa narnacnrn µa ce onaj sax¬yuax oµnocn na npocrop
Bnmnnannjyma y nepnoµy Bennxe ceoôe napoµa.
Bemrauxn µe]opmncane noôane npeµcran¬ajy noceôan ]enomen ns nepnoµa Bennxe ce-
oôe napoµa (Mnxnh 1994c). Taxne noôane npncyrne cy na oôe nexponone Iennµa, a na crapnjoj y
noceôno nennxom ôpojy. Paµn ce, sanpano, o 30 oµ yxynno 31 nemrauxn µe]opmncane noôane, jep
camo noôana ôpoj 1313 nnje morna ônrn noµnrnyra sôor npno cnaôe n nexomnnerne ouynanocrn.
Hapanno, y oxnnpy onor npnnora ne mory µa ce enaôopnpajy cnn enemenrn y nesn ca nemrauxn
µe]opmncannm noôanama. Ounrneµno je, mehyrnm, µa ce paµn o rexnnnn ôanµaxnpana rpaxom
oxo rnane, n ro y µne pernje: ]ponro-oxnnnnrannoj n napnero-oxnnnnrannoj. C µpyre crpane, ns-
rneµa µa je xoµ excrpemno µe]opmncannx noôana (xao, na np., xoµ ôpojena 202, 1300, 1594, 1637,
X. Mnxnh HEKPOHOHE H3 HEPHO¡A CEOFE HAPO¡A V BHMHHAHHJVMV...
214
1694, 2010 n 2061), ocnm ôanµaxne rpaxe, ônna npnmennnana jom nexa „nanpana“ nnouacror
oônnxa, unme je ocrnapen nehn e]exar µe]opmncanocrn. Koµ cnnx µe]opmncannx noôana raj
e]exar nnje jeµnax ns nnme pasnora. Taxo je, nnp., npnmeheno µa ce ca nonehanem nnµnnnµyanne
crapocrn nemrauxn µe]opmnrer cmanyje, rj. µa ce noôane nocreneno npahajy na cnojy npnpoµny
– nopmanny npo]nnannjy. Ona nojana uemhe je youena xoµ mymxnx nero xoµ xencxnx noôana,
ann rpar nemrauxor µe]opmncana jom ynex je npncyran n ocraje npenosnar¬nn µo xpaja xnnora,
xao mro je youeno, nnp., na noôanama ôp. 1318, 1607, 1758 n 2037 (cn. 1, 2, 3).
Kaµa ce paµn o mnahoj nexpononn Iennµa ca Bnmnnannjyma, xoja nma yxynno ner ne-
mrauxn µe]opmncannx noôana camo oµpacnnx ocoôa, moxe ce nnµern µa je na ry npaxcy jeµnoc-
ranno oôpahena mana naxna, oµnocno µa cy ce oµpehenn xpnrepnjymn npomennnn. Cnnx ner
noôana nmajy ounrneµne rparone nemrauxor µe]opmncana rexnnxom ôanµaxnpana, ann nemro
cnaônjer nnsyennor e]exra y nopeheny ca crapnjom nexpononom.
Cn. 1. Hoôana ôp. 2061 – jacnn rparonn µe]opmannje
Abb. 1. Schädel Nr. 2061 – deutliche Deformationsspuren
Cn. 2. Hoôana ôp. 1758 – npenosnar¬nnn rparonn µe]opmannje
Abb. 2. Schädel Nr. 1758 – erkennbare Deformationsspuren
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
215
Ha noxannjn Hannn, npnn rpoôonn ca rnnnunnm npnnosnma xojn oµronapajy Iepmannma
ns nepnoµa Bennxe ceoôe napoµa nojannnn cy ce 1986. roµnne. Hoxasano ce µa je peu o nexonnxo
rpoôona ca nnxymnpannm cxenernma oµpacnnx nnµnnnµya, xojn cnaxaxo npnnaµajy oµpehenoj
nexpononn. Mehy nnma nsµnaja ce xencxa noôana ca rparonnma nemrauxor µe]opmncana na-
pnjerannor µena, ann ycneµ µyroroµnmner nomena repera rpaxom npexo rnane. Taj rnn µe]opma-
nnje raxohe ce nesyje sa Bennxy ceoôy n ayrop je onaj nanas neh nomenyo y npnoj anrpononomxoj
nyônnxannjn o nexpononn Bnme rpoôa¬a (Mnxnh 1993: 199), raxo µa onom npnnnxom nehe ônrn
nonan¬ana. ¡era¬nnja anrpononomxa anannsa na µpyrnm cxenernma nnje oôan¬ena.
V nomenyroj apxeonomxoj cryµnjn Hnannmennha, Kasancxor n Macrnxone, xoja npeµcra-
n¬a n xpononomxy oxocnnny onor anrpononomxor npnnora, nexponona Fypµe¬ nmenonana je
xao Bnmnnannjym I, crapnja n mnaha nexponona Bnme rpoôa¬a xao Bnmnnannjym II, a nexpono-
na Hannn xao Bnmnnannjym III (Ivaniševic, Kazanski and Mastykova 2006: pl. 1–4). Ha nnany 4,
xojn nnycrpyje nexponony Hannn, nonnpano je yxynno 14 rpoôona, ann o nnxonnm cxenernma ce
ne moxe anrpononomxn mnpe ronopnrn.
***
V oxnnpy sax¬yuxa, na caµamnem creneny anrpononomxe ncrpaxenocrn, o nexpono-
nama Fypµe¬ n Hannn, oµnocno Bnmnnannjym I n Bnmnnannjym III, ns nepnoµa Bennxe ceoôe
napoµa, ne moxe ce µarn µonyna nnn xopexnnja. Mehyrnm, xaµa ce paµn o nexpononn Bnme rpo-
ôa¬a nnn Bnmnnannjym II, apxeonomxom n anrpononomxom pennsnonom oôpaµom youana ce cne-
µehe: crapnja nexponona nma 36, a mnaha 58 anrpononomxn oôpahennx nnµnnnµyannnx cxenera.
Ha crapnjoj nexpononn, ca 13 mymxapana, 12 xena n 10 µene, ys camo jeµan cxener neyrnphene
npnnaµnocrn, y npocexy ce xnneno oxo 33 roµnne, c rnm mro cy mymxapnn ônnn nnme yrpoxenn
oµ xena. Ha mnahoj nexpononn, ca 30 mymxapana, 21 xenom n camo mecropo µene, ys oner camo
jeµan cxener neyrnphene nonne npnnaµnocrn, y yxynnom npocexy xnneno ce oxo 36 roµnna, ann
cy onµe xene ônne ônonomxn yrpoxennje, mro je nsasnano n nennxn µe]nnnr µene.
Cn. 3. Hoôana ôp. 1685 – ôes rparona µe]opmannje
Abb. 3. Schädel Nr. 1685 – ohne Deformationsspuren
X. Mnxnh HEKPOHOHE H3 HEPHO¡A CEOFE HAPO¡A V BHMHHAHHJVMV...
216
Ocnm naneµennx naneoµemorpa]cxnx pasnnxa nsmehy one µne nexponone Iennµa, pasnn-
unr je n ôpoj nemrauxn µe]opmncannx noôana. Ha crapnjoj nexpononn sacryn¬ene cy ca 72% y
cnnm yspacrnma n nononnma, a na mnahoj nexpononn ca 9%, n ro camo xoµ oµpacnnx nnµnnnµya,
mro neocnopno noxasyje npomeny oµnoca npema onom ne camo anrpononomxom ]enomeny, n ro y
nepnoµy oµ crornnax roµnna, oµ µpyre nononnne V µo µpyre nononnne VI nexa.
L$L1$/G"!H$)!
K6?6Q5<, 0.
1980 Hexponona ns npemena nennxe ceoôe napoµa ca yxe rpaµcxe repnropnje Bnmnnannja. D4$*(,$*
XXXI: 95–114.
1987 Die gepidische Nekropole bei Viminacium. In Simposium 75 Annes de foulles a CariTin Grad. Belgrade
(neoôjan¬en pe]epar).
1994 Die gepidische Nekropole bei Viminacium. D4$*(,$* XLIII–XLIV (1992–1993): 183–190.
IvaniševiM. V., Kazanski, M., and Mastykova, A.
2006 Les necropoles de Viminacium a l’epoque des grands migrations. Monographies 22. Paris: College de
France – CNRS, Centre de recherche d’histoire et civilizations de Byzance.
25@5<, (.
1993 Viminacium – npnxas nexponona ns nepnoµa Bennxe ceoôe napoµa. D$2;?4+C$ XXV: 199–207.
1994a Erste Ergebnisse anthropologischer Untersuchung des Germanenfriedhofes von Viminacium. D4$*(,$*
XLIII–XLIV (1992–1993): 191–199.
1994b Anrpononomxn npo]nn Iennµa ca Bnmnnannjyma. '82*,(- N(>2"2OB-2@ O$-5>4+4$ XVIII/A:
61–68.
1994c Anrpononomxn ocnpr na nemrauxn µe]opmncane noôane ns nepnoµa nennxe ceoôe napoµa. '82*,(-
L$*2#,2@ :5"+0$ (Feorpaµ) XV/1: 133–138.
1999 Die Gepiden von Viminacium in der Völkerwanderungszeit – anthropologischer Beitrag. Anthropologischer
Anzeiger 57/3: 257–268.
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
217
Živko Mikic
Die Völkerwanderungszeitliche Friedhöfe von
Viminacium – Eine Anthropologische Revision
Zusammenfassung
Die neueste archäologische Analyse von V. Ivaniševic, M. Kazanaski und A. Mastykova veröffent-
licht in 2006. hat gezeigt, das es bei dem Friedhof Više grobalja, als Viminacium II bezeichnet, um zwei chro-
nologisch verschiedene und getrennte Teile handelt. Nähmlich, es handelt sich um einen älteren Friedhof aus
der zweite Hälfte des V Jhr. und einen jüngeren Friedhof aus der zweiten Hälfte des VI Jhr. Beide sind zu den
Gepiden zugeschrieben.
Anthropologische Revision hat gezeigt das der ältere Gepidenfriedhof 36 Skelette umfasst. Von die-
sen sind rund 10 Kinder und Jugendliche; von der Erwachsenen wurden 13 als Männer und 12 als Frauen
bestimmt. Nur 1 Skelett bleibt unbestimmt. Die durchschnitliche Lebensdauer ist um 33 Jahre errechnet. Aber,
von 36 Skelettindividuen haben 26 Schädel (72%) eine künstliche Deformation (siehe Tab. 1).
Auf dem jüngeren Gepidenfriedhof von Vimiacium wurden 58 Skelette gefunden. Von diesen sind nur
6 Kinder oder Jügendliche; von der Erwachsenen wurden 30 als Männer und 21 als Frauen bestimmt. Wieder
bleibt nur 1 Skelett wegen des schlechten Erhaltungzustandes unbestimmt. Die durchschnitliche Lebensdauer
ist um 36 Jahre errechnet. Bei dieser Gepidengruppe ist die Zahl von künstlich deformierten Schädel nur mit 5
Exemplaren (siehe Tab. 2), oder mit 9% vertreten.
Übersetzung des Autors
V¡K 572:904.5(491.11 Bnmnnannjym)“4/5”
X. Mnxnh HEKPOHOHE H3 HEPHO¡A CEOFE HAPO¡A V BHMHHAHHJVMV...
$K $&*/"$)+ &".&%+ !"#+/1/G$)+
FROM THE HISTORY OF SERBIAN ARCHAEOLOGY
220
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
Cnerosap Cranxonnh Hann pohen je 1948. roµnne y Tynpnjn. ¡nnnomy apxeonora crexao je na Oµe¬eny
sa apxeonornjy unnoso]cxor ]axynrera y Feorpaµy. Ha ncrom ]axynrery marncrpnpao je 1983. roµnne n
µoxropnpao 1992. roµnne (D$-*$>,$ :+B4$ ( ;*+#:+4( 5 B4$*0(+,+2>(4B-(: -5>45*$:$ /+,4*$>,28$>-
-$,B-2@ ;2#*5&0$). Oµ 1984. roµnne paµno je xao capaµnnx y Apxeonomxoj sônpnn unnoso]cxor ]axynre-
ra. Berone xonere n npnjare¬n namre ra xao cnecrpanor n neymopnor repencxor ncrpaxnnaua, npxyncxor
nnycrparopa, cnocoônor oprannsaropa n nayunnxa xojn je ca noceônom naxnom npoyuanao neonnrcxe
xynrype na Fanxancxom nonyocrpny.
Svetozar Nani Stankovic was born in Cuprija in 1948. He graduated from the Faculty of Philosophy, De-
partment of Archaeology, in Belgrade, from which he also received his MA (1983) and PhD degrees (1992:
“Sacred places and objects in early Neolithic cultures of the central Balkans”). In 1984 he joined the Faculty
of Philosophy Archaeological Collection. His colleagues and friends remember him as a versatile and tireless
Þeldworker, splendid illustrator, capable organizer, and as a scholar concerned primarily with the study of
Neolithic cultures in the Balkans.
&QE?6[98 &?9D@6Q5< -9D5
Svetozar Nani StankoviM
M. Hasnh
221
Cnerosap Cranxonnh Hann (1948–1996)
Svetozar Nani Stankovic (1948–1996)
H3 HCTOPHJE CPHCKE APXEOHOIHJE
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222
H3 FHFHHOIPAuHJE CBETO3APA CTAHKOBHTA HAHHJA
FROM THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SVETOZAR NANI STANKOVIC
1986 Žrtvenici i prosopomorfni poklopci iz VinTe. Centar za arheološka istraživanja 7. Beograd: Filozofski fakultet.
1986 Localite Knjepište - une station du groupe de Starcevo. Crp. 447–452 y H+*#$;B-+ B%+B-+ III, yp. B. Konµnh.
Feorpaµ: Apxeonomxn nncrnryr, Hapoµnn mysej n unnoso]cxn ]axynrer.
1986 Embouchure du ruisseau Kamenicki potok – site du groupe de Starcevo. Crp. 467–474 y H+*#$;B-+ B%+B-+ III, yp.
B. Konµnh. Feorpaµ: Apxeonomxn nncrnryr, Hapoµnn mysej n unnoso]cxn ]axynrer.
1986 La forteresse antique mora vagei prés de Mihajlovac. Crp. 453–466 y H+*#$;B-+ B%+B-+ III, yp. B. Konµnh. Feorpaµ:
Apxeonomxn nncrnryr, Hapoµnn mysej n unnoso]cxn ]axynrer.
1987 Ulcinj / Stari grad: Citadela. Arheološki pregled 27: 158–160.
1988 L+2>(4B-2 ,$B+I+ 5 D4*$@$*(:$ (Neolithic Settlement at Stragare). Feorpaµ n Tpcrennx: Henrap sa apxeonomxa
ncrpaxnnana n Hpna neronerxa.
1989 Apxeonomxa ncnnrnnana neonnrcxor nace¬a y Hahapnmry. R>$B,(- D=J 5: 26–29.
1989 Heonnrcxo nace¬e y Crparapnma (ncrpaxnnana y 1988. Ioµnnn). R>$B,(- D=J 5: 29–33.
1991 Hpeµcrana ônxa y crapnjem neonnry. D4$*(,$* XL–XLI: 35–42.
1990 Bnmecnojno nace¬e y Ho¬nn. R>$B,(- D=J 6: 64–67.
1991 3ônpxa neonnrcxnx anrponomop]nnx ]nrypnna ns Tynpnje. '82*,(- N(>2"2OB-2@ O$-5>4+4$ (Feorpaµ)17/A:
17–24.
1992 D$-*$>,$ :+B4$ ( ;*+#:+4( 5 B4$*(0+,+2>(4B-(: -5>45*$:$ /+,4*$>,28$>-$,B-2@ ;2#*5&0$, µoxropcxa
µnceprannja, unnoso]cxn ]axynrer, Vnnnepsnrer y Feorpaµy.
1992 Heonnrcxo nace¬e na noxannrery Fnarornn xoµ Tpcrennxa (A Neolith Settlement on the Blagotin Locality near
Trstenik). '82*,(- L$*2#,2@ :5"+0$ (Feorpaµ) 14/1: 77–87.
1994(?) Neolithic settlement at Blagotin. R>$B,(- D=J 9: 177–179 (ca B. Hexonnh).
1995 Anrponomop]na nnacrnxa ca Fnarornna. R>$B,(- D=J 10: 7–14.
1996 Panonnnuancxe anrponomop]ne ]nrypnne ca noxannrera B¬nnnx y ceny Crparapn xoµ Tpcrennxa. '82*,(-
L$*2#,2@ :5"+0$ (Feorpaµ)16/1: 49–60.
1996 Apxeonomxa ncxonanana npancropnjcxor noxannrera Fnarornn y 1994. roµnnn. R>$B,(- D=J 11: 178–184 (ca
M. Paunh).
1996 Kpemenn amynern ca Fnarornna. R>$B,(- D=J 11: 21–26.
1996 Eneonnrcxa n crapuenauxa xyha ca noxannrera Fnarornn xoµ Tpcrennxa. R>$B,(- D=J 12: 61–76 (ca M. Peunh).
1996 Hpnnor npoyuanany neonnrcxe xepamnxe n rexnonornje nene nspaµe. R>$B,(- D=J 12: 215–218.
1997 Apxeonomxa ncxonanana na noxannrery Fnarornn y 1996. roµnnn. R>$B,(- D=J 13: 95–101 (ca M. Peunh n J.
3euennh).
APXAHKA / ARCHAICA 1 (2007)
223
35@?68 398:9
3annuajnn mysej Xepner Honn, Mnpxa Komnenonnha 9,
85340 Xepner Honn, Hpna Iopa
e-mail: varga@cg.yu
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Hapoµnn mysej y Feorpaµy, Tpr Penyônnxe 1a,
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Penyônnuxn sanoµ sa samrnra na cnomennnnre na
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Oµe¬ene sa apxeonornjy, unnoso]cxn ]axynrer,
unxa ÷yônna 18–20, 11000 Feorpaµ
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Apxeonomxn nncrnryr, Knes Mnxannona 42,
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!,*/"$ / AUTHORS
AVTOPH
CIP - Karanornsannja y nyônnxannjn
Hapoµna ônônnorexa Cpônje, Feorpaµ
902(497.11)
APXAHKA = Archaica / ypeµnnx Mnpocnan
Hasnh. - Ioµ. 1, ôp. 1 (2007)- . - Feorpaµ
(unxa ÷yônna 18-20) : unnoso]cxn ]axynrer,
Apxeonomxa sônpxa, 2007- (Feorpaµ : unroja).
Ioµnmne. - Vnopeµnn rexcr na cpn. n enr.
jesnxy
ISSN 1820-6328 = Apxanxa
COBISS.SR-ID 145408268

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